🚚 🚁 Збираємо на пікап та ремонт дрона аутел

⛑ 🛡 🥾 Шоломи, форма, взуття



  1. The peace treaty in Brest-Litovsk. Introduction of troops in Germany and Austria-Hungary on the territory of the UPR.
  2. The.
  3. Internal and Ukrainian foreign policy and attitudes in society.
  4. Cancellation Brest peace and offensive RSFRR troops to Ukraine
  • Basic terms and concepts of the theme

Brest-Litovsk peace treaty, the Constitution of the UPR, Hetman revolution, the Ukrainian state, the CP (B)

  • Key dates

January 1918, February 1918, April 29, 1918, 1913, the lystopada1918

  1. What characterized the situation in the countries that fought in late 1917?
  2. What state and what started the peace negotiations in Brest-Litovsk?
  3. What occupied the position of Soviet Russia for these negotiations?
  4. In a political-military situation appeared UPR in January 1918?
  5. How important was the Central Council of the Universal IV?

1.Myrnyy treaty in Brest-Litovsk. Introduction of troops in Germany and Austria-Hungary on the territory of the UPR.

  1. What were the main points of Brest-Litovsk Treaty?
  2. To what consequences this has caused?
  3. What characterized the political situation in Ukraine when it began joining the German-Austrian troops?
  4. Why exacerbated relations between the UCR and the conservative circles of Ukraine?

The first war of Soviet Russia with the Ukrainian National Republic (December 1917-1918)

In late 1917 it appeared that Russia could not continue war. Started negotiations with the States in the Quadruple Alliance Brest-Litovsk, 2 (15) December 1917 the Russian delegation signed armistice with Germany and Austria-Hungary. Learning about  this event, the government appealed to the UPR warring states of note, where proclaiming that Petrohrad government has no right to represent negotiations the interests of all peoples of Russia, including Ukrainian. Germans realized that the presence of the Ukrainian delegation in Brest will give them additional leverage in negotiations. 13 (26) December Germany and its allies told the Central Council that they are willing to deal with UPR in the negotiation process.

Negotiations began in late December, which consisted of about 400 official and unofficial representatives of participating countries. Countries Quadruple Alliance UPR recognized sovereign state entitled to conclude  international treaties.

January 27 (February 9) in 1918 between the UPR and Germany and its allies signed a peace treaty that reaffirmed the war between contracting parties without annexations and indemnities. The boundaries between the UPR and Austria-Hungary admitted to the agreements pre-war time, and with Poland planned to identify them through further negotiations on the basis ethnographic approvals and subject to the desires of the population. Parties refused to claims for damages caused by war,  anticipated exchange of prisoners and resumption of mutual economic relations.

The signing of the Brest peace. 1918

In addition, the UPR is committed to supply Germany and Austria-Hungary 60 million pounds of bread, 2 mln 750 thousand pounds of meat and other agricultural  products and industrial raw materials. Germany and Austria-Hungary promised Ukraine to agricultural machinery, coal and other necessary raw materials and commodities.

At the time of signing of the Ukrainian delegation already knew about Bolshevik troops capture of Kyiv. She appealed to the countries Quadruple Alliance of requesting assistance against armed Ukraine expansion of the Soviet Russia. Central Council, seeking salvation for Ukraine from the Bolshevik expansion, given its under occupation Germany and Austria-Hungary. Allies agree, knowing full well that get food from Ukraine, they can only under its occupation  their troops.

German troops began to move into the territory of Ukraine 5 (18) February  Later in 1918 their support of the Austro-Hungarian army. Total number of occupying allied troops was 450 thousand people. Their offensive not met serious resistance from the Soviet troops. March 1, 1918 by Bolshevik troops left Kyiv. Again returned to the capital Central Council. Population met her restraint, because it led to  a German invaders.

