§ 26. Culture of the Ukrainian lands in the second halfFourteenth and fifteenth centuries.
Upon learning this paragraph, you'll learn:
· both have developedUkrainian lands and what were its features в second half of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.;
· are outstanding monuments of architecture and fineart of that era have survived to date;
· why among architecturalbuildings of that era dominated by castles and fortresses.
The task to repeat
1. WhatMain features of the culture of Galicia-Volyn principality? Does it follow theculture of Kievan Rus?
2. InWhat features of the religious situation in the Ukrainian lands у second half of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.?
3. Nameoutstanding architectural monuments of the Kievan Rus' and Galicia-Volynprincipality.
1. Featurescultural development of Ukrainian lands in second half of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. DevelopmentCulture of the Ukrainian lands in second half of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. held incontradictory terms. The direct impact it had on the political, social andeconomic relations.
Thus, the Ukrainian lands came underauthorities of foreign states: Poland, Hungary, Lithuania, the Ottoman Empire andMoscow State. Terms of culture in these countries were different. Despitenegativity of the process, he had also a positive aspect: Ukrainian Cultureland was open to external influences. Yes, got here through PolandWestern forms - ideas of humanism, Renaissance and more. However, Ukrainianculture completely borrowed some ideas, and combine different elementscultural influences on the basis of the Old Rus legacy, bringing stoodtrue masterpieces of world-class, which had clearly defined nationalcoloring. Also Ukrainian, not having our own high school, an opportunitystudy in European universities, joining to the Europeancultural and educational development.
In the second half of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.began active expansion of the Catholic Church, especially in Galicia andTail, which turned the Ukrainian lands into the arena of confrontation between Catholics andOrthodox. The Orthodox Church, which lost state support, couldrely only on its own people, his creative forces.
In addition, because Ukraine was heldboundary between Christian and Muslim civilizations, which also influencedcultural processes.
Icon of Our Lady of Czestochowa.
Sometimes the new rulers resorted toOpen theft of cultural property. Specifically, in 1382, PrinceVladislav Opolsky removal from the city of Belz icon of the Mother of God and gave hermonastery in Czestochowa at Jasna Gori. Over time, the icon was the main sanctuaryPoland.
Devastating for Ukrainiancultural heritage were raiding Tatars and Turks, who destroyed the architecturalmonuments, books, and most importantly, the people who created them. At the same time and riskhard fight to inspire new artists to work. Improved defensivebuilding, developing military art, created literary,composed ballads and songs.
In Ukraine, many pereselyalosyaforeigners - Poles, Germans, Jews, Armenians, some of whom have made significantcontribution to the culture of their new country.
ThisThus, even under adverse conditions the general process of formation and there wasdevelopment of Ukrainian culture, which increasingly took on features of identity.
2. Education.Yuri from Drohobych. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. in Ukrainian lands continueddevelop education, which is based on the Old tradition, activelydrew on the Western experience. During this period, teachers continued toremain clergy who taught children in churches, monasteries and episcopalwards. Wealthy people hired Dyakiv for home study. Sacred Books(Especially the "Psalm" - a book of religious songs and prayers) were used astextbooks. Children are taught reading, writing and church music. Further educationwinning applicants themselves. First studied Greek and Latin. OfFourteenth century. In the absence of their own universities, Ukrainian activelybegin to acquire education in European universities: Krakow (withinXV-XVI centuries. he finished 800 people from the Ukrainian lands), Paris,Padua, Bologna, Heidelberg, Prague and others.
During this period, an intensifiedthe work of Ukrainian scientists in European culture.The most significant among them was regarded scientist astronomer (astrologer), the first of the famousDoctors of medicine and philosophy, Rector of the University of Bologna Yuri Koterman(Drohobych) (c. 1450-1494). He was the author of the first printed book"Prognostic assessment of the current 1483" in volume 10 pages, which is aastrological forecast for 1483, wrote seven treatises, some poetic speechesand sent to the Pope. All are written in Latin, but remained unchangedcaption: "George of Drohobych Rusyn.
The future scientist was born about1450 in Drohobych in bourgeois family. At first he was in educationDrohobych and Lviv. To continue learning Yuri went to KrakowUniversity. In 1470 he received a bachelor's degree and two years later - the master.Then continued his studies at the University of Bologna (the first university inEurope). Here he obtained scientific degree of Doctor of Liberal Arts and Doctormedicine. In 1481-1482 he was elected Rector of his University of physicians andartists. 1487 Yuriy managed moved to Krakow, where I began teachingastronomy (astrology) and medicine. Then studied these subjects comingfamous astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus. Along with teaching and research workGeorge was engaged in medical practice and even received the title "Royaldoctor. Prominent scientist died in Krakow February 4, 1494 after the death of his Georgehouse has become a dormitory for teachers of medicine.
