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§ 12-13. Causes of disintegration of Kievan Rus. Development of Kyiv, Chernihiv and Pereyaslavsky-Seversky, Galician and Volyn principalities (textbook)

§ 12-13. Causes of disintegration of Kievan Rus. DevelopmentKyiv, Chernihiv and Pereyaslavsky-Seversky, Galician and Volynprincipalities

Upon learning these paragraphs, you'll learn:

·        what were the reasonsdisintegration of Russia;

·        What was the political andeconomic and social development of Kiev, and PereyaslavskyChernihiv-Seversky principalities;

·        why princes waged fierceSuppression of Kyiv;

·        What does the "politicalfragmentation "," separate principalities "," internecine strife.



1.   How Vladimir Monomakh and MstislavGreat managed to strengthen the great power?

2.   What is the feature marchesPolovtsian against wives in 1111?

3.   Why Volodymyr Monomakh taught in their"Instructions for Children"?

4.   Why Volodymyr Monomakh son Mstislav receivedGreat nickname?


1.   Causesdisintegration of Kievan Rus. EndXI - the middle of the XIII century. entered history as the Kievan Rus period of politicaldisintegration. Private land sought for independent development. Already in the XII century.in Russia there are separate independent principality and the earth: Galician,Volyn, Kyiv, Muroms'ke, Pereyaslavskoe, Polotsk-Minsk,Rostov-Suzdal, Smolensk, Tmutarakanskoe, Turov-Pinsk,Chernihiv-Sivers'k Duchy of Novgorod and Pskov and land. Characteristicfeature was the disintegration of its progressive character. So, if in the XII century.formed 12 principalities (land), then their number at the beginning of the XIII century.was 50 and in Article XIV .- 250 principalities.

Fragmentation had received in the name of science"Feudal" as it were the determining factors and strengtheningfurther development of land tenure, land allocation and the emergence of some significantpolitical centers, their desire for independence fromChief State Center - Kyiv.

However, the political fragmentationKiev State led several factors.


A. Vasnetsov. Yard sovereign prince.


First, the vast statebranched absence of effective staff management.

Top of Article XII. Russia rankedan area of almost 800 thousand km2That, depending on circumstances, could be eitherevidence of state power or a source of weakness. Grand Duke in thistime had not sufficiently strong, diverse and composite apparatus of power,had no developed road network, fast means of transport ordue to the effective implementation of its powers in suchvast territory. Therefore, in implementing its policy of Grand Dukehad to rely on autonomous rule, which is usually such obtyazhuvalaarrogance. In addition, they were not against Great-takethrone.

Second, ethnic heterogeneitypopulation.

Not promoted the strength of the state and thatin Kievan Rus next to the Slavs, who formed the majority population,lived more than 20 other nations: the north and northeast - chud, all,merya, walls, Mordvinians the south - Pechenegs Kuman, Turks karakalpaky onnorthwest - and casting Yatviahy. Most of these nations have come under the powerpower of Kiev princes or were hostile to them.

Thirdly, the growth of largeland ownership.

As the economy andfeudal relations and reinforced raids. Based onnatural economy, it strengthened the power of local princes and boyars, who, inturn, sought economic independence and political separation.


Princely intestine wars. Picture of the record.


Raids formeddifferent ways: seizure of land in rural communities, development of new lands andtheir purchase. At the end of the XI - XII in art. becoming more common practice of handlands and the boyars druzhinnik in possession of an inheritance (patrimony) as a reward forService to Prince. Experts estimate the patrimonial possessions of all ranks inKievan Rus was more than three thousand. First, it has strengthenedcentral government, as nearly every one of the new landowners in stverdzhuyuchysown estate, usually relied on the authority of the Grand Duke. But itmastered subject land, creating a management apparatus, a wife, a localtip increasingly feels its drive toward economic independence andpolitical separation of land.

Fourth, there is no clearpermanent mechanism of succession of princely power.

Initially, the Rus prevailed"Horizontal" principle of continuity of princely power (from senior toJr., after the death of the older generation - from elder sonbrother's son to the next age). A marked increase in the number of offspringVladimir and Yaroslav the Wise Sviatoslavovych caused by the fact that alreadyend of XI. some of them based on their interests, began vigorouslyadvocate the "patrimonial", or "vertical" principle (from father to son).The parallel existence, shifting and blending of these two principles, uncertaintyand unresolved issue of succession very much challengedKyiv State, constituted the essence of internecine wars. In the center of internecineopposition usually stayed Kyiv, which was then not onlysymbol as a means of power.

