§ 12. Branch and territorial structure of the economy
1. Remember that differentiates in the field of industry.
2. What industry is agriculture?
Branch structure ECONOMY. National economy of Ukraine has complicated structure. Structure masterstva –is its internal structure, which inforecasts suggest the main elements of which consists Industry and expresses the relationship and the relationship between them. Enterprises and Organizations are grouped by type of business activities and by placing on territory. According consider hamultipurpose and territorial structure economy.
Industry structure shows that the division of economy and industry ratioTWEEN them. Branch — a set of economic units that produce high quality uniform products or satisfy certain unitsnoridni needs of society. All field National Economy together, primarily in two areas - scope material production and services (formerly referred to as production and unprevailed areas).
To areas material production includes industry, agriculture, forestry, fisheries Industry and construction - sectors that issuingappearing tangibles (goods). They are divided into narrower field sub-sectors, types of industries. For example, large branch of industryArkalyk engineering is composed by a distinguished transportation engineering. It is narrower automotive industry, and pidhaluzzyu - production cars. It includes as many companies producing individual parts, assemblies and units (eg motors) and assembly and repair facilities.
У service sector created spiritual non-production goods and servicesFirst, and production character. Some industry serving this area withoutModerate population (Culture, education, medical and recreational obsluadjustments, domestic services) other - the population and production (Transport and communications, finance, credit, trade, insurance), others support the functioning of society in general (science, management).
Fig. Sectoral structure of economy
In the structure of the national sphere of Ukraine material production is always essentially dominated the service sector (respectively 2 / 3 and 1 / 3 of output). It was only the beginning XXI Art. their vyrivnyalysya share. In the sphere of material production allocated industry (65% of all produced in 2004 products) and agriculture Industry (24%). Thus, these indicators national economy of Ukraine is industrial and agricultural.
Often, international economic organizations are considering the sectoral structureNational Tour households as a ratio of three sectors of the economyeconomy. To primary sector include agriculture and forestryinvolvement of ministries and fishing, extractive industries, ie the areas that give the man "primary" (Created by nature) products. To secondaryrynnoho sector include Industrial sector - manufacturing industrylovist and construction that transform and elevate the primary products and bring it to the consumer in the form End material benefits. Tertiary Sector called service industries. With this structure the world economy belong to one of three types: country's pre-industrial stage of development (they are youSoka share of primary industries sector) industrial stage (secondary sector) and post-industrial stage of development (Ha great advantageluzey tertiary sector). Ukraine has a rate Model State located at industrial stage development of society: the share secondary sector reaches almost 40% of all products, relatively high as share of primary sector (over 12%). Instead, the percentage tertiary sector in the economy of Ukraine are lower than that ofprominent postindustrial countries (U.S., Japan, Western Europe).
As a result of the strengthening and deepening relations between individual Galamore specifically by the National complex formation of inter- complexes. Interdisciplinary Complex - a set of interrelated enterprises various sectors, combined output of specific products. The most important inter-related complexes in Ukraine fuel and energy, metallurgical, engineering, chemical, forestryproduction, agriculture, light industry complex, transportnyy, construction, industrial, marine, Recreational, military-industrial, scientific, technical and social.
Enterprise or industry within the complexes are characterized by standswe close industrial relations. For example, in agriculture together agriculture, food processing, feed industry. The components are complex andwell as some mechanical engineering (Agricultural, traktorobugovernance bodies), the chemical industry (Production of fertilizers, pesticides), microbiological industry.
Complex functioning is impossible without Infrastructure ie sectors serving the production process. This - cargo trans-port system energy, water and DH logistics, maintenance, construction, education (training qualified frames), scientific support and management.
TERRITORIAL STRUCTURE. Enterprises of different branches hoststva differently located in one to the other, relatively populated points, its raw-resource bases and more. In some cases they have single location, in other cases - group. These groups in one area create some combination of territorial, enterprises in these more or less shared industrial and socialdeveloped branch infrastructure or combined production links a commontheir supply of parts, materials, intermediates, wastes. This arise territorial elements economy. Totality certain way vzayemorozmischenyh combined local and elementstiv economy called territorial structure economy.
The territorial structure of the economy is closely related to distributeding, transport network, and features natural environment, its natural resource potential. Elements territoriessentatives structure may have point nodes, linear, bush, arrest the real form. In particular, the primary industry sector - farmKyo and forestry agriculture, fisheries, mining industry, which are closely interact with natural environment are mostly areal formwe: Agricultural zones and areas, forest and timber industry areas and areas fishing zones and areas, mining basins, districts, areas.
The vast majority of manufacturing firms located in settlements and form elements such territorial structuretours, as industrial point (One company) Industrial Centre — settlement of several small related businesses aboutindustrial coal (Economic) unit — city or group is situated aboutthese cities with large number of interrelated businesses. Private production cluster should form Territorial combination. In-example, engineering bush formed main (assembly) now and many factories that supply parts nodes aggression:Ponds and located in the surrounding villages.
Territorial transport structure represented by the elementwe as a transportation line (Eg, railroads, navigable rivers), transpowerful expert points (at the railway station branch), transport units (statetion where branching or crossing railway lines).
Elements of the territorial structure can be specialized (forexample, grain zone tsukrovoburyakovyy item Center for FoodIndustry, Automobile bush, petrochemical hub, railwayjunction, ramp) and Consumer (Chemical Engineering center metallurgy, machinery and chemical unit, rail-River node industrial and transportation hub, rail-carunstable polimahistral).
KEY FEATURES OF THE MODERN ECONOMY. Modern industrial and territorial structureTours of Ukraine celebrated нeratsionalnistyu. This, in particular, evidencecally: significant dependence Management of energy supplies and raw materials inidsutnist final production in many areas, beforeseven in mechanical engineering; excessive development of the sphere of military-industrial complex with a limited development of consumer goods; underdeveloped agriculture, primarily processing industries; technical backwardness and obsolescence of equipment, technological imperfection enterprises causing high energy and materialzatratnist economy; significant concentrations "Dirty industries, including mining, metallurgical, chemical, which caused highcue the pollution of the environment; excessive concentration industrial enterprises in some reRegions (Dnieper, Donbass, Carpathian) which caused significant youuse of resources, leading to excessive pressure on the railwayovkillya more.
The necessary restructuring of commercial complex that has expressed in production of high quality and competitive products, reducing raw material costs and its energy output, reducing production of economically and environmentally unprofitable products. Considerable role in the economic reforms should play, especially whenconquest of privatization processes in various sectors of the economy.
Branch — a set of economic units that produce high quality uniform products or satisfy certain unitsnoridni needs of society.
All field National Economy together in two spheres - the sphere of material production and service.
Territorial structure of the economy - is сukupnist placed a certain way and combined territorial elementstiv economy.
Questions and Tasks
1. What major areas and sectors of national economy is divided? What is their structure?
2. Give definitions of "industrial structure of the economy, Territory''Flax structure economy. Explain them.
3. What industries take the lead in the national comcomplex of Ukraine?