The Bolsheviks tried to stop promoting the occupation forces by proclamation in the territory of Ukraine of separate regional "Republic": Donetsk-Krivoy Rog, Crimea, Odessa and others. But allied command not found them and continued the offensive. Losing power  in Ukraine, the Bolsheviks dissolved the National Secretariat and created instead of in April 1918 to guide the All-Ukrainian Bureau rebel fighting against the German and Austro-Hungarian invaders.

First command of German and Austro-Hungarian troops declared  its interference in Ukrainian affairs, trying to persuade UCR expeditious implementation of treaty obligations, but very quickly obvious weakness of the Central Council and hopelessness cooperation with it.

In early April, Chief of German forces in Ukraine issued order, which poperedzhalys Ukrainian peasants so that they do not take more landed estates, than they can shine at the same time forbade them prevent landowners sat down in the earth. When the joint cultivation of land landowners and farmers harvest was divided between them equally. Central Council regarded this order as a direct interference in the internal affairs of Ukraine, issuing a special resolution, which condemned these acts.

However, in late April, despite the position of the Central Council German command announced the formation of military courts-field over the Ukrainian citizens. Central Council protested against such a decision. Then April 26 the German command in Ukraine received Kaiser Wilhelm II of permission to change the Ukrainian government.

Complication of relations between the Central Council and allied troops took place against the backdrop of worsening political situation in Ukraine UCR rapid loss of credibility among the population and political forces. Wealthy  groups particularly irritated the leaders of socialist phraseology Central Council while the government has caused alarm declared nationalization of large landed property. They began to appeal to Command the allied troops with a request to protect them from the peasant massacres and tyranny of the Central Council. Such appeals found support in German and Austro-Hungarian authorities.

Growing conflict with the Central Council zblyzyv occupation regime to the conservative circles of Ukraine.

2. Hetman coup

  1. What causes the fall of the Central Council?
  2. Why are these things called hetman coup?
  3. Why is it so easy zdiysnyvsya?
  4. What segments of the population came to power?

In terms of the increasing conflict with the German and Austro-Hungarian forces, and internal political crisis, the Central Council tried to strengthen its social resistance due to a democratic reorganization of Ukrainian society. But in Ukraine While there were no real opportunities for democratic state. This is eloquently testified that on April 28, the eve the Basic Law of the UPR, the floor of the Central Council invaded  German soldiers. They searched and arrested several Ukrainian Ministers which was accused of having links with an assumed 'Union Salvation of Ukraine, who was allegedly guilty of the disappearance of some entrepreneurs committed to the regime.

April 29, 1918 at the last meeting of the Council UPR Constitution was adopted, calling the UPR sovereign, independence. The people were granted extensive civil and political rights regardless of gender, religion, nationality, education, property status. At the same meeting of the Council Hrushevsky was elected president of UPR. However, the practical significance Ukrainian state for these events had for a few hours  after the Central Council was dispersed and ceased to occupiers existence.

Reasons for the fall of the Central Council

  1. Deepening economic crisis, collapse of agriculture, accompanied by a catastrophic decline of industry, transport and communication. The population of Ukraine has ended up on the verge of starvation.
  2. Public intervention in the Ukrainian case of large countries. Occupation German and Austro-Hungarian troops, invaders felt themselves hosts took an active part in the UCR removed from power.
  3. Lack of stable democratic traditions in Ukrainian society. The desire to revive the Central Council entered into contradiction with the reality of life for the population growing popularity the idea of
  4. Leaders of the Central Council conflicting with each other, admiring the national idea, neglected social problems.
  5. Large groups were disappointed in the Ukrainian political parties who fought among themselves and sacrificed national interests. It  led to self-isolation not only of many parties, but UCR that depended on them.

Explain and illustrate each of the reasons known to you the facts.

Thus, the attempt to create a democratic Ukrainian National Republic ended in defeat. The initiative belonged to the state monarhistskoyi conservative opposition, led by General P. Skoropadskiy.

