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§ 3. Ukrainian life at the end of XVIII - the first half of the nineteenth century. (textbook)

§ 3. Life Ukrainian end of XVIII - the first half of the nineteenth century.

Remember: 1. What was daily life Ukrainian in XVI-XVIII centuries.? 2. As household to Ukrainian peasants in the last century? 3. What role the church played in the cultural life of Ukraine?


1. Man and Environment

The development of human society depends among other factors, the characteristics of geography and natural conditions, in which it existed. Ukrainian lands are located in south-eastern Europe.

Almost no two-thirds of Ukrainian lands were vast black soil, which had been the main rich people, and simultaneous - the cause of constant attacks on neighbors them.

Life in this region affected the the distinctive features of social life Ukrainian. Fertile soils allowed Ukrainian peasants successfully conduct individual farm as opposed to their northern neighbors - the Russians, where poor soil and harsh climate forced farmers join forces to work together. These features led formation of different mentality and socio-economic organization of nations.

The majority of Ukrainian people at the end of XVIII century. were peasants who worked long range land, living in the picturesque villages and have been slow to spell them on urban housing. Industrial Revolution gradually influenced the situation, however, and late nineteenth century. farmers were 95% of the population of Ukraine.


Folk painting "Peasant and farmer. Nineteenth century.


2. Changes in Ukrainian life in the imperial power

At the end of XVIII century. land Ukrainian populated, found themselves in the Austrian and Russian imperial political systems, the life which significantly differed from the usual conditions. Both Empire were huge territorial associations, consisting of center and dependent territories inhabited by different peoples.

Empire had a centralized management structure with a person of the emperor at the top of the pyramid of power. Compliance with laws and regulations of the imperial government relied on numerous officialdom. Among the various tasks entrusted to the imperial bureaucracy, was the most important collection of taxes. But they used not to local needs and plans for implementation of the empire and of course the needs of officials themselves. All means of influence empire reared their humility and loyalty, stressing that this is the main moral and religious duty citizens. Therefore, most people gradually prystosovuvalasya to imperial orders and considered them quite clever.

Great value in managing tribes who served areas along with bureaucrats licked army. For local military population became familiar figure, and for social elite military service was an opportunity to make a good career. At the same time keeping Imperial Army became a heavy burden for the population of Ukrainian lands.

Feature of life within the empire it was more regulation. Ukrainian society previous day public authorities - as the Cossack officers and Polish nobility - never admired publishing a large number of documents relating to the ordering of everyday life. Imperial power, in contrast, found it necessary regulate the lives of its multi-nationals on the ground, according to common standards, numerous orders from the capital.

The attitude of both empires to Ukrainian lands zaharblenyh them at the end of XVIII century., few significant differences. The Austrian Empire was a group of different nations from among whom none had absolute majority. Consequently, the Austrian government has never tried assert that the Ukrainian lands are indigenous imperial lands, and only asserted its right to possess them, while recognizing that they inhabit other nations.

Russian empire never recognized that conquered the land, inhabited by other people, on the contrary, the Russian government consistently emphasized that the earth is Naddniprianshchyna ancient and integral part Russia, which was previously selected her, and now returned. Ukrainian people thought was "Little Russians" and part of "Great Russian people." Only in the late Nineteenth century. due to the deployment of Ukrainian nationalism in the imperial top of them increasingly with almost unconcealed irritation began to speak as "inorodtsiv. The presence in the empire of the Russian people, which was majority of the population, causing violent Russification policies in all spheres social life. Consequently, the issue of preserving national culture, history and language is, literally, a matter of survival as the Ukrainian nation.


3. Mentality of the Ukrainian people

To understand life in the Ukrainian imperial power is important to understand how they perceived reality that felt and what cared, or determine their characteristics mentality. For him, were such features:

·   population Ukrainian lands from the time of its appearance was engaged in agriculture. Earth was both livelihoods and the biggest asset for the ever conducted struggle and which belonged to defend against encroachments neighbors;

·   location Ukraine on the brink of the impact caused the two worlds of two major types of reactions Ukrainian to surrounding realities. The threat of enslavement and loss of homeland firmest impelled to devote his life to defend the homeland. It is for them formed the famous Ukrainian Cossacks. Another type of the Ukrainian people were those who tried to adjust to life in constant danger. Central to these was to survive, escape from enemies, hide their feelings and learn to live under the rule of the invaders. It begins from here eternal Ukrainian attempts to adapt to the current authorities on the principle of "nothing hear of it, could be worse. " It formed the "Little Russian mentality" ("Little Russian syndrome") and "rutenstvo. Number of people first, Cossack, type, inclined to fight for their rights, has always been lower since a large of them dying in defense of their homeland;

·   feature national character of the Ukrainian people was his neahresyvnist. For ages they never tried to grab land neighbors, just wanted to have opportunity to live peacefully on their own land.

