§ 9. Culture of Kievan Rus
Upon learningthis paragraph, you'll learn:
emergence of Eastwriting and development of Ukrainian language;
developed as oral and folk musiccreativity;
what were the achievements of architecture andFine Arts;
What is "Cyrillic", "Bylina", "skomorokhs""Architecture", "fresco", "Mosaic", "icon", "icon".
The task to repeat
1. When and how was called Kievan Rus?
2. What are folk tales, legends and Bylina daysKievan Rus' you know?
3. What are the architectural monuments of the Kievan Rus, whichsurvived to our time, you know?
1. OccurrenceSlavic literature and development of Ukrainian language. School. The appearance of its ownliteracy was essential for the development of Eastcommunity. Preserved message that in XI century. Eastern Slavs hadown writing, or writing the Russians. " In particular, in the novel "Legend ofwriting "Bulgarian writer Chornoryztsya Hrabra, who lived at the turn of the IX-XArt., mentions that the adoption of Christianity Slavs used for writingown "and Their Impact rezamy. Slave educator Cyril Thessalonikareported that in the early 60's the ninth century. he saw in the Chersonese written "Ruthenianwritings of "The Gospel and the Psalter.
Confirmationexistence of "Ruthenian writers" can be found in the chronicles describe the contentRuthenian Byzantine Agreements 911 and 944 was the first points to write custom Russpiritual testament of death and the second requires that merchants whocame from Russia to Constantinople, were carrying special diplomassigned by the prince.
Afterintroduction and spread of Christianity in Russia invented pupils brothers educatorCyril and Methodius alphabet - Cyrillic. Simultaneously, there was Church Slavonic(Or Old Slavic) language, which superseded earlier of use live folk language.
Educator Cyril and Methodius. Icon
Cyrillic - Slavic alphabet. Named after the Slavicenlightener Cyril, who, along with his brother created the first Slavic alphabet of 38letters (Glagolitic letters) and his students have improved it and called Cyrillic. Itconsisted of 43 letters (but was shorter and the alphabet - from 27-32 letters). Cyrillic becamefoundation of modern systems of Slavic literature: Belarusian, Bulgarian,Russian, Serbian, Ukrainian and others.
Numerous archaeologicalfinds evidence of widespread literacy among various population groupsRuss. More than 400 inscriptions found on the walls of Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev. At onethe walls of the cathedral carved alphabet of 27 letters: 23 Greek and fourSlavic - b, w, w, y.
Detected on the wallSt. Michael's cathedral altar so-called "alphabet Sofia evokedof great interest to researchers. Its opening S. Wysocki suggested thatit reflects one of the Slavic alphabet transition phases whento the Greek alphabet letters began to add features to transferSlavic languages. Possibly, those Russians writings such as those used in Russiain times of Askold and Dir.
The most importantcharacteristic of the formation of any nation is to form their own language. Muchattention given scientists the problem of the Ukrainian language. According to Ukrainianlinguists at the end of III. BC. BC - early I century. district. e. inSlavic environment was gradual formation and West-Slavic language areas. In the I-V century. in East Slavic languageterritory there are signs of inherent future Slavic languages.
It is believed thatfirst East Slavic language array split into two groups: northern andsouth, corresponding lands Il'mens'ka Slovenes and meadow. North was due toits location, favorable to the influences of the world and zahidnofinskohoBaltic States. In the south, in VI-VII centuries. uvyraznyuvatysya were signs of futureUkrainian language. In particular, it began to use language in "soft" g.
Berestiany ratification. Wrote. Wax board
In writtenReminders of Kievan Rus, created in the XI century., researchers examined theforming elements inherent to the Ukrainian language. For example, oftenbooks scribe confused the letters b (memory) and and,
Finishingduring formation of the Ukrainian language, according to scientists, started in XI century. andcontinued until the end of the XIII century.
Duringreign of Vladimir in Kiev for the princely and boyar children openedfirst school. According to the chronicler, Prince Yaroslav the Wise founded the school,where 300 children enrolled chiefs and priests. The basis of education weretheology, philosophy, rhetoric and grammar. Studied in Russia and foreign languages.Spoke several languages Yaroslav the Wise, and his son Vsevolod home seized fiveforeign languages.
The centers of educationin Russia were churches and monasteries, which also contributed to the development of literature andart.