Meet near

Paul P. Skoropadskyi (1873-1945) - the famous Ukrainian politician and statesman, military leader, Hetman  Ukraine. He came from the ancient Ukrainian Cossack noble kind. Born in m.Visbaden (Germany). Children spent on Chernihiv. He studied in St. Petersburg privileged pazheskomu case. He served in the royal army. He participated in the Russo-Japanese Over the 1904-1905 war he was awarded the gold found heroism George Arms, had been promoted to the rank of Lieutenant and subsequently was appointed adjutant-wing Russian Emperor Nicholas II.

After the collapse of the Russian monarchy, felt himself free from moral obligations to the throne, he got interested in Ukrainian political life, seeking opportunities to serve Ukraine. But Central Council osterihalasya respected general who had significant impact on the army. The relationship between the leaders of the Central Council and P. Skoropadskim further exacerbated after the election of its chieftain Free Cossacks.

P. Skoropadskyi not take the views of the Central Council regarding the development of Ukrainian statehood. In late 1917 this ground he resigned from his post as commander Ukrainian body and  left military service.

By agreement with the German military authorities in Kiev 29/04/1918 Ukrainian state was proclaimed, headed by Hetman P. Skoropadskiy. 14.11.1918 he declared Ukrainian Federation State of the future non-Bolshevik Russia, creating a single  front against the Soviets. This was a formal occasion Antihetman uprising. Trying to avoid a fratricidal war among the Ukrainian, 14.12.1918, he signed an abdication of authority and emigrated to Germany. In 1926, he was promoting in Berlin created by the Ukrainian Institute. In 1937 in Nazi Germany Union founded hetmanmen-statesmen (SRS) led by P. Skoropadskiy. During the Second World War contributed to release of the Ukrainian prisoners of German concentration camps, the Ukrainian political leaders. At the end of the war, got under bombardment on st.Plettinh in  Bavaria, P. Skoropadskyi received fatal injuries.

  1. What were the political views Skoropadsky?
  2. Submit your evaluation of his political activities.

Conservative opposition has created its own political organization - Ukrainian folk community - and launched preparations for the installation Ukraine autocratic power. It is based on the wealthy classes people felt that way out of crisis in Ukraine is possible only  through the establishment of the monarchical form of government with rigid centralized authority.

P. Skoropadskyi met with representatives of the German occupation Administration and enlisted their support in the elimination of the Central Council of  power. The opposition, in preparation for the coup began to form Officers and troops to send their outreach to all military parts. April 29, 1918 at the Kiev circus started tilling of the Ukrainian National Congress, which was attended by about 8 thousand delegates, mostly peasants from 8 Ukrainian provinces. Delegates Congress unanimously elected Skoropadsky Hetman of all Ukraine. On the same day it was published "letters to all Ukrainian people. Skoropadskyi abolished the UPR and declared Ukrainian state.

Let us turn to sources

With ratification Skoropadsky "to all Ukrainian people"

Citizens of Ukraine!

You, the Cossacks and the citizens of Ukraine, famous events of the last time source of blood gushed out of the best sons of Ukraine and again and again vidrodyvshayasya Ukrainian state was near death's door.
She escaped thanks to a powerful central maintenance of which true to his word, and continue to present to fight for integrity and rest of Ukraine. With such pidderzhtsi all hope was born that start rebuilding the order in the State and economic life of Ukraine will come finally to normal.
But these hopes have not come true. Former Ukrainian Government not implemented  state building of Ukraine, since it was completely incapable of this. Outrages and anarchy continues in Ukraine, economic devastation and bezrobitnytsya increased and distributed every day and finally to rich once something gets terrible ghost Ukraine famine.
This diploma ... I declare himself Hetman of all Ukraine. Right private property - as the foundation of culture and civilization fully rebuilt, and all orders former Ukrainian government, but equally the Russian Provisional Government, and vidminyuyutsya kasuyutsya. There is complete freedom of zroblennyu subscribed the evidence on land sales.
Next to that will take action to losses of land to present their value from large owners to allotment of land plot malozemelnyh farmers. Equivalence will be firmly secured rights working class. In the economic and financial, a complete  bargaining and freedom Opens wide expanse of private enterprise and initiative ... In connection with the events which the document is who he addressed? What he announces a decision? Who now is the government? What socio-economic measures as the government provides Hetman Priority? What can you say about his social resistance, based on text?

