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§ 26. Turkey (textbook)

§ 26. Turkey

You know

·        Emerged as a new empire, which later spread their knowledge on three continents?

·        Due to fortunate Osman to make such significant gains?

·        As the Byzantine Empire and died?

·        What the consequences resulting gain Kafirs?


1. The first Turkish state. Formation of the Ottoman Empire

As you already know from history Byzantine Empire at the end of XI century. penetrated into Anatolia Turkish Seljuks (Turkic nomadic tribes who came from Central Asia), which had driven the Byzantines to the west and created their own state there - Rumskyy Sultanate. The subsequent history of their place in constant wars against their neighbors: Byzantines, Arabs, Persians and others. They played a crucial role in the defeat of the Crusaders in Palestine. Constant wars, internal turmoil undermined the power of the Seljuks.

In the XIII century. settled in Asia Minor large number of nomadic Turkic (ethnically close Seljuks), who fled from Mongol invasion. These tribes settled in seldzhutsko-Byzantine border. They carried out raids on Byzantium, or were hired to Byzantine to fight against the Bulgarians, Serbs and even the Seljuks. Gradually the nomads began to create their principality-Emirates. With the demise of state Seljuks Emir of independence. The most fortunate among emirs Osman.

That was a born warrior who believed in justice "holy war" (Jihad). He expanded the borders of their colonies, united under his authority other Turkic tribes who were called Turk-Ottomans.

Later, the Emir of the Ottoman Empire took the title sultan.


2. The conquest of Ottoman sultans in Europe and Asia

When at the western end of Asia Minor and growing mohutnishala Ottoman State, its neighbors were in decline. Byzantine Empire led Last Dynasty Paleologus barely recovered from destruction of the Crusaders in 1204 and have had no force to resist the new threat. In addition to the Ottoman lands conquered from Byzantium imposed on population is much less tax than during the Empire. Bulgarian kingdom, which was highest in the XIII century. in the Balkans, within the XIV century., Split into three independent principality. Serbian kingdom, which the times of King Stephen Dusan experienced short-term growth and achieved the greatest expansion, before the Turkish invasion split into separate ownership. In addition, Serbia and Bulgaria were the eternal rivals Byzantium in the Balkans.

Second quarter of the XIV century., The Board Stephen Uros, epithet Dusan, Was glorious, the brightest page in the history of Serbia. Dusan captured on northwest Bosnia, vidtrutyvshy Hungary, south-west - Epirus (Albania), much of Fesaliyiand his way to Macedonia and the Aegean Sea, thus breaking two Byzantine lands. But importantly, he was very talented organizer of the state: it has established in law and order, was able to achieve commitment of all nations, united in the new Serbian kingdom. His "Legalist" was one of the greatest monuments of Slavic law. Dying very early and unexpectedly (1355) Dusan not managed to establish order prestolonastupnytstva. Collected his land was soon lost, and Serbian State oslabyvshy Byzantium itself could become an obstacle to the Turkish conquest.

Successor Osman used the weakness of their neighbors and continued conquest policy. Son Osman Orhancaptured in Asia Minor City BeamThat was the first capital of the Kafirs. Then his army perepravylosya through the Bosporus and the cities Gallipoli. Ottomans found themselves in Europe. Next emir Murad I (1362 - 1382's) capital State moved into the European part of their possessions seized in city Adrianople. MuradI directed their aggression to Balkans. In 1389 on Kosovo field have agreed Ottoman and Serbian Army. The Ottoman army twice as prevalent Serbian. The Serbs fought desperately. Brave Serbian patriot Mylosh Obilic managed to penetrate the camp and kill Kafirs emir Murad I. Among the Kafirs began confusion. The Serbs have moved the offensive, but thanks to determined action son Emir Bayazyddefeated them. BayazydI, who received title Sultan, a subdued Macedonia, Bulgaria, part of Serbia and Albania, and Asia Minor. On the map of Europe has a new, powerful and aggressive state.


According anhliyskoh Lord researcher Kinross:   Introduction Turks in Europe was not some sudden invasion. Like   Mongolian trip through Asia. Most likely, it was a gradual process   penetration, as a result of the decline and fall of the Byzantine Empire. This process   coincided with the absence, most religious than political reasons,   unity among the Christian states - was the West against the East, Catholics against   Orthodox Greeks against the Romans.


Kafirs conquest alarmed the West. Pope declared a crusade against them. In 1396 army Crusaders, consisting of a knight of France, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic, Osman met with the city Nikopol(Bulgaria) and was completely broken.

Commander John Earl French squad Neverskyy (Future Duke of Burgundy John the Fearless), seeking glory and heroism, the battle began, no waiting for the approach of the main forces. Knight, who had to fight the pedestrian, chopped a swords incredibly long (40 - 60 cm) socks shoes, so it was easier to run. The battle became a slaughter. Several thousand prisoners were Christians executed. Remained alive only 250 soldiers who had to bring redemption. Some French chroniclers claim that ionic fearless sultan ordered released without ransom, saying that he has brought Christians more trouble than Turkish army.