    Since as the Russian Empire abolished the autonomy Hetmanate for representatives former Cossack because equalizing the rights of Russian nobility was a possibility for a brilliant career. A typical example manifestation of the "Little Russian mentality" in these statements was a descendant of general judge Basil Kochubey - Victor Kochubey, who became one of the Friends of Russian Emperor Alexander I. "Although I was born khokhols - he said - I more Russian than anyone else ... My situation brings me above all petty considerations. I see your concern provinces (Dnieper Ukraine) from the perspective of the common interests of all our society. Little Russian views I have not bypassed. "Little Russian" was disease not only of the Ukrainian people, similar phenomena were observed in all peoples subjugated empires. Still, it should be noted that those who started process of the Ukrainian national revival of the Left, also came out with Little ranks of nobility.


4. Traditional economic activities Ukrainian

Classes of the Ukrainian people have long been agriculture, animal husbandry, beekeeping, fishing and hunting. Weight of each of these classes in the economy has changed over the centuries But most important has always been agriculture. The most common system of cultivation soil in the nineteenth century. Tripolye remained. For cultivation of the soil to 80's Nineteenth century. used a traditional Ukrainian heavy plow that his then called Little Russian, Novorossiysk, steppe. Early 40-ies Nineteenth century. next to it started to apply a light plow which was considered the inventor of Poltava peasant Stetsenko. Planting of performed as the first hand. Planted wheat, rye, barley, oats, buckwheat, millet. Harvest used a sickle and scythe. Industrial Revolution caused the emergence of various agricultural machines, but most farmers due to various circumstances, continued to use old tools.

Horticulture was predominantly female matter. City Ukrainian mistress was unthinkable without sunflower (at first they were used only as ornamental plants) and maize that were brought in Ukraine from America. During the first half of the nineteenth century. appeared in the South tomatoes, which later spread to other regions. Since then, began to grow eggplant and pepper. Famous and Kherson watermelons that are grown in the south with XVI century. They traded not only in Ukraine and Russia, but also exported abroad. In 1764 appeared in the Ukrainian lands potatoes. This South American cultures quickly gained favor among the Ukrainian and become a "second bread". Along with the new culture is not forgotten and usual: beets, cabbage, pumpkin, garlic, onions, cucumbers, carrots and more.

An integral part of the landscape Ukrainian village was famous "cherry orchard near the house. Cultivated as apples, pears, cherries, plums, and in the South - cherries, nuts, Apricots, peaches, and the Black Sea in Transcarpathia - grapes. Ukrainian farmers have long been able to inculcate a tree and brought a lot of varieties with high taste. Only in Podolsk province, according to contemporaries, in Nineteenth century. existed about a hundred varieties of apples, among which were those where each weighed about 600 apple  d. Several varieties of fruit trees were removed from the even Ukraine to the Americas.

From Farming organically was related to animal husbandry. Particular attention was paid to breeding herd, which in the first half of the nineteenth century. were the main traction power. In the South familiar sight landscapes were fine-fleece sheep merino sheep, and herds of horses. No wonder this land compared with the American Wild West, and colorful figures of shepherds - of cowboys.

Beekeeping has always played significant role in the Ukrainian economy. The real revolution in Beekeeping made P. Prokopovich Ukrainian scientist who in 1814 Framework constructed a hive. However, to use his invention began in Germany and at home - only few decades.

Hunting in the nineteenth century. no played a large role in the economy. In all regions of Ukraine except Polissia peasants did not enjoy the right to hunt. But for landlords during the first half of the nineteenth century. it was a favorite pastime. They had hunting honom riding with large flocks of hound dogs.