Disintegration of Russia.


Fifthly, the situation has changed intrade. In late XI. Polovtsian castles actually cuttrade routes to the Black and Caspian Seas. In addition, a severe blowon transit trade of Kievan Rus was marked by two events of the worldvalue: first, slabiyuchy, Byzantium in 1082 for helping in the war on SicilyVenice has authorized trading in bond and have their ports inByzantine Empire, and secondly, the Crusades opened for Italian,French and German cities on the East sea route, directly connectedWestern Europe to Asia Minor, Byzantium. In addition, in 1204 Constantinoplewho was a key issue for the trade route "from Varangians to the Greeks, wasvictim fourth crusade. As a result, remained outside Kyivmain trade routes. This state of affairs has caused a certain decline of Kyivas a center of trade. Emerging new centers of trade and new trade routes.More seriously about starting to claim Chernigov, Galich,Vladimir-on-Klyaz'ma, Novgorod, Smolensk, Polotsk. It should be emphasized thatgrowing trade in the city at that time became a source of financial incomesupport political influence of local princes.

Sixth, the constant attacks of the nomadsand interference of neighboring countries in the internal affairs of Russia.

Only Kuman, according tochroniclers, in 1055-1236 he made 12 major land campaigns against the Russians, though,as researchers believe, in fact they were so much more. In addition, over Kuman30 times participated in mizhknyazivskyh intestine wars.

In addition, many times in internecineCombat participated rulers of neighboring countries: Poland, Hungary, Lithuania, etc.that were not against the land grab and a part of Russia.

Periodpolitical disintegration in the history of the Kievan state is a logical step thatnot reflect the peculiarities of the Ruthenian society, and pan-trends.

Inperiod of political disunity in Ukraine Kiev existed,Chernigov, Novgorod-Sivers'k (vydilylosya of Chernigov), Pereyaslavskoe,Volyn principality and Galician (last two in 1199 were combined intoonly).

Featureinternecine struggle of the princes was that it was to nominateterritorial claims, border principalities-land were usually inviolable.Changing boundaries occurred only when the drawing of lot of transition from one prince tomore.


2.   Kiev principality. Сered lands of South Russia-Ukrainethe most important place occupied Kyiv principality, situated where the capitalRuss. Actually Kiev principality covering territory that included formerland Polyan Drevlyany Dregovychi and catch. Kyiv region belonged to the mosteconomically developed lands of Russia, are mentioned in chronicles 79cities. Main cities - Kyiv, whose population then was about 50 thousandresidents. Cities tend to be centers of handicrafts and trade. In Kievprincipality was Greek, salt and Zaloznyy trade routes. BasisDuchy amounted orne farm agriculture.

Kyivremained the religious center of Russia, which sought to get the pilgrims from allparts of the state.

Kievland that was an old political and territorial center of Kievan Rus, notbecome, in contrast to other lands, some of the hereditary patrimonyprincely lines. During XII - early XIII century. to it were treated asproperty to the Grand Kyiv throne, even as a commonheritage of ancient princely family. Kiev principality was divided intonumber of autonomous principalities: Vyshgorodskaya, Belgorod, Antonovich, Bryahinske,Torcheske, Poroske (Mikhailovskoye), Tripoli, Kanivs'ke.

StruggleKyiv has always gained at the national scale. Only one century(1146-1246 biennium) 46 times Kyiv throne passed from one prince to another.

In40's of the XII century. launched fierce struggle for the throne between families KyivMonomahovychiv and Olhovychs, and between different branches Monomahovychiv. In thisCombat princes took them allies Polovtsian, Poles, Lithuanians and Hungarians.Intestine wars was fought mainly between Iziaslav Mstyslavych and Yuri Dolgoruky.


Interesting Facts

Izyaslav,which for some time been able to strengthen his power in Kiev in 1147 attemptedachieve independence of the Ruthenian Church from the Patriarch of Constantinople. ByChernihiv Onufriya with Bishop, who after the departure to the MetropolitanConstantinople served as head of the Church, was convened by the Council of Bishops. OnCathedral came seven out of ten bishops. Votes of five was elected MetropolitanKiev Smolyatych climate, which, according to the chronicler, was "the scribes andas a philosopher, which is in the Ruthenian land was ...». But after his death in 1154Izyaslav by Yuri Dolgoruky, who became Prince of Kyiv, not recognized metropolitanoffice climate. The new Metropolitan was sent by ConstantinopleGreek Patriarch Constantine, who led the decisive battle against supporters of climateand Onuphrius.