3. Literature.Chronicle. Beginning Ukrainian typography. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. continues to develop secular and ecclesiasticalliterature. Books continue to be handwritten. The main center knyhopysannyaremained Kyiv.
Among works of secular literatureattracts book "Izmarahd (XIV-XV cent.), which contains about one hundred"Words" (teachings) on different subjects: literary wisdom, respect for teacherswealth and poverty, charity and the sins of others. Quite widespreadbecame translated stories about Trojan War Alexander Macedonian.
Church literature presentedprocessing earlier Gospels, the Lives of the Saints, preaching works.The most famous book of this period is Kyiv Psalter (rewritten in 1397Protodeacon Spyridon on the order of Bishop Michael Smolensky), whichillustrated nearly 300 miniatures. The distinguishing feature of this book, is thatPeople who live it plays a much greater role than before. Particularly noticeablethe items in the Royal gospel in 1401, rewritten Stanislaw"Grammar Mnohohrishny" Queen in the village in Transcarpathia. The book is designed togreat for its time, artistic taste, has made many brilliantwallpapers and paints ornaments. The influence of popular language and clearly visible in the wording1489 collection of Lives of the Saints "Chetyi-Mine, established in Westlands.
At the same time and continuechronicle tradition. To the old center adds: Holm, Luck,Kamenets Podolsky, Ostrog, Lions et al. Very important chronicles of thetime were: a brief chronicle of Kyiv, telling the events of 1491-1515 biennium, and"Lithuanian" or "zahidnoruski" records that are known in many editions.
Concluding remarks to the media Shvaypolta Fiolya "Oktoyiha" and "Prayer Book" (1491)
From the mid-fifteenth century. after the inventionGutenberg in Europe spread rapidly typography. In Ukrainianland were exposed to printed books in Latin of printing presses Leipzig,Nuremberg and other cities.
Late fifteenth century. began publishingChurch Slavonic books. Became a pioneer German Shvaypolt Fiol,which in 1491 published in Krakow in Cyrillic four books for churchservice in the Orthodox Church: "Oktoyih", "Prayer Book", "matins Postna", "matinsPalm. For this Fiol suffered from persecution by the Catholic Church and evenfell behind bars. After his release went to Poland.
Francis Skaryna. Engraving
In 1517-1519 he was a Belarusian scientistFrancis Skaryna printed in Cyrillic in Prague "Psalm" and the Bible. They hadconsiderable expansion in the Ukrainian lands, even handwritten copies.
4. Oral folkcreativity. Folklore has continued to evolve based on ancient traditions,that reaches back dokyyivskoyi and Kievan Rus, Galicia-Volyn principality.The most widespread ritual poetry, which was closely related topeople's life and carried a magical religious motives. Notwithstandingpersecution from the church, kept the old pre-Christian rites,such as the celebration of Midsummer. Particularly optimistic are ordinancesNew Year cycle: caroling and schedruvannya. Besides, the most wereSpring, mermaid songs and ceremonies. However, in old subjects beginshow new characters and events of that time reflected.
In fairy talesfavorite characters were the heroes who fought with snakes.
In the fifteenth century.emerging epic poetry - historical songs, ballads and ballads. Historical songsglorified heroes struggle with the Tatars and Turks.
Neworiginal genre of oral folklore became Duma. They emerged inCossack. In the oldest works of this genre include "Lamentslaves, "MARIA Bohuslavka", "Escape of three brothers from the city of Azov, and others.The main idea of Doom - patriotism, the need to protect it from enemies.Thinking accompanied by music performed by Kobza or Bandura. They havea kind of poetic language. In the texts are often used metaphor, comparison,often - techniques hyperbole, images-symbols. Musical style tooSource: recitative melody always subordinate to the text. ArtistsDoom often resorted to improvisation, that remained unchanged and only themeKey elements of the plot and everything else vyhaduvalosya during the work. Thinkingis an important historical source of history and culture of Ukraine, because they oftendocumentary precision and the details reflect the events of our past.
5. Architecture andUrban Development. Buildings in most citiesin Ukrainian lands under the influence of prevailing traditions of Kievan Rus. OnePolish travelers who visited Kiev in the early sixteenth century. said, "thatcity is not built up like this in our homeland Poland. At the same time guestsaid that Kyiv was well built, although wooden buildings. ExceptHe wrote: "... going between the wooden houses and fences like incrowded village ... Each yard has a large garden, vegetable garden and many buildings forlivestock and people. "
With the proliferation of Magdeburg lawplanning Ukrainian cities there are new features that were typical for citiesWestern Europe. In the central part of the city in accordance with MagdeburgCopyright located rectangular market (market) area. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. middlezabudovuvaly tight market. Here was a town hall, retail shops, city weight, sometimescraft workshops and dwellings. In cities that were founded latermarket area left undeveloped. Its narrow oblyamuvaly masonry facadesbuildings had to have in a row only three windows. The cities formedrectangular grid of streets, the major of which went to the market square. Along with the areamajor temples were located.