Another crusade was organized in 1444, also ended in defeat knights in Varna and the loss of the Hungarian king.

Byzantine Empire found itself opposite Osman. With its former territories remaining minor possession of Constantinople and in Greece. Byzantine emperor with no significant military and money in desperation turned his gaze on West. In 1399 - 1403 рр. he visited Venice, Milan, Florence, Paris, London. Everywhere the Emperor greeted with splendor, but also promises no assistance it receives. Any help West promised by the joint Orthodox and Catholic churches.

The Catholic Church has long cherished the hope of subjugation of the Orthodox. Byzantine emperors, following political reasons, were ready to acknowledge the supremacy of the Popes, and 1274 on Lyon Cathedral was concluded Lyon unionBut it did not support the population, especially the clergy.

У 1437 - 1439 рр. during Ferrara-Florence was concluded Union of FlorenceWhich also remained on paper. No real help not received Byzantium. Subsequently Pope used the conditions for the Union of Florence attempt to join the Orthodox Church. For Ukraine it is subsequently reflected in Brest Union and the creation of the Uniate church.

Under the influence foreign factors and controversies surrounding uniy was last flowering Byzantine theology foundations of Orthodox mysticism.

In the XIV century. Gregory PalamaWhich later became Constantinople patriarch, claimed that a man can know God through special energy which comes from God and if God connects with the world. This energy is manifested in world as light. People can perceive only light is a spiritual vision, but not eye. Only the most pious people, preachers, able to perceive Divine Light and to know God. This doctrine was called hesychasm. A lot of people like this teaching has been among the monks of Mount Athos (Holy Mountain), and is where the center of Orthodox monasticism. This doctrine had a significant impact on church art, especially iconography and frescoes. Images of saints were zobrazhatysya like covered from inside the wonderful light.

У 1399 , the Turks laid siege to Constantinople. No confidence take the city by assault, they were preparing for a long siege. But it happened unexpected: the news came from Central Asiaruler, a descendant of Genghis Khan, Tamerlane(Timur) of the defeat at Ankara Sultan Bayazyda, who was taken prisoner and not znisshy humiliation, died. Osman went on Constantinople, and their government collapsed. This defeat extended the life Kafirs Byzantine Empire for 50 years.


The Turkish conquest and formation of the Ottoman Empire (XIV-XVcent.)


3. Creating the Ottoman Empire

After a brief internecine strife in 1451 Ottoman throne took 16-year-old sultan Mehmet IIWhich continued to gain.

Mehmet was a small boy stepped to the throne, but was immediately dropped. After returning to power, he grabbed all his relatives and asked the Islamic court for permission for their execution. According to Islamic traditions, the recognition of any act nehrihovnymexempt from liability. Permission was granted, and all possible opponents, including 10-year brother executed. This was a terrible tradition. With the accession of the new sultan to the throne of all possible candidates destroyed.

Vladnavshy in a frightening way "Family business", Mehmet II came to his case life. 200,000th pidstupylo Turkish army to Constantinople. To capture the city was built fleet to stop receiving reinforcements. It was created the strongest in Europe artillery. To lock the Bosporus in the Gulf of narrowest place was built the fortress that controlled the passage of ships and collect taxes. The last Byzantine emperor Constantine XI haste prepared to defend the city. Created stockpiles of weapons and Food, entrenched walls. Defenders of the city there were about 10 thousand

The siege of Constantinople began in April 1453 , the Turkish fleet (130 ships) entered the Marmara sea. The artillery bombardment began systematic city and its walls. The first storm was reflected. Undermines the attempt to make the walls too, was unsuccessful. The latest victory was a breakthrough defenders of five ships and weapons food. To completely cut off the city from the outside world, Mehmet II commanded the Turkish fleet enter the Golden Horn bay. But it blocked the entrance to heavy chain. Then the Turks built overnight and wooden flooring, it zmazavshy fat, dragged him from the Bosphorus to the Golden Horn to its fleet. On the ships were uploaded guns that were shelling the city from the north.


The fall of Constantinople May 29, 1453


May 29, 1453 it is a crucial day. In the morning went to the Turkish army assault. Two Ottoman hours through the gate St. Roman broke into the city. Fierce battle and continued on city streets. Emperor Constantinedied in arms. Three days city looted and 60 thousand people were sold into slavery. Mehmet II entered in the Cathedral. Sofia ordered to shoot down with her cross, crescent set and turn it into the largest mosque of the Muslim world. Also MehmetII gave the order to stop the looting of the city. The city was renamed in Istanbul, began its reconstruction. To revive economic life in the city, it occupied vilnovidpuschenymy prisoners, traders and artisans from the provinces. And invited foreign artists.


Sultan MehmetII the Conqueror


Capture of Constantinople was not only the beginning of 30 years of conquests Sultan, for which he was nicknamed "the Conqueror" and the birth and the beginning of a new empire - Ottoman. MehmetII captured the remaining Byzantine possessions established complete domination over Orthodox state - Serbia, Bosnia, Wallachia. Furthestresistance do Turks, Albanians, which led Skanderberh.