3. Internal and Ukrainian foreign policy and attitudes in society

  1. What were the main directions of domestic and foreign policy Hetman government?
  2. What population began an open struggle against the Hetman's power?
  3. What was the attitude of different political forces, parties and movements to Hetman regime?

After the coup P. Skoropadskyi issued the Law on Temporary State System of Ukraine ", which stressed that the election of Parliament, the legislative power concentrated in the hands of the hetman. Terms and  Convocation of Parliament were not defined. Hetman left by a full executive and judiciary.

Hetman Pavlo Skoropadskyi with its environment

The basis of the Hetman's government made the moderate conservative minded officials, military and public figures. They believed that Ukrainian state should ensure the political stability that based on principles of private property. Domestic Policy Hetmanat aimed at strengthening the Ukrainian State, which had  dominate the interests of wealthy citizens. Heads the Council of Ministers was F. Lyzogub - Poltava landowner, Minister Foreign Affairs - D. Doroshenko, Minister of Education and the Arts - AM Vasilenko, Minister of Justice - M. Chubynsky.

The main objective of the Hetman's administration was the creation an effective government, the elimination of anarchy, setting economic life. Bureaucracy cited authoritarian order and repressive methods. In Ukraine, a wave of arrests Sentences, executions. Primarily for burning them, those who have recently led the local authorities carried out the confiscation of the landlords and lands. Considerable attention was paid to the creation of armed forces. Began opened special schools training officers, was deployed to form the eight buildings and several cavalry divisions. However Hetman forbidden to enter the military and political parties associations, participate in rallies and demonstrations.

One of the first acts of the new government was the restoration of the landlord tenure, which would provide state trade bread. In July Hetman in 1918 passed a law on means of combating rural ruin  economy. For his farms actually given away in available to landowners who acquired the right to use compulsory manors implements peasants. Recently started to resort to strikes field work, but the government is punishing them by imprisonment. Trying to relieve tension, Hetman promised to take steps to redemption large owners of land in empowerment for its rural poor. But further pledges did not go right.

All events took place on Ukrainian life accruing background requirements by the occupation forces against the supply of food and raw materials to Germany and Austria-Hungary, an agreement on who signed with P. Skoropadskyi Governments of the Union State. In Ukraine a real war hetman and occupation troops against the peasants. But to meet the requirements Hetman occupants failed.

Complicated was the situation in the industry that finds itself at war almost in full decline. Many businesses were destroyed, reconstruction of their missing funds. The government forced the workers for tiny fee to work intensively. A serious threat to many labor groups became close plants, including raw materials exported to Germany. In May 1918, a congress in Kiev representatives of industrialists, financiers and landowners. Under the pressure government moved in to attack workers' rights by removing the 8-hour time, limiting the freedom of trade union activities and prohibited strikes.

Thus, the burden to overcome the economic crisis has been translated into shoulders of workers. However, extreme measures have given the authorities an opportunity to change general situation for the better. Began to form national banking system innovations and currency - Hryvnia - proved very stable. It was possible to reopen the railway.

Big changes have occurred in education and a cultural area. The result this activity was the discovery of almost 150 Ukrainian schools. In other schools where teaching was carried out in Russian vvodylos as Ukrainian study subjects. During Hetman were discovered many cultural institutions and instructive. Wide scale deployment came into publishing. It was made Ukrainization state apparatus. In all agencies and military units Ukrainian courses were initiated.

Let us turn to sources

Historian Hunczak on social and economic policies Skoropadsky

"? Hetman policy from the outset have set themselves against the wide  Ukrainian mass population? Politics Skoropadsky and its environment, his notorious penal expedition strengthened the social aspect of the revolution and simultaneously weakened the emphasis on national independence. "

What the historian sees the primary sense measures Ukrainian government State? As he assesses its consequences? Do you agree with that assessment?