During the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. in Ukrainianlands actively continues the construction of defensive structures. Thus, constructionWooden castles in Kiev, Zhitomir, Vinnitsa, Odessa, etc.. Kyiv castlebuilt by the reign of Vladimir Olgerdovich, troops withstood the siege of the Mongol-TatarEdyheya Khan in 1416 at the same time increasing the number of masonry defensecastles and fortresses. This is one of the leading features of the culture of that period.Firearms and new methods of warfare have resulted inbuild fortifications made of stone or brick. At this time, such fortificationsbuilt in Lutsk, Lviv, Hotine, Kremenets, Kamenetz-Podolsk, Olesky,Belgorod-Dniester and other cities. Since the early fifteenth century. because ofTatar attacks regular defense construction is leading. DensestNetwork locks comes in Podolia and Volhynia.
One of the most remarkable monumentscastle-building in Ukraine is the Upper Castle in Lutsk. Its constructionbegan in the thirteenth century. It was built on a hill in the valley of StirLarge brick that was typical of Volyn architectural school. Bywalls of the castle housed the prince's and Bishop's Palace, the Cathedral, housesgentry. The castle had three rectangular towers Murovanye - Gate, Styrova(Svydryhaylova) Vladycha.
In the construction of temples and monasteriesalso the tendency to build them both a cult and defensestructures obmurovuyuchy strong walls. The most advanced is the churchProtection of the village Sutkivtsi: central premise of the church is surrounded by four towers,having two rows of loopholes. Monasteries also obmurovuyutsya stone walls,turning into a fortress.
Under the influence of WesternBuildings built Catholic churches: department academic in LvivKamenetz-Podolsk, St. Nicholas Rohatyn and others.
Also, many churches were builtArmenian community, Jewish synagogues and karayimivskyh kenafiv.
6. Painting andportrait miniature. Fine artsthis day continues to grow on the traditions of Kievan Rus andGalicia-Volyn principality. But it appears a new phenomenon: painters weredeviate from traditional canons of Byzantine iconography, trying toconvey a sense of real people. The general trend - to convey a deeper peacecondition, to poses and expressive face and personality. Wizardsbegan to learn technique chiaroscuro modeling, testified to the effectWestern humanism. Painting was well represented by frescoes andicon.
Fresco paintings werewidespread by mid-sixteenth century. The most famous are the fresco paintingsGoryana chapel at Uzhgorod (fresco "Annunciation", "Last Supper", "Escapeto Egypt "," St. Catherine "), the Armenian Church in Lviv, Bokatskoho Monasteryon the tail. Known as paintings by Ukrainian artists in temples and palacesPoland. Yes, the paintings of the Holy Trinity Chapel in Lublin (1418), which madegroup of artists led by Andrew, are large in scope and are an interesting scheme -painted in three tiers. Equally damaging is painting the chapel of St. CrossWawel castle in Krakow (1470). In general, compared with the previous erawe know of many contemporary masters of painting: Gaile and Timothy fractions withPrzemysl, John, Andrew Rusin, Maxim Woroby from the city, with Herman and Samboraothers.
Gaile was a priest inPrzemysl. By royal order, in the 20's of the fifteenth century. he painted manychurches in Sandomir, Cracow and Seredzkiy lands. In 1426 KingYahajlo "for numerous Merit and gave Gaile his heirs at parishPrzemysl suburb, established duties in his favor and dismissedGaile from all duties and taxes.
In Scripture iconscontinues to develop three centers: Kyiv, Volyn and Lviv. Icons as Murals,acquire new features under the influence of humanism. Icons also appear inimages of plants, architectural patterns, household items. Iconographers formore realistic images are starting to use lighting and directperspective. From the fifteenth century. subject icon, painted on boards. Bestexamples of icon painting is an icon of the Virgin Odyhitriyi Village Beauty, iconsLamentation of Christ from the village Trushevychi, Protection of the Virgin Mary from the village Richytsia HolyNicholas Radruzhi with others. At the end of the XV - beginning of the sixteenth century. becoming more commonicons for the Last Judgement scenes in which embodied the people's idea of paradise andHell.
