Galicia-Volyn state by Prince Daniel Romanovich and his successors
- internal and foreign policy of Prince Danilo.
- Successor Daniel Romanovich.
- Board and George L..
- Last princes. Degradation of Galicia-Volyn principality.
battle near the town of Yaroslav Romanovich Daniel between troops and united the Hungarian-Polish Army
Coronation Daniel Romanovich
reign of Leo I
Board in the Galicia-Volyn state Yuri L. I
reign of Boleslaw-Yuri II
Daniel R. (ca. 1201-1264 biennium) - Volyn and Galician prince, King - 1253 son of the founder of the Galicia-Volyn principality of Prince Roman Mstyslavych. Shedding light on the temperament and character traits of Prince, the chronicler describes it as: «Sei same Prince Danylo was kind, brave, wise, who built many, gardens, and churches set up and decorated their various ornaments, and brotherly love it shined was with his brother basil ...». Fraternal relations with Daniel basil, which both in Russia and abroad are considered co could not but surprise by medieval times, when brother fought against brother went to grab his land and take his table.
the initiative was founded several new cities, including Lviv, named after the eldest son of Prince Leo, build up new capital - Holm. Danilo strongly concerned with the construction of fortresses and defensive structures throughout the state, laying the castles, churches and monasteries, promoted the development of culture. Chronicler also proud feats of arms of Prince, compares his achievements with the acts of Sviatoslav and Vladimir I. Great. Galician scribe appreciates talent polkovodnytskyy Daniel, transfers the speech the prince turned to war, in which he urged the soldiers to take care of their dignity and honor of the fatherland. Daniel dokladav great efforts to unite the land for the Russians repel foreign conquerors, showing neighbors the possibility of successful struggle against the Mongols.
Certainly deserving of Daniel is his tireless activities aimed at strengthening the unity of the Galicia-Volyn state, raising its international prestige.
1. Internal and external politics of Prince Daniel
- Galician prince Danilo began in Volyn in the 20's of 13 century. and in 1238 became established in Galicia, breaking the internecine strife that erupted after the death of Roman initiative Galician boyars.
- During the reign he had to simultaneously overcome the resistance of several rivals: the Mongols threatened from the east, west Ukrainian lands infringe Lithuania, Poland and Hungary. At the same time had to fight against the disobedient boyars, who were inclined to Rostislav Mikhailovich dynasty of Chernigov and his allies.
- 1245 Daniel Galician troops gained a brilliant victory in the battle against troops brought Rostislavom Hungarian king and his allies on the city of Yaroslav Sian.
result Yaroslavl Daniel battle broke resistance boyars, finally became established in Galicia and permanently put an end to infringement of the Hungarian kingdom.
Then the Prince carried out successful campaigns against the Lithuanians and Yatvyags in 1244 and took Lublin Lublin ground.
- helping his son Roman, married a sister of the Austrian duke Frederick II Bubenbergs Gertrude, against the Austrian crown, Galician Daniel went to the Czech Republic and Silesia.
- Activity foreign policy manifested Daniel dynastic marriage and his children
- Yes, Leo D. married the daughter of Hungarian King Bela IV.
- Shvarno took marriage with the daughter of Lithuanian Prince Mindovg.
- Daughter Daniel Pereyaslav issued marriage to Prince Zemovyta Mazowiecki.
- important area of foreign policy were Daniel Galician relationship with Mongol rulers.
- completed the journey to the Horde, Daniel begins to search for allies in the fight against the horde.
- this purpose establishes the relationship of alliance with Poland, Hungary, Vladimir-Suzdal Principality.
- prince responded to the Vatican offer to start negotiations on the participation of Rus in the crusade against the Mongols European countries.
- Besides Pope Innocent IV cherished the hope of introducing religious union (association) between Orthodoxy and Catholicism in the Galicia-Volyn principality.
- mission to establish a relationship Pope put on the already known where you Plano Carpini, who was acquainted Vasylko 1246 Romanovich and Daniel deals with the Vatican.
- campaign to encourage Prince Danylo pope offered to take the royal crown.
- In 1253 Dorohychyn papal legate in Opizo solemnly crowned Daniel Galician. However, the pope declared in the year the crusade did not find support among European monarchs.
- However, Daniel did not refuse to fight against ordyntsev own. Major military operations occur in 1254-1255 he
- troops repeatedly derive victory over Khan's Mongol army Kuremsy.
- growth might perturb the Galicia-Volyn, Golden rulers sent against him many and strong horde led by an experienced palatine Burundai.
- Under the pressure of adverse circumstances, Daniel had to accept the terms of the destruction of fortifications Burundai city, Vladimir, Lutsk and several other cities. Only preserved fortification Capital Hill.
2. Successor Daniel Galician
- After the death of Prince Danilo (1264) his kingdom was divided. Although Vasylko Romanovich, Danilova brother, and as poshanovuvaly "father and housewife" , his authority extended only to Volhynia from a capital city of Vladimir.