However, the Ukrainian state government implemented an active foreign policy. Priority had relations with Central Asian countries. Getman had to take into account the presence of allied troops in Ukraine. However, he skillfully played on contradictions between Germany and Austria-Hungary,  military and diplomats. Hetman helped bolster his visit  to Germany and talks with Wilhelm II in summer 1918

Important place in Ukrainian diplomacy was paid to relations with Soviet Russia. Under the agreement Brest Ukraine and Russia had to sign another agreement on ending the war. This agreement  was reached in June 1918 In addition, between Ukraine and Russia renewed transport and postal and telegraphic communications. Ukrainian state obtained the right to open consulates in many Russian cities.

The biggest contradiction and complexity in relations between Ukraine and Soviet Russia have problems with borders that the end address failed. With respect to Romania, which seized Bessarabia P. Skoropadskyi implemented a policy of active pressure. He banned the import  to the aggressors country food and industrial products. Tough  Hetman of Poland and performed because it violated agreement on the allocation of disputed Ukrainian-Polish lands.

Diplomacy Skoropadsky reached as far allied and neighboring States. Hetman made significant efforts to establish international relations with the U.S., Britain, France, Sweden and others. Ukrainian State has established relations with 13 countries. Thus, Ukraine confidently appeared on the international scene. For a short time and the positive change in the economic life state. But administration hard methods, pressure and reprisals caused the dissatisfaction of broad strata of the Ukrainian population.

Specific activity was noted peasantry that refused to give zadurno power increase, expanding the armed struggle against the hetman and  occupation troops, which carried constant requisition. Summer 1918 large scale peasant came in speeches and Zvenyhorodsky Tarascha counties. The Germans were forced to give up their insurgency against the best part of the armadillo and even aircraft. Subsequently, the armed villagers joined the fight Berdichivska Vassilkovsky, Kanev, Skvirskogo, Uman et al. counties. On the Right Bank The rebels numbered over 40 thousand people. Peasant groups have been well armed, they had machine guns and cannons.

In spring 1918 peasants rebellions swept Katerynoslav and North Taurus. Here unfolded peasant armed struggle against the Hetman Administration and the German and Austrian troops under the leadership N. Makhno.

Was thrown against the rebels government troops, but peasant groups avoided open battles. With the support of the local population, they were suddenly attacked small detachments of the enemy, he inflicted losses and quickly disappeared. Reflected in the trophies they generously occupiers shared with the local population. In November 1918 armed units Makhno were serious force. Within six months, fighting insurgent-partisan movement occupying troops lost in Ukraine 19  thousand soldiers and officers.

Hetman fought against the regime and the workers. In July and August 1918 ceased to about 200 railwaymen. It significantly affected the exportation of food and raw materials to Germany and Austria-Hungary.

Hetman was difficult relationship with the political regime parties. Their leaders accused Skoropadsky that he preferred in the formation of royal government officials, not Ukrainian politicians. After all opposition parties in early August 1918 he created a new unit called - Ukrainian National Association (UNA).  ONS elected Chairman Vynnychenko who do not have sufficient forces to deal with the regime Skoropadsky, entered into negotiations with Ukrainian Bolsheviks, and their Russian party members. Sovnarcom ONS promised to help when he begins an uprising against the Hetman.

The Bolsheviks, whose number decreased in Ukraine, decided to create nationwide party center. 05/12 July 1918 took place in Moscow and Congress of the Communist Party of Bolsheviks of the Ukraine as part of the RCP (b). Congress decided to form military-revolutionary committees place for the workers and peasants to fight for recovery Bolshevik power in Ukraine.

Increased opposition hetmans regime by various political forces Ukraine testified to the lack of broad societal support.