Insuch princely strife actual owners Kyiv became boyars. They drovetruyily unwanted or princes, invited to the throne of the prince, which theyduh.

Yesin particular, happened to Vladimir-Suzdal prince Yuri Dolgoruky which threecaptured Kyiv, but in 1157 he was poisoned during a meal, and his armsbeaten and robbed.

SimultaneouslyKyiv suffered from the princely strife. As the story went terrible pogromcaused to the city in 1169 by Prince Andrew Bogolyubskii (son Yuri Dolgoruky)who tried to destroy Kyiv as the capital-rival, while increasing its roleprincipality.


Ruin Kyiv Prince AndrewBogolyubskii.


Documents tell

Chroniclepogrom of Kyiv wife Bogolyubsky Andrew (1169)

"Andthey robbed two days the whole city - skirts, and Hill, and monasteries, and Sophie, andTithes Virgin. And there was no mercy to anyone and anywhere: churches burnedChristians killed, and another tied, women were captured, by force of rozluchuyuchytheir men. Children wept, looking for their mothers. And they took the property withoutaccount, and bared the church of icons and books, and vestments, bells and poznimaly ... allsanctuary were taken. Inflamed Caves Monastery was even ... I was in Kievamong all the people groaning and longing, and grief nevtyshyma and incessant tears.

Inquiries to document

1.    With what purpose such a massacre was committedcity?

2.    Why do churches have taken icons, books,vestments, bells, holy?


ButTown soon resumed. And you still destroy the city in Andrew 1174failed.

EventuallyKiev boyars astute invented a system of simultaneous spivpravlinnya two princes of thevarious princely families. This system in the last quarter of the XII century. provided the cityrelative peace and development. These were co SvyatoslavVsevolodovich (belonging to the genus Olhovychs) (1177-1194 biennium) and Rurik Rostyslavych(Belonging to the genus Rostyslavychiv Smolensk) (1180-1202 biennium). This duumviratichampionship was Svyatoslav. He happily organized marches against Polovtsian 1183,1185, 1187, which forced them to drive away the lower course of the Seversky Donets. In theirDeath recaptured Kiev principality grew internecine struggle.

Afterdeath in battle with the Mongols on the river Kalka in 1223 by Prince MstislavRomanovich Kyiv political role declined. Kyiv princes are not influencedcourse of events. Recently Kiev prince was Michael Vsevolodovich (1235-1239years), who learned of approaching Mongols, had fled the city in Hungary.On the eve of a terrible invasion of the city remained without the Prince.


3.   Chernihiv-Sivers'k principality. Чernihivske principality withKiev and made Pereyaslavs'kyi state and territorial core of Russia, whichformed in the ninth century. Chernihiv Principality Building was completed in XIArt. when Yaroslav the Wise, gave the former Chernigov land Radymychi, v'yatychiv,and parish and Muroms'ka Tmutarakan (modern Taman), planted theregovernor of her son Svyatoslav. Chernihiv principality belonged toeconomically developed. However, the economic development of the principality washeterogeneous. Most were developed around the land of the paper. Most of theprincipality was covered with forests. Economic ties between various areas of almostdid not exist. Among the cities stand out Chernigov - the second since the center of Kyiv Rus.In total there were over 40 Duchy cities. The Principality was divided into 16Shares (the largest - Novgorod principality Sivers'k).


Boris Cathedral (Chernivtsi).


InDuring its heyday in the middle of the XII century. principality with little effect onneighboring states and even laying claim to land the role of unifier of Russia. Olhovychswere among the most powerful princely families. For a while, they owned and Kyiv.Then in Kiev was built in St. Cyril's Church, which became the burial placeChernihiv princes. However, during the XII - early XIII century. principalitynot know the rest. Frequent changes of the princes, siege, earthquakes, fires have become familiarfor the paper. But contrary to this is when the city increased and therich.


