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§ 3. Kiev State for the first dukes (textbook)

§ 3. Kiev State for the first dukes

      Upon learningthis paragraph, you'll learn:

      the development by the Kiev PrincipalityPrince Askold;

      the development of Kievan Rus by the Boarddukes of Oleg and Igor;

      about the origin of the name "Rus";

      What is "pechenigs", "polyuddya", "Greekfire ".


The task to repeat

1.   What were the main trends of the Greatmigration of Slavs? Show them a map.

2.   What is tribal unions? Name and show onMap of East Slavic tribal unions.

3.   On which three principalities that existed atEast lands mentioned Arab authors?

4.   Who are Varangians?


1.   KievAskold principality. Based on pedigree Polyansky reign in the MiddleDnipro area around the middle of IX century. Kiev principality was formed. By itsterritory it was quite small and covered mainly Polyanaland around Kyiv. In his chronicle called "the Ruthenian land" and itsrulers - Princes Askold and Dir. Their representatives believe dynastyKyyevychiv that came from the legendary Kyi. Arab authors argued thatDir reigned before Askold was "the first of Slavic kings, possessedmajor cities and many cities and countries. He judged likely to30-50's of the IX century. But in the annals of Askold and Dir always called together. Byhis message, they "knyazhyly in Kiev and owned fields were extraordinary(Fought) with Drevlyans and catch.


      The figure inHistory

Prince Askold (? - 882)become famous for its military campaigns against Byzantium in 860, 866 and 874 yearsThe real horror was dawning for Byzantines June 18, 19860, when they saw200 Navy owns the Ruthenian Prince Askold under the walls of Constantinople. Rusychicity was under siege, the Byzantine emperor was forced to agree toconcluding agreements with them and pay tribute. So first Kyiv Principalitynotified the medieval world of its existence, began fightingByzantium for superiority in the Black Sea and transform it into "sea Ruske.


Arriving Askold and Dir to Constantinople. Picture ofrecord.


With Prince Askoldconnected first attempt baptism of Rus. According to Byzantine authors60's of the IX century. he baptized himself and tried to baptize his subjects. Therethought that this raised the ire of the pagan aristocracy, and she began to prepareconspiracy to eliminate Askold from power.


2.   EstablishmentRurik dynasty dynasty. Board Oleg. At a time when the Middle Dnipro region and developedfixings Kyiv principality, in the north of the eastern world is unitywas. According to Nestor the Chronicler, in 862 Il'mens'ka Slovenes and Kryvi

Murder Askold and consolidation Oleg in Kiev. Picture ofrecord.


      Interesting Facts

Nestor the Chroniclersaid that Slovenes and Kryviru voring («faithful wife"). This interpretation changes the meaningsentence given in the chronicle of three brothers Varangians.


Prince Ryurik


After deathRurik in 879, the juvenile left his son Igor, who cared for governorOleg. In 882, bringing together a large army, Oleg went to march to Kyiv. Therethought that he was invited back the local nobility, discontented initiated by PrinceAskold Christianization. Arriving to Kyiv, says the chronicler, Oleghid most of his soldiers and ordered to pretend the rest of the merchants that flows toConstantinople. Prystavshy to shore, they offered to show their goodsprince. When the bank came Askold, Varangians killed him. Then Oleg probablyby Askold dissatisfied nobility seized power in Kiev.


Askold's Grave (Kyiv, modern look)


Because theseEvents Kyyevychiv dynasty ceased to exist and established a new dynastyRurik dynasty. There was union of East North and Southtransformation began in Kiev principality united Oldstate - Kievan Rus. His capital city, "the mother of all Rus cities OlegKyiv announced.

Prince Oleg


      Figurein history

Prince Oleg (? - Approx. 912), probablyruled in 882-912 he believed that he was a Varangian who came with Rurikfrom Scandinavia. Oleg ruled in Russia on behalf of the son of Rurik Igor. In the annalsit is called as the sovereign Prince of Kyiv, and only palatine Igor.Consistently and persistently he conquering the East Slavic tribal unions andreign, promoting the transformation of Kievan Rus by a centralized state.The circumstances of the death of Oleg is not fully elucidated. According to one version, he diedviper bite, according to another - killed in a march on the Caspian.

Oleg assertedits power by force of sword. According to the chronicler, 885, he assessed a tributePolyan Derevlyany, Siveryany and Radymychi and with Tyvertsi and continued to catchfight. This Siveryany Radymychi and he fired before paying tributeKhazars.