2. Oral folk andmusical creativity. Better understand the spiritual life of the Eastern Slavs allowsoral folk art and musical era of Kievan Rus. Folklorethis period are extremely diverse: epic tales and songs, riddles,proverbs, sayings, tales.
Terms and definitions
Herb - Staroruska epic song-tales about memorable eventspeople's lives and heroic deeds of heroes.
In the herbospivuvalysya military victories Kiev princes and their wives. Togroup is the oldest epic of Prince Vladimir Red Sun, whichwith strongmen Elijah Muromets, Alyosha Popovich and Dobrynya NikitichKievan Rus protects from enemies.
Many informationcan be obtained from historical tradition.
Historicaltransfer "dragon walls"
These shafts are madeserpent that devoured people. Once the dragon saw that the two saints - cousin andDemian, chased them to eat. Kuzma and Demian (they were blacksmiths)managed to hide in the smithy, where it closed. Snakes prolyzav iron doors and forgestuck there tongue. Then Damian grabbed by a snake tongs tongue. The serpent beganrequest that it go.
- Enough -he said - will tolerate: let him be your half of the world, and half of mine. II will not touch your hand and you - mine. Peredilymosya!
- What aboutShare? - Said Kuzma and Demian .- We can not find out limits: thou shaltshow that what your half, but we - our. Better pereoraty in half the landlest you perelazyv on our side to people, just take her!
Kuzma and Demiansaid here that they themselves are unable to plow plow. Then the serpent said hepereore world itself. At the and agreed.
Kuzma and Demiansnake tied to a plow, and they followed him and so pereoraly world from sea toSea. But it turned out that the sulcus was small, barely visible. Then the dragon turnedsecond time in composition to plow through that place, so that shaft came out twice higher than the previous one.Dotyahnuvshy to the blue sea, the dragon very tired, tormented him so strong thirst,he obpyvsya water and burst.
Inquiries to document
1. History of the building which is described intransfer?
2. Why do you think could be called Rusychesfortifications built to protect Russia from attacking Pechenegs, "the serpent shaft?
OldestEast Slavonic folk songs are ritual that dates back topre-Christian times. They were connected with the celebration of the onset of spring andNew Year, celebrate the harvest and the sun, wedding ceremonies and funerals.
Riddles,proverbs and sayings in a concise and witty form the experiences andwisdom of the people.
To Kyiv dayRussia is known of all fairy tales about Baba Yaga-, Snake Gorynych, CyrilKozhemyaka, VERNIGORY, Kotyhoroshka and many others. They expressed Rusycheshis views on good and evil, right and wrong.
Folk Talescan be a source of information on actual historical events. In particular, in the plotTales of "flying ship" is a lot to do with form in "Tale of Bygone Years"a story about revenge Drevlyans Olga for the murder of her husband.
Names of heroestales often help to understand what their deeds were observed with Rus.In particular, the name of the famous fairytale character Koshchiya Immortal comes fromRuthenian word "Grandmother Bony", which in Russia has been synonymous with the word "nomad."
There are manyevidence that Russia was for its time, well-developed musicalcreativity. Memories of her are in the chronicles, the figures in the cathedralKiev.
Dancing musicians. Picture of the record.
It is known thatRussia had extended songs, dancing, playing musical instruments. In urbansquares and in princely palaces were musicians.
Terms and definitions
Skomorokhy - Medieval itinerant actors and musicians in Russia.
Skomorokhyperformed with dancing, led dressed bears and other animals. With writtensources and archaeological finds known, what were the music of the timeinstruments. This harp, flute, whistle, and tambourines. On one wall SofiaCathedral in Kyiv depicts a group of seven performers.
Picture of musicians and dancers at the Saint Sophia frescosCathedral in Kiev and musical instruments of the Kievan Rus.
Viktor Vasnetsov minstrel.
Viktor Vasnetsov. Bayan
After theChristianity Church and persecute rebuked musicians for their "satanic"fun. The Orthodox Church in Russia has promoted choral singing, wassystem like a musical note. Studying singing was one of compulsory subjects thatstudied at that time in school.
3. DevelopmentArchitecture and Fine Arts. Archaeological finds show and chroniclesthe high level architecture of Kievan Rus.
Architecture - The art of design, construction and Craftsdecoration of buildings, building art.
In particular, eachgreat Russians "Grad" was quite complicated for its time defense systemfortifications. They consisted of a shaft, poured in wooden crates and surroundeddeep ditch. In shafts constructed wooden walls with defensive towers.