During the nineteenth century. fish as First, occupied an important place in the diet of the population of Ukrainian lands. After joining the Russian Empire Southern lands and obtaining the exit to the Black Sea began to emerge here private fishing companies and Artel, which caught many fish - sturgeon, perch, bream, ram, etc.. Chumak rolls brought from the south and salted dried fish to other Ukrainian regions. In Ukrainian numerous rivers and lakes were many cancers, different species of fish. For poor villagers fishing became a means of enriching their diet. However, fishing for most people was one of the forms of leisure.


5. Settlement and housing

Since most people Ukrainian lands in the early nineteenth century. were farmers, cities and towns were only small commercial and administrative center for the next surroundings. Falling under the imperial authorities caused changes in form and meaning Ukrainian cities. As the cities became centers Naddniprianshchyna concentration of imperial administration in each provincial and County city is the administrative center of the area around which the built administrative offices. Central Square and the streets of some cities vymoschuvalysya stones and lit kerosene lanterns. However, the vast majority of streets remained almost impassable nezabrukovanoyu and in rainy season.


Most cities and towns were and their small population did not exceed 1-2 thousand people. By the middle Nineteenth century. from 850 cities and towns of all Ukrainian lands only 62 had more than 10 thousand and 5 - 50 thousand inhabitants.

The centers of urban life were Traditionally the church and, of course, market.

First half century has become time when cities began to appear increasingly kilkapoverhovyh brick houses. However, in small towns, as before, dominated the one-storey wooden house. Farbuvalysya exterior walls, decorated with carvings, in ups sometimes inserted colored glass. Inside the homes of wealthy owners and more were had, after the European fashion, state rooms, living room, rooms for guests and servants, kitchen and utility room. Surrounded room furniture, which, according to the wishes and financial capabilities owner, imported from Europe or produced by local artisans. Highlight they were mirrors, clocks, paintings, tapestries and more. Ass urban poor reminiscent of peasant huts.

Villages in majority settlement of Ukrainian lands. People's Housing - Rural house - little each region of the features. Ukrainian hut was a personification of heredity traditions and aesthetic principles of the people. "White, with warm thatched roof covered with moss green velvet - wrote about it in the twentieth century. Aleksandr Dovzhenko - Architectural pramatir human trust. Of open, always open for all, no knock on the door, no "can you?" and without "log!", housing simple as word of good and lawful as if he created it not human hands, but nature itself, as if it grew as fruit, the greenery and flowers.


Residential complex. Kyiv region (the end of XIX - beg. Twentieth century.)


However, the subordination of imperial power and influence in the face of traditional Ukrainian village. Imperial Attraction organize your life on a single template resulted in the emergence of Dnieper ordering instructions on the form villages. Local authorities were charged trace to the center of each village square was created, from which went to the streets to the suburbs. On the Square farmers declared major decision of the imperial administration, were arranged punish others. Desire Little nobility and of the right to follow the Polish nobility the then European fashion led to the spread of a new element in the cultural landscape Naddniprianshchyna - landlord estates. Reminiscent of the time Only one, however, most of them can be attributed to the World Culture Heritage value. Among them - the complex and park in Uman Sofiyivka Count Potocki, Galagan estates in Sokyryntsi and Tarnovsky in Kachanovke in Chernihiv et al.


6. The Orthodox Church Dnieper Ukraine under the imperial government

The end of the XVIII - beginning Nineteenth century. Ukraine's history and the Orthodox Church became the period of their inclusion of the Russian Empire. Plans of Emperor Nicholas I on Right Bank - "the power to enter land is this exaltation of Orthodoxy and the elements of Russians in bezrazlychnoe edynenye with velykorusskymy hubernyyamy "- can considered to imperial policy, for all the Dnieper area.


Everyday clothes priest and monk. Nineteenth century.


The Russian government provided Orthodox Church special role in the implementation of its policies. The church considered as part of the state-bureaucratic system and one of the guarantors of social peace in the empire. According to the law of succession of the throne, adopted 1797, the emperor proclaimed head of the Russian Orthodox Church, and church itself - and the ruling pershenstvuyuchoyu. In 1799 was approved that the limits of dioceses (church districts) must comply with limits provinces. Thus Naddnepryanschine was a 9 dioceses: Kharkov, Chernigov, Poltava, Kherson, Yecaterinoslav, Taurian, Podolsky, and Volyn Kiev.