Interesting Facts

The most famousPrince Michael of Chernigov was Vsevolodovich (1224-1234 biennium). He triedjoin the fight for the Kyiv throne. But in 1234 Michael was forced toescape from Chernigov, who was captured in the siege forces Daniel Galician. However, the next, he took revenge by becoming a Galician prince, and then the last one beforeMongol invasion - Kiev. In 1246 Michael was executed in the GoldHorde for refusing to worship pagan idols. Later he was canonizedOrthodox Church as one of his daughters Feoduliya (Eustathius Suzdal).Another of his daughter Mary was a biography of his father.


4.   "Tale of Igor. Уhastily antypolovetska fightKyiv, Volyn, Galician, Pereiaslav and Smolensk princes ofheaded by Sviatoslav Vsevolodovich aroused envy of Novgorod-SeverskyPrince Igor Svyatoslavich who always shunned from joint campaigns.After hearing about another victory of Svyatoslav, he appealed to his vassals ofupon to make independent campaign: "Let's go hiking and gain fame!"But the trip turned tragic in 1185. Igor troops killed in battle onKayaly river, and he was taken prisoner. This tragedy, writeschronicler, opened the "gates of Ruthenian land". Polovtsov ravage the land becamePereyaslav, Chernigov, Kiev. Only with great effort managed torepel the enemy.

Exactlythis unsuccessful campaign Igor Svyatoslavich and dedicated work by an unknown author "Tale of Igor. "... The word" writtenvivid poetic language. Unusually expressive and lyric is "weeping Yaroslavna, whichpermeated with folk poetry. Favorite author is the image of the falcon. The work bysharply denounced the princely strife and called for unity.


Fight gamesPolovtsy (1185).


Princes ceased to fight infidels,
They began to tell each other:
"This is my and my CE too. Brother! "
Then they work fine
Assume for the large,
In themselves raise strife -
And wrong on all sides nahodyly,
Earth Rus overcome.

(Translated by Maxim Rylskogo)


M. Vasnetsov.After slaughter


Interesting Facts

Andremains unknown authorship question "Word about Igor's Regiment".Historians have put forward many theories about who wrote this piece. Someeven claim that it is a fake. Only the fact that at the end XVIII Art. manuscript found in the list O. Musin-Pushkin,namely "Word ..." was published in 1800


5.   Pereyaslavskoe principality. Пereyaslavske principality as one of threecenters of Russia was created prior to its distribution among the sons of YaroslavWise. Unlike other principalities, in XII - early XIII century.Pereyaslavskoe principality did not have political independence and was quitedependent on Kyiv, and later - from Suzdal and Chernihiv. It usuallysat princes who were to occupy Kyiv throne, or those who received a principalityas consideration for a waiver of Kyiv. The territory of the principality wasrelatively small: the west boundary Pereyaslav held on the Dnieper River: thenorth - on top of Udayu, Sula, and Khorol Psla in the east and southPereiaslav land bordered on the steppes. It housed the control pointsDefence against the nomads: Fortress Warrior Lubny, Poltava. In addition to a capitalPereiaslav other large cities had no land.

Despitedangerous proximity to wilderness, the principality was developed economy: thefertile lands were going to good harvests, vypasalysya numerous herds of cattle. Butsubsequently led to frequent attacks of nomads decline of the economy. The Principality wasreceive food aid from the Kiev princes.


The figure in the history of

The most significantPereiaslav princes of Vladimir was Hlibovychi - grandson of Yuri Dolgoruky, whichruled in 1169-1187 he was his main concern was to fight polovtsikhans Kobyak and Konchak. After an unsuccessful campaign in 1185 Novgorod-SeverskyPrince Igor Polovtsian against Pereyaslavskoe principality appeared in a heavy edgesituation. In 1186 Kuman surrounded the city. In this difficult situationVladimir was able to defeat the Polovtsian under the city walls and next year together withother princes Polovtsian chase away from Russia. However, during a campaign in 1187He caught a cold and soon died. It is in stories about the death of Princechronicler has taken on the lands of South Russia called "Ukraine:" I wept forpereyaslavtsi it all ... According to him Ukraine also many postohnala. This - the oldestmention the name "Ukraine" in written sources. The second memory of Ukraine the samechronicler gives in 1213, telling the prince Danilo [Galician]"Accepted Verest and Uhrovesk and Vereschyn and Stolp'ye, coma, and all Ukraine.