Church of the Tithes. Reconstruction of the north side.
Analysis chroniclesevidence allowed the researchers to conclude that the first stone secularbuilding in Kiev was probably the palace of Princess Olga. The first stone churchRus constructions, as you already know, is considered the Tithe Churchbuilt on a hill Starokyivska end of X century. It was the best building "cityVladimir ". Through archaeological excavations, we know that it was a great templeinner space of which was covered in the form of codes of the cross, and recordreports that he had many domes. The floor was decorated with mosaicscolored marble beauty, and the walls painted with frescoes.
"The city of Vladimir"
Terms and definitions
Mosaic - Picture or pattern made of individual, closelyfitted together and enshrined in a special solutioncolored pieces of glass, marble, stones and more.
Fresco - Painting, paint (water or limemilk) on fresh damp plaster.
In Kiev, archaeologistsalso found the remains of two princely palaces of longitudinal outdoors galleriesbuilt at the end of X - at the beginning of XI century.
Herebymasterpiece of architecture of Kievan Rus is the Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev.By laying the cathedral, he left Prince Yaroslav the central and highest place in the CityYaroslav. Therefore, a gate through which the traveler is not entered in Kyiv, it firstall visible building bahatokupolnu Sophia Cathedral. Outside the Cathedralmarked by exceptional beauty. It was a great cross-dome houseinner space of which consisted of five nefiv - longitudinal spaces betweenrows of pillars. From the north, west and south around him double rowgalleries, and the top was crowned with thirteen domes.
Mosaic Maria Oranty in St. Sophia Cathedral.
The mosaic of Christ Pantokrator in St. Sophia Cathedral in Kiev.
Affects diversityimage mosaics and frescoes of St. Sophia Cathedral. At the top places in the temple wereare mosaic of Christ Pantokrator (Almighty) and Maria Oranty(Our Lady Help of-). In the mosaics of St. Sophia Cathedral Russians mastersused smalt (colored glass) 177 shades. About
AroundSaint Sophia Cathedral in honor of Saints defenders of Prince Yaroslav the Wise and hisInhiherdy wife founded the monastery of the temples of George and Irene.Archaeological excavations have found that they were similar to Hagia Sophia, but hadsmaller size. In Kyiv in the first half of XI century. the example of St. Sophiasame name cathedrals were built in Polotsk and Novgorod.
Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod. Modern look.
Transfiguration Cathedral in Chernihiv. Modernappearance.
In X - at the beginningArticle XI. hramobudivnytstvi Kievan Rus in the Byzantine tradition prevailed. Theircan be seen in buildings in Kiev church tithes and TransfigurationCathedral in Chernihiv (1031-1036). Coll cathedral became a kindtransition boundary and the appearance of new unaochnylo Slavic traditions in the architecture of KievRuss.
To a bright andArt of unique phenomena of Kievan Rus, but the mosaics and frescoes,icon belongs.
Terms and definitions
Icon - Orthodoxy and Catholicism in painting, mosaic orrelief image of Christ, the Virgin, saints and events from Holy Scripture, whichbelievers worship. Homeland icons - Byzantium. In Russia the icons were painted onboards.
Iconography - The art of painting icons.
First iconimported from Byzantium and Bulgaria, but soon in Russia formed localtradition of iconography. Ruthenian Byzantine masters have always held the canon(Firmly established rule that served as a model) iconography that oberihavsyaOrthodox Church, but never copied Byzantine icons.
Viktor Vasnetsov. Iconographer Alipio.
Colorsused in iconography, is of some importance. The highest place in theirvalue is gold or yellow, which symbolizes the kingdom of heaven. Whatcloser to the gold was located on the icon of a different color, so it is more significant.White is the color of Transfiguration - the condition where the earthly mannature into a higher, spiritual. Blue symbolizes the sky, and blue andgreen - all earthly things. Purple is used for the royal imagepower. Red had two meanings: the divine power and life-giving forcesvictory, and images of saints and martyrs who shed their blood for the faithChrist. The only color that had a negative value, was considered black. Hesymbolized grief or hell. On icons, he tried to use veryrare.
Conclusions. Writing in the eastern Slavs appeared long beforeadoption of Christianity. After the baptism of Rus Prince Volodymyr the existing systemCyrillic script was superseded.