State appropriations for the maintenance clergy has increased. Clergy turned actually on officials with clearly fixed state salary. These and other measures of the Russian government sought to convert the Orthodox Church in dependent on government structure.

Activities focused on the church to form a single structure of church organization in the empire with the elimination thus any historical, national, regional peculiarities. This course of the imperial center found on full display in church policy on Ukrainian lands. With its sale took place:

·   unification Ukrainian church structures in order to bring them into compliance with Russian;

·   replacement procedure election of the church hierarchy of their appointment. The majority of They were Russians or foreigners who are carefully kept any commands from the center;

·   Russification Ukrainian clergy personnel through introduction of spiritual institutions education programs with the only Russian;

·   creating the conditions in which church career depended on allegiant Empire;

·   implementation measures to eliminate national peculiarities in church life and everyday life Ukrainian. Bringing liturgical practice into line with Moscow models, the introduction of a solemn service in the "imperial days, which indentical with large religious holidays. Proclamation of Ukrainian churches anathema Ivan Mazepa;

·   required Great Russian pronunciation of Slavic texts in church practice, teaching Naddniprianshchyna institutions and others.

Implementation of these plans was may only go to the official church service in the most clergy. Higher Church hierarchy as Ukrainian Cossack officers, tempted privileges, promising spiritual career, rights assimilated nobility. Tactics that "the hunt for governments, especially salaries to win ... views of the old days, the imperial government brought the expected results. However, showing humility secular authorities, the Ukrainian clergy left the state, out of the people. Even under conditions of forced Russification and denationalization it is largely shared by ideology and cultural, moral preferences of the Ukrainian people.

Overall unifikatsiyni measures Russian government of church life Naddnepryanschine made changes external nature. Make denationalization of the Ukrainian church Russian Orthodox parish level failed.

Desecration of the national-religious traditions and religious traditions of the Ukrainian became a "king's service" - coronation of Russian Tsar, his day of birth, name day, birthday prestolonastupnyka and under. The local administration was required in these days literally whip the faithful into the church. But while attending "the king's service" severely punished, leading to his arrest and imprisonment, the introduction of its during the century occurred on the Dnieper is slow. Uman, For example, even in the city's Cathedral and in the county - in most churches "The king's service in the first half of the nineteenth century. while generally not carried out.


7. Religious fighting on the Right Bank

Because division of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth by the Russian Empire were the earth, most of them within two centuries lived in fundamentally different terms. During the Polish rule in these lands along with Catholics and Orthodox existed a large number of those professed Greek Catholic faith. At their associated lands were about 1.5 million people. During the first half of the nineteenth century. occurred on the Right Bank "Struggle for the soul" Greek Catholics (or, as they were then called, Uniate) between Polish Catholics and Russian Orthodox Church. Involvement to the Uniate his faith was for both sides is very important because it was about political Future Right Bank. Poles considered as part of the Right Bank of Poland State, which is struggling to restore, while the Russian government believed that a purely Russian lands, which the Poles have long tried opolyachyty.

Relying on force, the Russian government immediately after accession launched a campaign to restore the leading role On the Right Bank of the Orthodox Church.

For most believers Ukrainian conversion to Orthodoxy was not so much change the church, but actually returning to the original faith - for a substantial part of the Right Bank union existed only a few decades and imposed by force. At the same time they fostered hope that can now be free from oppression Polish Catholic gentry. But these hopes are not completely correspond to the purpose of imperial Policy on the Right Bank. Under the slogans promoted yedynovirnosti Russian the government only wanted to speed up the process of unification novopryyednanyh lands.

Often the transition to Orthodoxy accompanied by the eloquent "campaigning" with admiration Uniate churches military teams, armed with guns. This explained the need order of the king's government, under which all built Orthodox churches were to be returned to them. Four Greek Catholic Diocese (Kiev, Kamjanetsky, Vladimir, Lutsk) was eliminated as of 5 thousand parishes left only 200. Many representatives of the Greek Catholic clergy were sent into exile, and church property and land confiscated.

Another situation has developed in those regions where the Greek Catholic Church for two hundred years had vkorenytysya spiritually and culturally, the population was perceived as the belief of parents. Here, even pressure of Russian administration in transition orthodoxy scale and pace of imagination not impressed. One reason was the fact that the Catholic Polish nobility, which remained at the local level, the most influential force, induced Greek Catholics go into Catholicism.

