East Slavic tribes - the ancestors of the Ukrainian - before the formation of State
- East settling tribal unions - Ukrainian ancestors.
- Neighbors East tribes.
- To reign in the power belonged? Princes and warriors.
- Dulib tribal union.
- emergence of Kyiv.
- Kyiv since the legendary Kyi.
- spiritual life of ancient Ukrainian.
end 6 - Top 7 of art.
life of the legendary founders of Kyiv - Kyi
7 of art.
formation of Dulib tribal alliance
basic concepts and terms
Chronicle - a historical piece, wherein the most important events recorded in chronological order by year (in years) - "Summer in the summer," as said by those times.
Paganism - a system of primitive religious beliefs, attitudes, and rituals. In the eastern Slavs came in the form deifying the forces of nature, animals and plants as well as humanoid creatures: Mermaids, Bereguinias et al.
Christianity - faith in Jesus Christ. This doctrine became the state religion in the Roman Empire and its successor - Byzantium. From there, Christianity spread to the territories of Central Europe.
magi - the ministers of pagan rites which were considered experts on nature's mysteries, mediators in communication with the gods, supernatural forces and the native abilities.
Prince - the head of a principality. Grand Duke - higher princely title in Kievan Rus. In 10 - 13 centuries. title Grand Duke belonging to the Kiev princes.
Wife - the armed forces, which were the regular troops of Prince and his apparatus of power.
1. East settling tribal unions - Ukrainian ancestors
Concerning living tribes, Slavic tribes from time to time in a much more united union - tribal association , or tribal unions.
- existed for a bit, such alliances break up, and instead of them subsequently formed new ones. (Actually, the great union of Slavic tribes were Veneti, and anti and sklavyny.)
- According to researchers, they consisted of smaller alliances of tribes.
Spell East tribal unions, which survived until the time of formation of the state, kept chronicle "The Tale of Bygone Years» .
example, in Ukraine s, for the annals, lived seven tribal associations: Meadow , Drevlyane, Volhynians, Croats, Ukichi, Tyvertsi and Northerners .
Please note , which along with the name « Volhynians » chronicler still takes two - Dulebs and Buzhans . Most modern scholars believe that all three names apply to one tribal alliance, while "Dulebs" - the oldest name, and the second two have later.
territorial borders of tribal lands of East Union on Ukraine.
Polana were in the Middle Dnieper Basin "in the forests on the mountains above the river Dnieper. Later they were settled and the left bank.
- west of Polyany lived Drevlyane . Their land lying between the rivers and Sluch Dnieper and the Pripyat hen.
- even further west, until the Western Bug and Horyn, lay the ground Dulebs (Buzhans, Volynyany).
- northeast the clearing on the left tributary of the Dnieper Northerners lived .
- southern boundary of land along the East-Dniester tribes occupied catch and Tyvertsi .
- Prykarpatya Croats lived .
adding evidence of the chronicles of archaeological findings, the researchers concluded that the tribal alliances Dulibs, Derevlyany, Polyan Siveryany, Croats, and catch Tyvertsi long had close relations since they were similar in language, customs, had a common-sklavyno antske origin and differed on these signs from the neighboring northwest and north-eastern tribes of the East. So named seven tribal associations can be considered direct ancestors of the Ukrainian, and their language & ndash ; preUkrainian .
2. Neighbors East tribes
Inhabiting the lands that directly bordered on the steppes, Ukrainian ancestors had regular contact with the steppe nomads. Centuries-old domination of the Turkic-speaking nomads in the Black Sea started Huns . End of 6 cent. great strength became Avars . However, their stay in the Black Sea steppes was brief.
Great Bulgaria and Khazar khanate
After the Avars left the Black Sea, there is increasingly gaining strength Turkic Bulgars . About 635 union was their tribal lands embraced Bulgaria Great Northern Black Sea and Azov.
- Simultaneously with Great Bulgaria in the east of it, between the Don and Volga and Prykaspiyi, there is another association of Turkic tribes - Khazar khanate .
- Khazar leaders and associations bulharskoho enmity, between them so soon began a military confrontation. Gore took the Khazars . Grand Army of Bulgaria was divided into two bands: one vidkochuvala for the Danube, where laid the Danube Bulgaria.
In the Balkans
- Turkic Bulgars settled on lands already occupied migrant Slavs. Both nations agreed on a peaceful coexistence. Turks, Bulgars from the Slavs adopted their way of life, language, beliefs and soon completely dissolved among them.
- About Turkic nomads on the land there's only title: Bulgaria called the first Slavic state, Bulgarians called one of the modern South Slavic peoples.
- partially recognized the Khazar and surrendered them. Those bulharski tribes who did not wish to obey, in the Upper Volga vidkochuvaly, where he eventually emerged Volga Bulgaria .
- mastered discord among his fellow tribesmen, the Khazars in a long time - until the end of 10 century. - Have ruled in the Black Sea steppes. His power and authority as they sought to extend and Slavic tribes. Chronicle indicates that the Khazars were a tribute to Polyan Siveryany and tribes of the north East - v'yatychiv.
Not poryvaly links Eastern Slavic tribes - ancestors of the Ukrainian - and Byzantium .