In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. ofdevelopment of manuscripts continues the tradition portrait miniatures. Mostvivid portrait miniature of that era represented in the Kiev Psalter,Founded in 1397, which contains 301 illustrations. It is characterized by plotdiversity (from the biblical to the household), and expression indyvidualizovanistyufaces, fresh colors. Images and colors are extremely delicate. ExcellentKiev also contain illustrations of the Gospel (1393), the Gospel of Lutsk (XVIcent.) etc..
Conclusions. In the cultural development of Ukraine fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. occurredambiguous conflicting processes, due to various historical factors.Constraints, cultural process destabilizing factors were: fallByzantine Empire, which deprived the orthodoxy of external support, lack oftheir own state, attack the Catholic church, Tatar attacks. ButByzantine influence led to the disappearance of the beginning of active learning on the basisKyiv Rus spiritual heritage of Western culture. ExaltationUkrainian culture contributed to technical progress of printing, the developmenthumanistic thought in Ukraine under the influence of European Renaissance.
Remember the date
Fourteenth and fifteenth century mass .-Chateau building.
1397 -Kyiv Psalter.
1450-1494 biennium -life and career of George Kotermana (Drohobych).
1483 - publicationRome in the first printed book Ukrainian author Yuri Drohobych (Kotermana)"Current prognostic assessment in 1483.
1491 - BeginningChurch Slavonic typography. Shvaypoltom Fiolem worshipbooks "Oktoyih" and "Prayer Book".
Questions and Tasks
1. In what conditionshave developed in the Ukrainian lands in the second half of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.?
2. Name at leastfive representatives of Ukrainian culture fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.
3. When startedUkrainian book printing? Who was the pioneer?
4. Where got higherUkrainian education in the second half of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.?
5. What were famousYuriy managed?
6. What new genresUkrainian Folk Art was founded during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.?
7. What is the main ideaDoom? How do they occur?
8. Define newfeatures of urban development.
9. What genresArt received further development in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.?
10. The more valuableKyiv Psalm from the perspective of art?
Think and answer
1. As foreigndomination influenced the cultural development of Ukrainian lands in the second halfFourteenth and fifteenth centuries.?
2. Why amongmonuments fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. dominating defensive buildings?
3. Identify featuresCulture of the Ukrainian lands fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. that formed under the influence of cultureWestern countries.
4. Why attractionsMedieval literature is both landmarks of fine art?Name the monument to the Ukrainian manuscript.
Perform the task
1. Describe one of the monuments of culture of the secondhalf of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.
2. Using the additional material,prepare a story on "Castles and Fortresses of Ukraine".
3. Identify the basic features ofCulture of the Ukrainian lands in second half of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.
4. Fill in the table "Features of the culture of the Ukrainian lands in second halfFourteenth and fifteenth centuries.. "
Factors contributed to the development of culture
Factors adversely affect the development of culture
For the curious
What are the culturaltraditions of Kievan Rus and Galicia-Volyn principality reflected in cultureUkrainian lands fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.?
Questions and tasks for generalization on "Ukrainianland in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and other countries (the second half XIV—XV century). "
1. Make a chronological tablemajor historical events of the Ukrainian lands in the Grand DuchyLithuania.
2. Identify key events inUkrainian lands from the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Give a description of each of theseevents.
3. Explain the meaning of concepts andterms: the separate principalities, civil war, Lithuanian-Ruthenian stateUkrainian gentry, Magdeburg Law, workshops, serfdom.
4. Compare Lithuanian policyPrince Olgerd Vytautas and Svydrygailo on Ukrainian territory.
5. Perform taskshistorical maps:
· Show the state of thewhich included the Ukrainian lands.
· Find out the historical and geographicalnames of Ukrainian lands were ruled by the Grand DuchyLithuania.
· Indicate the event, which waspivoting in the elimination of the Mongol-Tatar domination of the Ukrainian lands.
· Identify land for which was conductedstruggle between Muscovy and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
· Show the boundaries of the CrimeanKhanate.
· Identify areas hikesCrimean Tatar Ukrainian lands.
6. Why Orthodox Ruthenian nobilityReligious Fourteenth century. was loyal to the Lithuanian princes, and in the XV - toearly sixteenth century. rebels against them or transferred to another owner to the service?
7. Why fight autonomous princesin Ukrainian lands ended in defeat? Explain the importance of princelygroups to preserve state traditions.
8. Fill in the table "between the UnionLithuania and Poland. Make your own conclusions.
9. Identify the historical importance: a)Battle of Blue Waters, b) the Battle of Grunwald in) Krevsk Union.
10. Compare the situationUkrainian lands in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Polandkingdom, Hungary.
11. Make a detailed descriptionone of the most important architectural monuments and art of thisdays.
12. Find culturalachievement of the Ukrainian people fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.