TOPIC 14. FORESTRY AND WOOD INDUSTRY OF UKRAINE
§ 22. Forest and woodworking industry
1. Where in Ukraine vast forests?
2. What tree species in areas dominated by mixed and wide-woods?
Sectoral STAFF. Forest and timber industry unites enterprises that deal with collection and revisedCCW wood and other forest resources (medical plants, berries, fruits, mushrooms), its main industry - logging, wood processing, tselyuLozna and paper and resin.
Fig. Forest, wood and pulp and paper industry
The share of forestry and wood industry throughout the industrial complex of Ukraine is rather low (less than 2,5%), the industry is not satisfyingvolnyaye needs national economy and the population in many important kinds of products. It due primarily to reduced raw materialNoah base: a low percentage of forest (forests covered 14% of the country) predominance of forests with limited operational value small logging. Requirements area covered by own resourcesgot only a third, the rest of the wood imported (mostly from Russia).
The basis is the development of forestry. It has been dilution (Plantations), ordering, security and protection of forests developed in all regions of Ukraine, the largest - in the Carpathians and Still alive. Not meet the needs and volumes of afforestation; optimal forest (19%) in Ukraine can be achieved if you raise addi-bone forests on the area 2.8 million ha. This means that in the next 10 years forest area should increase annually by 250 - 280 hectares (6 times more than now).
Fig. Museum лMIS і raftingon the river Ozerianka near with. Synevyr,
Logging INDUSTRY. Logging Industry holds felling, removal and Personnelwine processing wood. Its products - business wood that Use-stovuyetsya in wood and pulp and paper industry construction. The annual volume of wood zahotovlyayetsyain Ukraine is 12-15 million м3. In recent years decreased consumption wood in industry and construction, but markedly increased post-wood supply for the population.
Fig. Provision lisosyrovyny
WOOD. Wood industry is divided into sawmill, plywood, OIELeo, production boards, matches, building materials. Forestswatchful industry supplies timber and tends to their installation locationsforgiveness to Timber (Chernivtsi Berehomet, Broshniv, Benefits, Rachel, CBA-Love, Stry - In Carpathians, Kostopil, Kovel - The Polesie).
Plywood manufactured from birch, companies tend to raw (Lviv, Kostopil, Orzhiv).
Derevostruzhkovi plate made for the needs of the furniture industryent mainly in forest areas. The largest centers - Svalyava, Teresva, Kostopil, Kyiv.
FURNITURE INDUSTRY. Furniture Industry produces nearly half of the production treemanufacturing. She tends to the consumer. Centers manufac-ternational furniture is almost all the major cities of the state and several middle and small towns. Top enterprises located in Kiev, Kharkov, Ukraine, Uzhgorod Svaliava Chernivtsi, Dnipropetrovsk.
Pulp and paper industry. Pulp and Paper Industry developing in forest areas in places where there is electricity and water. The largest company - Cardboard and Paper Plant in Zhydachev (World region), cardboard factories in Rahove(Transcarpathian region) and Koryukovka (Chernihiv region), paper mill in Ponintsi(GAIN) Malyn (Kiev-plishment region), Dnipropetrovsk, cellulose factories in Kherson and Ismail.
Enterprises of the industry meet the needs of Ukraine in thismestic production only half.
Resin INDUSTRY. Resin industry produces feed yeast, synthetic QSly, acetic acid, methyl alcohol, turpentine, and others. Raw material for it is waste from forestry and wood industry (Gillki, rosin, sawdust, etc.). because of concentrated in lisopromywords areas. Major companies located in the Carpathians (VeliBychkov cues, benefits, Svalyava, Mend), on Polesie (Slavuta, Korosshadow, Pecking).
The main problems of forestry and woodworking industry - shortage of raw materials and nekompleksna processing. Other important development areas - rational use of forest resources, modernizationThe modernization of enterprises, creating bezvidhidnyh productions.
Forest and timber industry unites enterprises that deal with collection and revisedCCW wood and other forest resources.
In Ukraine, developed various CHEMICAL - Logging, wood processing, tselyuLozna and paper, resin.
Top output gives the furniture industry.
Questions and Tasks
1. As supplied raw materials to the forestry and wood industry?
2. What are the principles placing wood industries, pulp and PapeRehoboam and the chemical industry and their main centers development.
3. Analyze problems of forestry and woodworking industryVost. Path name overcome them.