6.   Galicianprincipality. Jaroslav Osmomysl. Galiciawas located in the eastern foothills of the Carpathian Mountains, the headwaters of the rivers Dniester andPrut. In the tenth century. the reign of Vladimir the Great land of Galicia, populated by whiteCroats, and partly Tyvertsi catch, joined the Kievan Rus.They had a good location, being inaccessible to attacks with nomadssteppe. These lands were hustozaseleni developed and managed, and their citystood on the important trade routes from the West. In addition, in Galiciacontained substantial deposits of salt - an important commodity, which ensured allKievan Rus and neighboring states.

Prior to entering into the RusGalicia there were the beginnings of public life, has formed its own rulingtip, which became the basis for the future of rich and powerful boyars.

Formation Galician Principalitybegan in the second half of XI century. After the death of Yaroslav the Wise in Galiciaformed their own dynasty, whose ancestor was the grandson of Yaroslav -Tmutarakansky Prince Rostislav Vladimirovich. His sons Rurik, the Owner andPowered in 1084, acting jointly and with the support of the local boyarsspontaneously declared themselves the princes of these lands. They were founded by threeautonomous principality. In the Duchy of Przemysl (land on the top and SianDniester) won big brother Rurik in Terebovlya (land skirts, Bukovinaand east of the Ukrainian Carpathians) - Powered, and in Zvenigorod, which wasnorth of Terebovlya, lord of the rules. Attempts large KyivPrince drive them out failed, and then on Lyubetskii Congress recognizedtheir right to these lands as patrimony. However, even in the next fifty years theyhad to confirm their right to fight with the Hungarians, Poles andKievan princes.

After the death of the brothers in 1124 (Rurikdied before - in 1094) between their descendants internecine war broke out,victory which took Vladimir Volodarovych Nick Volodymyrko(1124-1152 biennium). He joined in 1141 Galician lands in one of the principalitycenter in Galicia. Being an astute politician, which by all means ready to gogoal, Volodymyrko found common ground with local boyarsenlisted the support of Yuri Dolgoruky and 1149-1152 in the war he was able to defendits independence from Kyiv. But in the last battle he was killed.

Largest power Galicianprincipality reached during the reign Volodymyrka son Yaroslav (1152-1187years). He at once, like his father, had to defend their right to reignin the fight against Kiev prince (later Volyn) Iziaslav Mstyslavych. InBattle near Terebovlia young Jaroslav won. The second time he hadfight for the right to reign with his cousin John Berladnykom -without possession of the prince, who for years vainly trying to get aportion. Berladnyka support of Kyiv prince and the boyars, however, notattaining her, he was forced to flee to Byzantium, where he died.

With the great talent of the stateleader, Jaroslaw, and skillfully using diplomacy and force, harassed her. Byduring his reign to the Galician principality was annexed land until the lower courseDanube, which opened new trade routes of the Dniester and the Danube and promotedDuchy of city development. Jaroslav established friendly relations with Poland andHungary and to prevent their possible attacks went with the DivineRoman Empire. Galician soldiers even participated in one of crosshikes. Yaroslav waged against polovtsy, built a fortified city on the borderGalician land. In mid-80's of the XII century. Jaroslaw, who was nicknamedOsmomysl (ie bahatodumnym), became the most influential ruler in Russia.

Jaroslav Osmomysl


Documents tell

About Jaroslav Osmomysl (From The Word about Igor's Regiment ")

GalicianOsmomysl Yaroslav!
Pays you sit
In his zolotokovanim throne
Propping Hungarian mountains
His iron armies,
Zastupyvshy king road
When you close the gate on the Danube
Through clouds of stone throwing,
Court on the Danube ryadyachy.
Thunderstorms on your land flow.
You opened the gate of Kyiv,
Shoot from the Father's table gold
At the sultans in distant lands.

(TranslationMax Rylskogo)


Most difficult problems for Princewas a constant struggle with the boyars, which refused to accept the loss of hispredominant influence. In this struggle Jaroslav has not achieved the desired success.


Interesting Facts

In 1171 boyars burned at the stakemistress of the Prince boyar Nastusku Polovtsian Chahriv kind, announcing itswitch, and returned to Galic lawful wife Olga Prince, which part of the boyarshiding in Poland. Although Prince resigned to the situation, peace in the family and notcome. Olga went back to Poland. Dying, Jaroslav bequeathed to hisillegitimate son Oleg, more able to state the case, inherited power inGalicia, a son sent to Olzhynoho portion of Przemysl.


