§ 25. Bogs and groundwater
1. Remember that environmental conditions contribute to the formation of marshes.
2. What water are distinguished among those that lie under the earth?
Bogs. Lots of earth surface from excessive moistening calledswamps or Mochar. In Ukraine, they cover about 2% of the territory. Common mostly small marshes that are focused on in the valleys and Polesie rivers. By the nature of power, shape and surface composition of the swamp vegetation divided into three main types: lowland, transitional and riding.
In Ukraine, most lowland bogs. They are located in decline - in place of former lakes or in river flood plains. The surface of these marshes concave or flat. Power is due groundwater, surface water runoff from surrounding land, river water under flooding and flood and rainfall. With river and groundwater waters in lowland swamp gets a lot of minerals, so there is growing rich dank vegetation - alder, birch, sedge, bulrush, horsetail, green moss. Peat, formed in such marshes may be used as fertilizer for agricultural lands. The largest lowland swamps formed on Polesie, the valley of the Dnieper River and its tributaries, swamps of the Danube. Every year in their flood water and floods in areas where it remains during the summer, formed Gruz'ka, impenetrable plot.
Horse swamplying on the elevated areas - mostly watersheds. They feed on precipitation, so these swamps poor in minerals. Vegetation, growing there, unpretentious: suppressed pine, cranberry, cotton grass, sphagnum moss. Accumulation of peat is faster in the central part of the swamp than edges. Therefore horse marshes have a convex shape. Peat bogs of use as fuel and raw material for chemical industry. The largest horse in the mire Ukraine is in Ukrainian Carpathians - in the lower spine on the Polonyny at an altitude of about 1 800 m. It was formed as a result of swamping a number of small Ozerets.
Transitional swamp is intermediate stage between the low-lying and horse. Originally formed lowland bog, rich in minerals and vegetation respectively. As mortality of plants marsh surface increases, water access, enriched mineral compounds is limited, and changes vegetation less demanding to power. Appears sfahnovyy moss bogs characteristic of riding for Power is adequate rainfall only.
Bogs water protection are essential values. They accumulate moisture, regulate water levels in wells, ponds, lakes. Among them are creeks and rivers. Bogs reduce drought in the surrounding area. Above them is formed unique microclimate, which together with the water environment, promotes many marsh plants and animals. Until recently large areas of wetlands in Ukraine osushuvalysya. Reclaimed land used as pastures and meadows. However, drainage of wetlands and lead to negative consequences: decreased levels of groundwater water, and this led to the disappearance of water in wells, lakes shallowing. So close 10% of the marshland area in Ukraine are protected.
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Anciently marshes were considered a symbol of evil and in direct and figurative meanings. In Polissya rumors that the quagmire created hell. Indeed, occupying large areas, wetlands do not permit their use as farmland. However, they are natural filters: from the swamp, filled with muddy liquid water, which gives the creeks and rivulet, flows out clean.
The deepest water in Ukraine?
Marsh in the tract "Black Forest" in Kirovohrad area, located on the edge and forest-steppe and is the most southern swamp with sfahnovoyu and other northern vegetation. Among them is a small lake, and depth is still not installed. Local residents tell stories that in some ground reservoir when lowering Sinkers had to be over 540 meters of rope, the end is kripylosya it. And while the bottom has been reached. Perhaps there is narrow crack in the crystalline rocks of the shield, which is filled with water.
Groundwater. As you know, the underground water layers are deposited, or horizons permeable to water in rocks. The first water-bearing surface of the Earth horizon, called groundwater, Formed due to seepage and accumulation of water from rainfall. Soil waters fed rivers, lakes, swamps, they are used for water supply towns, farms.
Deeper aquifers are between waterproof layers of rock are called mizhplastovymywaters. They also nourish the precipitation, but not all along aquifer as ground water, but only in places of permeable to water species on the surface. Mizhplastovi water less respond to seasonal climate changes and pollution.