Skanderberh was held hostage in Kafirs, which studied warfare. Returning home, he led the fight against the Turks, which led to his death in 1468 , the Turks nicknamed him Iskander (Alexander) For his bravery.

У 1469 invaded by the Turks in possession of the Holy Roman Empire and 1477 he joined the possession Venetians. Venetians were concerned about the growing power Turkey and its ally turned into a contender. The Crimean Khanate was vassal of the Ottoman Empire.

Fall of Constantinople ended a period in European history. Christian civilization has lost one of their centers. This had far-reaching consequences, especially for the region spread the Orthodox branch of Christianity. His were redistributed between the Ottoman Empire and Commonwealth. The only Orthodox country that remained independent, was the Moscow State, which gave occasion Moscow to proclaim - "third Rome" and the successor to Byzantium. Prince Ivan III took 1472 , the marriage of niece Sofia last emperor (Zoya) Paleologueand declared himself the successor of the emperors. Emblem Paleologus- Double-headed eagle - became the emblem of the Moscow State, and later Russia. In this way Muscovite rulers declared the claim to rule all over Orthodox world.

The death of such a powerful cultural center of civilization in Europe West Catholic turned into the basis on which built Europe's future. He became a model for developing other areas of Europe, and not just her.

Another important result was that by winning Mehmed II Turkey (Ottoman Empire) was a European state (Though geographically sense) and entered in the brilliant period of its existence, which lasted until 20's of the XVII Art. It was important factor in European history. One reason for rapid growth Ottoman Empire was its army. Much of it consisted of regular, well-trained soldiers who were recruited among Muslims and among Christians.

Accurate centralization Ottoman Empire gave the Army the ability to gather strength over 200 thousand soldiers, but European army numbered several thousands. The army consisted of cavalry (Imperial, light and provincial), Infantry, in which distinguished special engineering, security and other troops, artillery, which had no equal in Europe, and Janissaries elite units. Subsection Janissaries formed mainly from Christians who have children were captured and trained as warriors, committed to Sultan and Allah.


4. Ottoman Empire at the end of XV Art.

As a result of gains on spaces of Europe and Asia developed a new powerful empire, which as all previous world sought to domination. All mining has evolved through the efforts of conquered population. Turkish society was engaged only by war. The war became a major revenue stream of new empire.

The conquest of the Turks was accompanied by unprecedented brutality, burglary, violence and killings. Part of the Surrendered population as prey sold into slavery in the slave markets. Not the Muslim population was lined various taxes, which sometimes amounted to 50% yield. But Muslim population was paying or minimum tax, or no paid (for it carried out military service).

At the head of the empire was the sultan, who at the beginning of the sixteenth Art. was also the Caliph - Muslim religious leader. When the sultan was above board - sofa, has performed advisory functions. At first the administrative staff was minorities.

The Ottoman Empire was, as historians believe, the only Military Power of the Middle Ages. " Its state structure and administrative Businesses were subordinated to the needs of war. Provinces (at the beginning of the sixteenth century. there were 16) were divided into districts, their rulers carried out both civilian and military functions, they headed militia sypahiv(Warrior-cavalryman) and local garrisons janissary (guard the sultan of that nabyralasya boys slaves who were brought up in special schools as barracks and ruthless committed warriors).

Each homeguardsman (sypah) received in land use (The whole earth was in the Empire State) and it had to take part in military Land. In peacetime, he had resided only in your county where performed police functions and duties of tax collector. Sypahyreceived material support from the state tax people size of which was clearly defined.

Officials in the central office also received for service ground - large ownership that are forbidden to share in inheritance. However, as Generally, the post his father held son.

This system of empire proved optimal at a time when its territory grew and land was a lot. Small taxes on farmers compensated by large military prey.


Check remember how

1.      When and how the state was founded by Osman Turks?

2.      Name the main battle, which was conquered due Balkans.

3.      In what years were the Crusades Europe Osman against the Turks? How are they completed?

4.      What state was destroyed by Ottoman Turks during their conquests, the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.?

5.      What battle delayed the fall of Byzantium in 50 years?

6.      Identify the features of strong Turkish troops Osman.

7.      In what year the defunct Byzantine Empire?

8.      Who are sypahy? What they differed from European knights?


Think and answer

1.      Find situation of the Balkans on the eve of their conquest by the Ottomans. Why Balkan states could not contain offensive Kafirs?

2.      Why Cross expeditions against the Kafirs have failed?

3.      How can explain the reluctance of Western Europe, Byzantium help?

4.      What were consequences of the Byzantine Empire fall?

5.      As of the Ottoman Empire carried out?

6.      For what purpose created janissary army?


Do task

1.      Prepare Story: "The last days of the Byzantine Empire.

2.      Fold chronology of Turkish conquest.

3.      Define factors that contributed to gains by Osman Turks.


For curious

Why called the Ottoman Empire "Only a military state of the Middle Ages?