7.   Volynprincipality. In the northeast of Galicia was located from Volynlush and wooded valleys. These lands were densely populated and economicallydeveloped. Prior to entering them into the powerful there is Russ DulibUnion raids.

In the Volyn Rus land hadtraditionally strong ties with Kyiv. Since the times of Kievan princes believed Yaroslavychiof his patrimony and were unwilling to give up possession of an inheritance of anyprincely line. As a result, the middle of the XII century. Volin had its ownDynasty princes: it is either directly administered from Kyiv, Volyn orthrone occupied Kiev proteges. Special indexes in Volhynialaunched a grandson of Vladimir I of Kiev Monomakh Izyaslav that knyazyuvav inVladimir during 1136-1142, 1146-1154 Izyaslav years, who all his lifefought for the Kyiv throne, did not expect that he will shut upKiev, and in 1170 with his family moved to Vladimir-Volyn,transformed the principality in his patrimony.

By combining and strengtheningVolyn fought his son Mstislav II of Kiev (1154-1170 biennium), andas his successor Roman I of Kiev (1170-1205 biennium), which had to playcrucial role in the destiny of Volyn and Galician Principality and allSouth-West of Russia.

Roman I of Kiev accepts papal envoys


Conclusions. Thus, in the second half of XII - early XIII century.was the final collapse of Russia into separate principalities, which, in turn,divided into portions. In pivdennoruskyh lands facing Kiev,Chernihiv-Sivers'k, Pereyaslavskoe, Galician and Volyn principality. All of themwere some differences in its development and further different historical destiny.For some time preserved the authority of Kyiv as the political center of Russia. But the permanentfight for it among the counts led to its decline and, consequently, forcedstrengthening regional centers. Each established a dynasty of its own prince,but all descended from Rurik, that are related. It was one of the featuresdisintegration of Russia in comparison with other European countriesgave rise to an illusory idea of the future unity of the former Kievan Rus.Proves breaking new logical stage of development lands of Russia.


Remember the date

1141 -Galician Association of lands into a single principality Vladimir Volodarevychem.

1152-1187 biennium -strengthen the Galician principality under Yaroslav Osmomysla.

1169 -Andrew Bogolyubskii ruin Kyiv.

1170 - BeginningMstyslavych Roman reign in Volhynia.

1185 - unsuccessfulSvyatoslavich campaign against Igor Polovtsian, sung in "The Tale of Igor.

1187 - firstmentioned in chronicles in the name "Ukraine".


Questions and Tasks

Check yourself

1.    What causes disintegrationRus?

2.    What is the cause of severeinternecine struggle between the princes?

3.    Name the most powerful namesprinces of the second half of XII - early XIII century.

4.    What events happened in 1169?

5.    What events laid the groundwork for the word about Igor's Regiment ". What is the main idea of the work?

6.    What is the princely family became established inChernihiv principality?

7.    During that year in historysources first mention the name "Ukraine"?

8.    As formed Galicianprincipality?

Think and answer

1.    Does the emergence of independent principalities ledto extinction of the Rus? Justify your answer.

2.    Why in the second half on - onbeginning of the XIII century. conducted a fierce struggle between the princes of Kyiv?

3.    With the purposeVladimir-Suzdal prince Andrei Bogolyubskii robbed and burned Kyiv?

4.    Why Boyars Galician landformed in the solid state?

5.    What role was played in Boyarsestablishment of an independent principality Galician?

6.    Describe policyGalician princes Volodymyrka and Jaroslav Osmomysl.

7.    Explain why Volynprincipality was formed later than the other principalities in Ukrainian lands.

Perform the task

1.    Find positive and negativeparty disintegration of Russia.

2.    Specify the key moments in historyKyiv, Chernihiv and Pereyaslavsky-Seversky, Galician and Volynprincipalities.

3.    Identify the basic features ofKiev, Chernihiv-Seversky Pereyaslavsky and principalities. ReplyJust as a table.

Items for comparison

Kyiv Principality

Chernihiv principality-Sivers'k

Pereyaslavskoe principality

The area, location




Economic development




Features of political life





For the curious

Is it logical fragmentation was Russia? What are its features in comparisonwith Western Europe?