- Galician, Peremyshlskaya and Belz principality retained eldest son Daniel Romanovich - Lev.
- Eastern Volyn Lutsk received from Mstislav Danilovich.
- Kholmian principality passed youngest Danilovich - Shvarnu.
when R. died, his son inherited the land Vladimir .
- It belongs to the most outstanding figures of our history. Just to name the researchers linked a second, Volyn, part of the Galicia-Volyn chronicle.
- chronicler tells about Vladimir Vasylkovych as a scribe and an outstanding philosopher.
As for the children of Danilov, the most active among them was Prince Leo.
- intends to unite the land under his father with one hand.
- to seize Leo joined Lublin land, part of Transcarpathia Mukachevo.
After the death
- Shvarna he took Kholmian principality, and in 1272 moved his capital to the city.
- intention to take possession of the Lithuanian throne, but was unable to implement them.
- In foreign policy, Leo D. schonaytisnishyh sought relations with Poland.
- wide diplomatic relations with the Czech Republic also supported and the Teutonic Order.
- In relations with the Horde Leo has changed the tactics of his father: he did not resist the Mongols and zvazhav at their will.
- particular, he had to, even against their own interests, to go to war with Poland and Lithuania.
- But, despite this concession, Leo nevertheless not able to ensure peace in the country, because Horde used the Galicia-Volyn principality as a springboard for its attacks on neighboring countries.
- failed outright harassment and Leo Volyn lands that were the legacy of Vladimir Vasylkovych, despite his desire for all Volyn was transferred Mstislav Danilovich.
- died without heirs, land and realm Daniel Romanovich was still united - grandson of Daniel and George L. .
3. Board and George L.
Board and George L. (1301-1308 biennium) is defined as the heyday of the state, its peace and economic prosperity.
- evidence might have been George and what he as Daniil Romanovich, took the title "King of Russia".
- certified his seal, where he depicted sitting on a throne with a crown on his head and a scepter in his hand.
Some historians believe that the crown of George I could get in exchange for recognition of the supremacy of Pope, taking the union of church and promise to crusade against the Horde.
Others emphasize that the coronation would not be, as King George and was called as winner of the state - after the European tradition.
- soundness of this opinion shows subtle religious policy of King Russ. It is known, in particular, that George I in 1303 with the consent of the Patriarch of Constantinople was established a separate Ukrainian Orthodox metropolitan - Galician.
4. Last princes. Degradation of Galicia and Volyn State
Legacy of George and went to his sons - Andrew and Leo II , who ruled together.
- They called themselves "princes All Russia", thus expressing the state's claim to continuity of traditions of Kievan Rus.
- leading foreign policy direction of Andrew and Leo a focus on union with the Teutonic Order and Poland.
- Thus princes tried to weaken its dependence on the Horde in the Battle against which they may have died.
- Because none of the brothers had children, to their deaths in 1323 dynasty Romanovich urvalasya the male line.
- almost two years, the Galician-Volyn throne remained vacant, although there was no lack of applicants.
- Year 1325 Galician-Volyn boyars elected head of state Prince Boleslaw , the son of Mary, the sister of the last ruler of Andrew and Leo II, who took the name of Orthodoxy, and George .
- intent on reviving the power during the Galicia-Volyn evidenced by the fact that the documents George II called himself «God's mercy and grandfather Prince ychem royal TBA Rus » or « God's mercy all congenital Prince Little Rus » and used the royal seal of George II
- Yuri Boleslav II ruled from 1325 to 1340
- In foreign policy, he held an alliance with the Teutonic Order, finding in a way opposed to Poland, with whom relations were hostile.
- George II has established friendly relations with Lithuania, strengthening their marriage with the daughter of Prince Gedimin.
- happy reign of George II Boleslaw not.
Because He had to lay the head of the conspirators: in 1340 he was poisoned.
- According to sources, this fate befell George II Boleslaw due to complications of the religious situation.
- From childhood Catholic, he «rozmnozhaty a number latynnykiv and their faith," prynadzhuvav from different edges of Catholic priests and theologians, wishing to vaccinate their faith in the Ruthenians.
Death of George II
- Boleslaw had to Galicia-Volyn state negative consequences.
- His death took advantage of the west, seeking to increase their territory at the expense of Ukrainian lands.
- Galicia-Volyn prince was named Liubard , the son of Lithuanian Prince Gedimin wife whose family came from the Galician-Volyn prince and so he had a legitimate right to the Galician-Volyn heritage .
But their power
- Liubard extended only to the territory of Volyn.
- 1349 y . march Polish king Casimir launched a war for the long-Galician-Volyn land.
- it was finished because of Galicia and Kholmshchina Belz land came under the Kingdom of Poland, Volhynia - under the authority of the Lithuanian dynasty.