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§ 40. Ocean (textbook)

§ 40. World ocean


1. Remember how the oceans on Earth. Tell them and show on the map.

2. Who brought the first of the unity of all seafarers oceans?


Oceans. You already know that all the oceans and seas on our interconnected world. Together they form a single body of water - Ocean. It covers 71% surface of the globe. Oceans - continuous: for any point of its You can get to any other without crossing the land.

Single Oceans are divided into major parts - individual oceans. Despite the free exchange of water, each of the oceans has peculiar properties: certain water temperature, salinity, currents, bottom topography. The largest and deepest of the oceans is Quiet. It covers half the area Oceans - nearly 180 million km2. Most deep in it marked in Marian depression - 11 022 m. Atlantic ocean two times smaller in area than the Pacific. It is narrow, elongated north south of 16 000 km. The third largest and second depth is Indian ocean,  located mainly in Southern Hemisphere. Arctic Ocean - The smallest and most shallow in all oceans. Because it is located  around the North Pole mainly Arctic Circle, the average of the ocean is always covered in ice. Sometimes scientists produce more Southern Ocean, composed of parts of the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian oceans that wash Antarctica. Coincide with the surface ocean shores of continents and islands. A where there is only water space, conducted outside probation for meridians.


Fig. Indian Ocean off the coast of South Africa


Sea.In all oceans is sea. Sea - Is part of Ocean it differs from the properties of water (temperature, salinity), currents, organisms that live in it. It separated from the ocean islands peninsulas and raising the bottom. Depending on the isolation of the ocean, sea there are internal and okrayinnymy. Inland Sea far resorted to dry land and connected with the ocean straits. Examples of these seas is Mediterranean, Black, Azov, Red. Okrayinni Sea placed on margin. They have little recourse in the dry and slightly separated from Ocean. For example, Bering. Most sea on the planet - Philippine, An area of 5.7 million km2.


Fig. Inland Sea (Black Sea)


Gulf and Strait. In the seas and oceans emit Bay and Strait. Gulf call of the ocean or sea that is not in the dry but has an extensive relationship with the ocean. Yes, the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Europe forms BiscayAnd the Indian Ocean, going into dry land for South Asia - Bengal. Large bays are Mexican, Guinea.

Strait - A relatively narrow part of the water space that connects two neighboring reservoirs and separate land plots. For example, Gibraltar connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Atlantic Ocean and separates Europe from Africa and Bosporus separates Europe from Asia and connects the Black Sea of Marmara. Bering Straitconnects the Arctic Ocean, Pacific and separates Eurasia and North America. In Ukraine Kerch Strait connecting the Black Sea Azov. Broadest(1 120 km) and deepest(Over 5 000 m) Strait on Earth is strait Drake.


Fig. Bay (Bengali) okrayinne Sea (Andaman) Strait (Malacca) peninsula (Hindustan), island (Sri Lanka)


Sukhodil in the ocean. Among the waters of the oceans is placed land. Huge areas of land - continents. They are the edges peninsulas, that far in the water resort area. The greatest peninsulas of Europe is Iberian і Apennine, Asia - Arabian, Hindustanand Indo-China, Africa - Somalia North America - Labrador.The largest peninsula in Ukraine, not to the Black Sea, is Crimean.

Islands - Small areas of land, with all Surrounded by water. The largest island of the world  Greenland in 3,5 times less than smallest mainland Australia. Often a group of islands located near one other. This cluster of islands called archipelago. For example, Large Sunda, Big Antilles Islands.

By origin of the islands are divided into the mainland, volcanic and coral. Mainland Islands - A former mainland, which separated from it due to land subsidence area. They are located on the continental shelf. For example, United Kingdom, Madagascar, Sri Lanka. Volcanic Islands caused by volcanic eruptions on the ocean and seas. Usually they are small, but high rise above the ocean. This origin are, for example,  Hawaii IslandsThat composed entirely of lava terrestrial and submarine eruptions. Coral Islands formed result of congestion limestone skeletons of marine organisms - coral polyps. They are attached to bottom of shallow (50 m) and grow up and breadth. Coral polyps can live only in warm water (not less than 20 0C). Because coral island located only in tropical latitudes. These islands - small and low. They barely rise above sea level. Sometimes corals form a garland along the coast - the so-called barrier reefs. Many coral islands in the Pacific Ocean. Largest coral structure, consisting of many islands underwater and surface, is Great Barrier Reef. Its length is 2000 km, width - 200 km.

Mainland globe - Greenland (2,2 millionkm2), The largest peninsulaArabian (2,8 million km2).


Fig. Coral Island


Fig. Coral Reefs



Questions and Tasks

1. What is called the hydrosphere? From which parts it consists of?

2. Using Fig. Tell us about koloobih water nature.

3. Prove that the oceans - the only continuous water space.

4. What strait connects the oceans Drake? But what separates continents?

5. What is different island from the mainland? Give examples of large islands. Show them a map.

6. How to distinguish the origin of the islands?

7. Compare the geographical location of Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal. Why one part of the Indian Ocean, called the sea and the other Gulf?