- Byzantium was their main trade partner. Moreover, the possession of the Byzantine emperors at that time reached the northern coast of the Black Sea and Crimea.
- Black Sea was the endpoint of the major trade route «Varangian with the Greeks» , Eastern Slavic tribes, which at that time controlled the middle of it, sought to extend its impact on the sea. Actually, because relations with Byzantium often exacerbated in a state of war.
- they remained long after the formation of the Kievan state.
That the same trade route linking the East Slavic tribes from many northern people - the ancestors of modern Danes, Swedes, Norwegians .
- harsh living conditions at home led duzhyh and hardy men of north gather in the military for war and a campaign to get under way in search of fame and riches elsewhere.
- devil lands of other nations obkladayuchy tribute to their residents. This fate befell the northern East Slavic tribes Slovene, Krivichi , as well as non-Slavic chud , meryu .
- Frequently, soldiers from the north were hired to influential and wealthy rulers. And they served in the Byzantine emperors.
- Byzantines called them mercenaries varanhamy - hence the title « Varangians », which it called the eastern Slavs representatives of northern peoples .
- In Western Europe, used on them was another name - Normans . Varangians-Normans from the end of 8 century. and the next few centuries have intervened in the history of Eastern Slavs.
3. princes and warriors
- Even in times peredderzhavni Slavic rulers were called princes .
- power was hereditary princes, that is passed from father to son.
- Slavic prince had given environment - soldiers-combatants.
- They were natives of respected, close to the prince, families.
- main occupation was served in the army of princes, for which they received generous compensation.
- Thus, unlike earlier times, when soldiers in need were all adult men tribe - farmers and artisans, arms were professional soldiers.
- princes and their warriors lived in large breeding centers - settlement , which gradually turned into the city.
4. Dulib tribal union
One of the ancient East Slavic tribal unions were Dulebs . Their union was formed in 7 century .
Archaeological excavations indicate that it united Dulibs, Polyan Derevlyany, Croats, and catch Tyvertsi .
- tribe centers Dulib Union was likely, Zimne Settlement, recently found by archaeologists near Vladimir in Volhynia.
- united people around Western Volhynia and upper Dniester, the East Slavic tribes - the ancestors of the Ukrainian tried to resist the devastating attacks of nomads. The chronicler tells Dulebs, particularly in connection with raids on Slavic Avars land.
- in foreign language sources are mentioning Valinyanu enigmatic country, where modern historians see the tribal alliance Dulebs-Volyn.
Dulib association was not destined to become a state. When he collapsed, the center moved from Volyn state in the Middle Dnieper, to Kyiv.
5. The emergence of Kyiv
The most ancient settlement that it can be called settlement , was erected on Mount Starokyivska in 6-8 centuries. Slavic praukrayintsyamy . Similarly, ancient Slavic settlement is the nearby Castle Mountains, Yurkovitsa.
- Most historians tend to think that ancient settlement was the center of tribal Polyansky reign.
- and those who believe that Kyiv has emerged as a center of several tribal alliances, including Polyan Derevlyany and Siveryany, because located on the border of their lands.
- legendary character, modern historians believe probable evidence "Tale of Bygone Years" on Polyansky Kiya Prince .
6. Kyi legendary Kyiv back
- According to archeologists, Settlement Kyi was located in the northwestern part Starokyivskaya hill where now stands the State Historical Museum.
- On the north side of it protecting the natural slope, the rest of fortifications were built. These included the trench, to 4 m deep, chetyrehmetrovy shaft and wooden fortifications. Outside the fortress housed a variety of housing and household Prince buildings.
- during excavations settlement Kyi archaeologists have found a unique discovery - the remains of ancient buildings for prayer and sacrifice - shrines, that gives an idea of the spiritual life of East Slavic & rsquo ; Jan Ukrainian ancestors.
7. The spiritual life of Ukrainian ancestors
Ky and his contemporaries were pagans, that is adored by the forces of nature.
- Because in these times, Slavs - Ukrainian ancestors had not had their own written language, their beliefs are almost lost.
- known that religious event held at sanctuaries - temples. They was the vymostku stones or hollow in the ground.
- Most of them are standing outside, in the center were altars and massive pillar on which stood a wooden or stone image deity - Idol .
The most famous of those who survived - Zbrutsky Idol 9-10 cent. It was found in 1848 in the river Zbruch in Ternopil.
- -kapischa ushers Magi .
- most important among the pagan gods in Ukrainian ancestors were deities associated with the Farming and animal husbandry. Chronicle tells of the supreme god of the eastern Slavs - the sun god Dazhdbog .
- remarkable that embodies sun had several deities. Yes
- spring sun god was Jari ,
- winter sun god - Porevyt and others.
- important gods belonged to the god of heaven Svarog ,
- god of thunder and lightning Perun , God - the protector of cattle, fertility and prosperity Velez .
- And worshiped the spirits of our ancestors: woodman, merman, brownie, etc.. Believe in the supernatural power of mermaids, Bereguinias, corpses called mertsi.
- But even pagan beliefs were dominant in these times, and Ukrainian ancestors pryluchalysya to Christianity . Faith in Jesus Christ in our land covered with Byzantium. Professed Christianity and Gothic rulers, which were ruled by tribes sklavyniv and Ants.