Prince Oleg ruledKievan Rus alone, concentrating all power in their hands. He leanedVarangian to help his wife, who also served orders prince, played in courtplaces and collected tribute. Varyag collect tribute in the most primitive andViolent forms polyuddya.

Polyuddya (sample picture of K. Lebedev).



ByzantineEmperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus of tribute collection in Russia. "When theNovember, immediately their princes are all the dew from Kyiv and will go onpolyuddya that referred to as spin - namely, in Slaviniyi (tribal unions) Derevlyany,Kryvi

Inquiries to document

Basedof the scheme and explain why the tribute collection called "spin".

The traditional way polyuddya


Oleg performedsuccessful campaigns against Byzantium in 907 and 911 years

The need forconduct of military campaigns against the Byzantines for him, as for other Ruthenianprinces, was caused by the fact that Constantinople was their main focusSales collected from conquered tribes tribute.


Interesting Facts

Talking aboutOleg march on Constantinople (or Istanbul as it was called Rusyches)Nestor the Chronicler says that in attendance were 80 thousands of soldiers on twoThousands of boats. Reached the outskirts of Constantinople, Oleg ordered to attachowns to the wheels. When the wind blew a fine, dry boats headed for the wallscity from that side, where nobody expected them. Shaken abrupt onset of warRus, Byzantines offered them a peace agreement. According to the signedagreement, Byzantine Ruthenian merchants ensured favorable conditions for trade,ransom paid, promised to give an annual tribute to Kyiv Rus and other cities.In a sign of victory Oleg nailed his shield on the gates of Constantinople.

Oleg trip to Constantinople in 907, the thumbnailsrecord.


Oleg beat his shield on the gates of Constantinople.


In 911 Olegagain sent his soldiers to the walls of Constantinople as the Byzantine violatedpreviously negotiated agreement. Under the new agreement, the parties bear equal responsibility forcommitted crimes (murder, fights, theft) are committed to returning prisonersand refugees and provide assistance to merchant vessels.

According toNestor the Chronicler, Prince Oleg of 911 died after being bitten by snakes that vypovzlaskull with his favorite horse.

 Viktor Vasnetsov. FarewellPrince Oleg horse.


3.   Board of PrinceIgor. After the death of Oleg in Russia began ruling son Rurik - Igor.




      Figurein history

Prince Igor (? - 945)continued work of his predecessor, rallying strongly in the East Slavssingle state. In contrast, Oleg, he acted severe and revelations, strengtheningcentral power. Due to the large-scale military campaigns in southern directionits foreign policy has acquired priority. Igor died duringDrevlyany rebellion.

Prince IgorBoard began its struggle with Derevlyany and catch that came out of humilityKyiv. Fire and Sword defeating the rebels, Igor imposed on them much morethan before, tribute. Then Ukichi left and Middle Dniepermoved to the territory between the Dniester and Southern Bug.

In 915, nearborders of Kievan Rus first time, new-nomads pechenigs. Igor managedconclude a peace agreement with them. Subsequently, she was violated because Pechenegs toattacks on Russia pushing Byzantium.

Games like hispredecessors, fought against the Byzantines. In 941 he organized a grand marchagainst it, bringing it to 10 thousand Lodi. However, this campaign endeddefeat: Byzantine fleet burned Rus "Greek fire".


Terms and definitions

Pechenegi - Turkic tribes that roamed the steppesbetween the Urals and the Danube.

"Wildfire" - Secret Weapon Byzantines. It was a burning mixture, whichPressure cast from bronze tubes or poured into shells and threw them outcatapults at the enemy ship. The composition of this mixture so carefully disguised,that all its components is still unknown. Supposedly, it contains tar, sulfur,nitrate and oil. "Greek fire" was impossible to extinguish, he even burnedwater.


Three years later,gathered even more strength, Igor repeated the trip, but this time did not have to fight.Byzantines vidkupylysya tribute greater than that which they previously received from the PrinceOleg, and signed a new agreement that reaffirmed the basic commercial interestsRuthenian Byzantine merchants in the markets.

In 944 AD Igoralso made a trip to the Caucasus against the warlike Highlanders, who were alliesByzantines. As a result managed to seize victory Rusyches rich citiesDerbent, and Sharvan Berdaa's big booty and go home.