This forced the imperial power switch with flexible tactics. Emperor Paul I (1796-1801) took a few orders, which provided more or less normal conditions for the Catholics and the Byzantine Rite. It was resumed its work, the Greek-Catholic dioceses in the linked lands, monasteries, returned from exile, the Greek Catholic metropolitan and clergy. This concession immediately took advantage of the Poles.


Emperor Alexander I


Daily board of Alexander (1801-1825) was the time when the Poles on the Right Bank unconcealed intentions to convert the land to the edge of Polish culture, religion and language. There was this primarily because the Emperor was the second youth Polish Prince Adam Czartoryski. Since 1802 for 22 years it all means carried polonization Right Bank, nasadzhuvav Catholicism. Supporters of the Greek Catholic Church in the province remained, indeed, only peasants. Most of the Greek Catholic parishes because of the limitation of local Catholic landowners were afflicted.

Start a decisive battle against Polish Catholics on the Right Bank decided to Emperor Nicholas I (1825-1855). Profound influence on a Polish liberation uprising 1830-1831 biennium According to official figures, on the Right Bank rebels supported 50 Catholic monasteries. This enabled the imperial government to find enough important in the eyes of European public pretext for launching Russification Right Bank. Consequently, the land was closed in 1961 a Catholic monastery, all Polish schools, repressed most of the clergy. Instead, were resolute action against the Greek Catholic Church.


Nicholas I


According to orders Russian government, children from mixed families recorded Orthodox. Populations forbidden to celebrate Catholic holidays and use any liturgical books, except those that were published in Moscow. Zaprovadzhuvavsya also order, so if even one parish was willing to become Orthodox, all it turned to the Orthodox.

Secret from the public, because "umы yet not Prepared ", has been working to join the organization Greek Catholic Church to the Orthodox. Joining was to have the form satisfaction "voluntary desire to" Greek Catholics back into the power Russian church. In 1839 group of Greek Catholic bishops, headed by Joseph Semashko, has signed a letter asking to join the Greek Catholic church to the Orthodox Church. This desire was, of course, unhappy with the emperor.

After that, the enforcement association of churches on the Right Bank. And yet many believers did not want change their faith. In protest, they gathered near the church and not allowed Orthodox priests there. For assistance using the latest military team and the police. However, after the Greek Catholics did passive resistance, refusing to attend captured Orthodox Church.


Excerpts from letter chief procurator of the Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church concerning the events Protasov during the accession of the Greek Catholic Church in 1839

"While under the proposed above plan should make a reunion was unnoticed, known from only the very clergy and secular authorities, without public announcement ... you, letting reading the decree in the church ... applied to all witnesses that a clear reason to officially know that everyone could know about yourself ... and, where necessary.

Judge: 1. What has caused concern chief-prosecutor? 2. Why imperial Administration tried to conceal from the public act of "voluntary accession" Greek Catholic Church to the Orthodox?


Thus, the "struggle for the soul" Ukrainian Greek-Catholic Russian government won. In a sign accession of the Greek Catholics were produced commemorative medal with the inscription: "Ottorhnutыe Violence (1569 g) prysoedynenы love to (1839 g). But this was only the decoration of imperial politics. The fate of believers Russian government is interested in much less than their own interests.

In Rome, the capital of the Catholic world, this same event responded edition of "White Book" (1842), which told about the thorny path of Catholic and Greek Catholic churches in lands seized by the Russian Empire.


Questions and Tasks

1. How the environment influence on Ukrainian life?

2. Identify and expand the changes that have occurred in Ukrainian life under an imperial power.

3. What is mentality? What characteristics prevailing mentality of the Ukrainian people during its history?

4. What new phenomenon appeared in Ukrainian mentality of the power of two empires?

5. What changes have occurred in traditional kinds of economic activities by Ukrainian new age?

6. How to change the appearance of Ukrainian towns and villages throughout the first half of the nineteenth century.?

7. Expand the description of Russian Orthodox Church as "dominant and pershenstvuyuchoyi" based on its activity in the Dnieper.

8. Why celebrate prysyluvannya "The king's service" in the Dnieper can be considered treatment of a religious and Ukrainian national feeling?

9. Make a plan for item "Religious struggle on the Right Bank and prepare a story behind it.

10. Identify the causes and consequences struggle for influence on the faithful, which unfolded on the Right Bank.