In places where rock waterproof concave in increasing pressure water-bearing layer of water. If such a place drill well, it will strike water fountain. Such water is called pressure mizhplastovi artesian. In Ukraine, artesian water are deposited in several artesian basins: Dnieper-Donets, Volyn-Podolsk, Black Sea.
Circulating in the upper lithosphere, moving from one place to another, underground water and dissolved minerals enriched with chemical elements that belong to it. They dissolve gases as the earth's interior. As a result of complex processes of interaction of water, rocks and gases formed Mineral waterThat are biologically active properties. As a result, they can have a beneficial impact on human organism. The greatest variety in composition of mineral water is concentrated in the Ukrainian Carpathians: Precarpathians in water such NAFTAusing well-known resorts and Morshin Truskavets water Glade Kvasova, Svalyavsky, Luzhanska- Resorts of Transcarpathia. Has valuable medicinal properties Mirgorodskaya water(Region), Berezivs'ka (Kharkiv region).
Thermal water - Warm with temperatures over 20 ° C - are deposited in areas of volcanism, that is, in the Volcanic Mountain Range in Ukrainian Carpathians (in Transcarpathia). In the world of their widely used for medicinal purposes, but the thermal waters in Ukraine little used.
General reserves of groundwater in Ukraine exceed 20 km3 per year. Freshwater occur at depths of 300 - 400 m in the northern regions of Ukraine and at a depth of 100 - 150 m - in the south. Deeper water saline. Groundwater Seepage from the surface, filtered layers of different rocks. Therefore, their quality is generally better than surface. It causing widespread use of groundwater as drinking and for household needs. However, groundwater and, unfortunately, contaminated. Often there cases of groundwater contamination of domestic sewage, sewage industrial and transport enterprises. Because groundwater is necessary rationally use and protect from contamination.
The healing thermal waters
On Transcarpathia Coast resort uses hot water, heat the domestic warm soil to 70°C. A well, a deep 300 m hot sodium chloride water, fill a large swimming pool. Swimming pool treat diseases of the musculoskeletal system and cardiovascular disease.
The largest artesian basin in Ukraine Dnieper-Donets, location which corresponds to the right bank of the Dnieper Lowland and Kiev. Maximum output layer of underground water in it reaches 800 m.
So known sources of mineral waters near Znamianka Kirovohrad region. By its composition, these radon waters similar to those used at the world famous resort Tskhaltubo in Georgia. Radon water is also in Khmelnik Vinnytsia region.
Water resources. Surface, underground and sea water is Water Resourcescountry. The main role in providing fresh water and agriculture belongs to surface waters, especially rivers. With total reserves River flow (about 210 km3 per year), Ukraine is one of the leading locations in Europe. However, the total value of stocks is not characteristic of real water supply in the country. Only a quarter of river flow is formed of our country (local runoff), the rest comes from outside its borders. More than half the river flow - so-called transit flow, which is Kiliya Danube or does not play a significant value for the economic needs of Ukraine. So, in terms of real water supply, calculated per capita, Ukraine is last place among European countries. This applies to both surface and underground water resources. Major role in water supplypopulation and economy of Ukraine have a water basin of the Dnieper.
The highest supply of fresh water are northern and western regions, especially Kiev and Transcarpathian, and the lowest - Crimea, Donetsk, Kharkiv, Lugansk, Odessa and Nicholas region. So many cities and villages of the southern part of Ukraine shortage of water.
Fig. Water resources
Bogs are common in Ukraine in Polesie and in the valleys rivers, most of them belong to the lowland.
The largest artesian basins in Ukraine Dnieper-Donets, Volyn-Podolsk, Black Sea.
Ukraine occupies a leading place in Europe by common water resources, but they divided the territory uneven, but real vodozabezpechenist them small.
Questions and Tasks
1. What lowland swamp different from riding?
2. How important wetlands in nature?
3. As underground water formed? How are they different from the surface?
4. What is artesian water? What great artesian basin in Ukraine?
5. How do people use groundwater?
6. What are the features of Ukraine water?
7 *. Consider why the swamp figuratively called the "sun room". Try scientifically substantiate this statement.