Prince Igor Perun idol before after a hike inConstantinople


Hold highwife and of distant trips require considerable resources. Perhaps it isThis prompted Igor try, contrary to tradition, the second time to gather additionaltribute to Derevlyany. Because of this rebellion broke out. Chaired by Prince MalomDrevlyane autumn 945, the wife of Igor defeated and killed himself prince. "If vnadytsyawolf in sheep - they explained their deed - that makes one whole flockif not kill it. So is this: if not kill him, he will destroy us all. "Igor death marked the initial phase of establishment of KyivRuss.

Princess Olga V. Surikov body meets Prince Igor (draft)   


4.   Originname "Rus". In "Tale of Bygone Years" Nestor the chronicler was under 852wrote that "was named our land - land of Rus. This name itused on the Kiev principality. For a long time researchersdebate about the origin of the name "Rus". In the chronicles and other ancientsources she used in different meanings.

      Ethnic values - people, tribe, etc..

      Social - social stratum or status.

      Geographical - the territory, earth.

      Political - State.


The main school ofname

      Scandinavian - from districts similar names in Scandinaviawith a similar name

      Finnish - from the word ruotsi, which Finnishtribes called Varangians

      The Eastern - from the Eastnames of rivers and roots "grew" in the Dnieper and lands Il'mens'ka Slovenes

      Sarmatian - from the name "Rus", which the Arabs andByzantines and Slavs used on slavonized Sarmatians -Roksolans being part Antskoho Union


A. Vasnetsov. Varyag.


Recentresearch, many historians tend to believe that the word "Rus" Finnish orScandinavian origin and originally named him Varangians those who werewife's princes. Gradually, these wives replenished Slavs.The term "Rus" was extended to all combatants princely general.As the princes ruled, relying on his wife, then the land which theysubject, had the name "Rus land". In the narrow sense of "RuthenianGround was primarily Polyana land in the Middle Dnieper.




A Tale of pastYears of invitation to Russia Varangians

In the year 859.Varyag, coming from zamor'ya, took tribute from chudi, and Slovene, and Mary, andvesi, and Kryvi

In the year 862Expelled [chud, Slovenes, and all Kryvi

Inquiries to document

1.   Look at the map and show people, whichreferred to in the Chronicle.

2.   As Nestor explains the meaning of the name "Rus"?

3.   How, according to the chronicler, became Varangiansruling on the East-lands?


When after deathRurik Oleg Polyansky captured Kyiv and declared it the capital of the united Statesthen it became known as Kievan Rus. From that time the name "Rus" and "Russkayaland "was used in a broad sense to denote allterritory inhabited by East Slavs.

Although the first knownhistorians princes of Kievan Rus were Scandinavian in origin and in theirwife was a lot Varangians, this is not the decisive factor in shapingEast Slavic state. Its origin, primarily causeddomestic government formation process in the Slavic


      Conclusions. For the BoardAskold Kiev principality achieved prosperity and international recognitionbecome a center around which the end of IX century. formed onlyeastern Slavic state.

      Prince Oleg united the North of RussiaSouth in one state, carrying out collection of East landsaround Kyiv.

      Prince Igor was trying to consolidate powerKyiv reign over the Eastern Slavic. Thus for the further developmentstate was needed to organize the issue of size and order pickingtributes.

      "Rus" originally named Varangians, thenland glades, and later East Slavic state of Kievan Rus.


Remember the date

860 - the first hikeRus in Constantinople (Istanbul), led by Prince Askold.

Was 882 - deathPrince Askold. Capture of princely power in Kiev, Oleg. The emergence of stateKievan Rus.


Questions and Tasks  

Check yourself

1.   When formed Kiev principality?

2.   As in the chronicles called Kyiv principality?

3.   Which city has announced its Prince Oleg a capitalHail?

4.   What polyuddya?

5.   When pechenigs first appeared near the bordersRus?

6.   As Prince Igor was killed?

7.   What values in ancient sourcesused the word "Rus"?


Think and answer

1.   As development took place in the Kyiv principalityAskold on board?

2.   Compare the activities of Prince Oleg and Igor.Identify the common and different.

3.   As the researchers explain the origin of the name "Rus"?


Perform the task

Startdrafting table princes of Kievan Rus.

Prince, yearsboard     Domestic Policy    Foreign Policy     Value of

Domestic Policy- One that characterizes the transformation and life inside the state.

Foreign Policy- One that characterizes relations with other states.


For the curious

Usingadditional literature, prepare a message about life and work of the princesOleg and Igor.