Study of a general language coursedevelopment of East Slavic territory allowed scientists to identify the phenomena thatindicate the formation of the Ukrainian language.
To significant cultural achievements of Russiainclude its oral and folk music tradition. They sees the origins of modernUkrainian folklore.
High level of development reachedart and architecture of Kievan Rus. Ruski builders andartists used in his art masters heritage of Byzantium,developing and improving their creative techniques.
Remember the date
XI - XIII endc. .- final period of the Ukrainian language.
Questions and Tasks
1. Which century, the first reportsthe presence of their own writing in the eastern Slavs?
2. What is the Cyrillic?
3. In whose reign of Prince in Russia was openedThe first school for princely and boyar children?
4. What the Russians commented in herb?
5. Who in Russia called skomorokhs?
6. How to treat musicians Orthodoxchurch?
7. What was the name of the first stone church in Russia?
8. What is a mosaic?
9. What is fresco?
1. How did the East-Slavic written language?
2. As there was the process of the Ukrainianlanguage?
3. What are the facts that indicate achievementEducation in Russia.
4. What role for the study of spiritual lifeKievan Rus oral folk plays and musical creativity?
5. Describe the development of the Rus architectureand fine arts.
Make a table "DevelopmentsCulture of Kievan Rus.
For the curious
Usingadditional literature or the Internet, prepare a message on SofiaKiev - the pearl of architecture of Kievan Rus.
Questions and tasks for generalization on the KyivRus end X - XI in the first half century. "
1. Make a list of important historical eventsRus end of X - the first half of XI century. That you consider most important.Justify your choice.
2. Explain the meaning of concepts and terms "dragon walls""Conjugal diplomacy", "Russkaya Pravda", "monastery", "social stratum", "fresco""Mosaic", "icon".
3. What role was played to the Kievan Rusintroduction of Christianity?
4. By the end of the development of Kievan Rus X - firsthalf of XI century. expand the role of princely power in public life.
5. What do you think is grounds forto assert that the culture of Kievan Rus reached a high level of development?
6. Perform tasks on a historical map:
1) How has the territory of Kievan Rusend of X - in the first half of XI century. compared with the previous period ofdevelopment?
2) Name the territory attached to the Kievan RusUnder the reign of Vladimir and Yaroslav.
3) Show map and basic hiking VladimirYaroslav.
7. Name the years of the princes of Vladimir andYaroslav. Compare their internal and foreign policy. Determine its value andconsequences.
8. Make characteristics of Vladimir and Yaroslavas individuals and historical figures.
9. Give facts confirming the view thatUnder the reign of Vladimir and Yaroslav Kievan Rus reached its heyday.
Tests with the theme "Kievan Rus at the end of X - infirst half of XI century. "
1. Vladimir became the ruler of Russia yedynovladnym:
a) 977, the b) 980by c) 981, the
2. The system of fortifications "dragon walls" wasbuilt for protection against attacks:
a) the Khazars, b)Pechenegs in) the Byzantines.
3. Prince Vladimir began to implementChristianity as the state religion of Kievan Rus:
a) was 978 b) 981by in) 988
4. Initial written summary of old standardsLaw was called:
a) "Charterearth ", b) The Tale of Bygone Years" in) "Russkaya Pravda".
5. At the site near Kyiv, where Prince Yaroslav the WisePechenegs broke was built:
a) Titheschurch, b) the Hagia Sophia in) Kiev-Pechersk Monastery.
6. Check the correspondence between the daughters of PrinceYaroslav and European rulers for whom they were married.
a) Hungarian King Andre
b) Norwegian King Harald III
c) French King Henry I
7. The members included representatives of the prince's councilsuch social groups:
a) smerds b)boyars in) the older warriors, d) ryadovychi e) shopping; f) City notables g) aboveclergy.
8. People's Assembly of the adult freepeople who made decisions on important social and public affairsreferred to:
c) vichem b)princely council, and c) older wife.
9. The largest population of Kievan Ruswere:
a) boyars, b)artisans in) smerds.
10. Medieval itinerant actors andmusicians in Russia were:
a) serf b)purchases in) the musicians.
11. Painting, water colors onfresh damp plaster - is:
a) mosaic, b)fresco in) icon.
12. The first stone church of Kievan Rusconsidered:
a) Tithechurch, b) Sophia Cathedral in) Kiev-Pechersk Monastery.