Ukrainian State. The establishment of the Directory and to restore the UPR (May-November 1918)

4. Cancellation Brest peace and offensive RSFRR troops to Ukraine.

  1. Why was possible to cancel Brest-Litovsk peace treaty?
  2. What impact this event had to Ukraine

In early November 1918 in Germany, exhausted by war for two fronts, there was a revolution. The government of Soviet Russia quickly responded to these events and 13 November annulled the Brest Treaty, so Bolshevik government recognized the independence of the UPR.

Let us turn to sources

With the decision to annul VTSVK Brest-Litovsk peace treaty. 13.11. 1918

All the peoples of Russia, the population of the occupied areas and lands.
Russian CEC this solemnly declares that the peace terms with Germany, signed in Brest March 3, 1918, do not have the strength and value. Brest-Litovsk treaty (as well as the Supplementary Agreement?) In general and all points are declared annulled. All included in the Brest-Litovsk contract obligations for the payment of indemnities or territorial concessions and  areas, declared invalid ...
Laboring masses of Russia, Liflyandiyi, Estonia, Poland, Lithuania, Ukraine, Finland, the Crimea and the Caucasus, the German revolution liberated from oppression predatory contract dictated by the German soldiery, now have themselves decide their fate. In place of the imperialist world must come a socialist, and peace concluded migrant masses of peoples Russia, Germany and Austria-Hungary, which are freed from oppression imperialists. ? The basis of genuine peace people can lie only principles that meet the fraternal relations between all workers countries and nations and have been declared the October Revolution and vidstoyuvalysya Russian delegation at Brest. All occupied regions Russia will be cleared. The right to self-determination will be fully recognized nations of the working people of all nations. All losses should be compensated the real culprits of the war - the bourgeois class ...

As explained in the document reasons for cancellation of Brest-Litovsk peace treaty? That meant the Soviet government of Russia as saying that "all occupied regions of Russia are cleared?

Four days later, Russian Sovnarcom, along with the CC RCP (b) created Revolutionary Military Council, which relied on the Armed campaign in Ukraine. In late November, the Bolsheviks, trying present military action against Ukraine as an internal struggle of different political forces have created a temporary worker-peasant government of Ukraine which was completely subordinated to the Russian Sovnarkoma. November 29 This government published a manifesto which called upon the Ukrainian people smash counterrevolution and establish Soviet power. However, Russia began move its troops into the territory of Ukraine. Along with them were created in the neutral zone between Russia and Ukraine in the first and second Ukrainian Division, who were led by the Bolsheviks. War between Russia and Ukraine resumed and began gaining widespread.

Members of the Provisional Workers 'and Peasants' Government of Ukraine. 1919

  1. When and under what conditions peace treaty was signed in Brest-Litovsk?
  2. Why UCR came into conflict with the German-Austrian administration and the conservative circles of Ukraine?
  3. When and under what circumstances the Constitution was adopted UNR?
  4. As the coup took place Hetman?
  5. What were the reasons for the fall of the Central Council?
  6. What was the composition of the government Skoropadsky and interests which reflect the groups?
  7. What were the main directions of domestic and foreign policy of the Ukrainian state?
  8. How to treat political parties and the public to the Hetman regime?
  9. Why was withdrawn Brest-Litovsk peace treaty and what consequences this event was for Ukraine?
  10. Was the signing of the Brest Treaty particular achievement for Ukrainian diplomacy? Why?
  11. Do you agree with the opinion leaders of the Central Council that Brest peace and occupation of Ukraine were the only way out of the political situation? What other outputs you'd asked?
  12. Compare that population were social support Central Rada and Hetman Skoropadsky. Explain why was the transition of power.
  13. Do you think why P. Skoropadskyi being general who fought against the Germans, agreed to head the state created by their Support? And you would be well in this situation?
  14. Compare the main directions of socio-economic activities General Secretariat of the UCR and the Hetman government. Is there something between them  common? Why? What steps do you think governments most successful and why?
  15. Why Hetman regime aroused such considerable opposition Labor?
  16. Do you agree with the idea that staying in Ukraine imperial rule led to the loss of Ukrainian society democratic traditions? Why?