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2. OCCUPATION UKRAINE HOST Nazi Germany and its allies (textbook)

§ 2                                                                 OCCUPATION HOST UKRAINE Germany and its allies


1. Nazi plans for Ukraine. German invasion the USSR

21 evening June 1941 Nazi troops, who settled along the borders of the USSR, received the conventional password from Berlin "Dortmund". It was a signal to the implementation planBarbarossa» plan of attack on the Soviet Union.

According to the directive, number 21 in the western borders of the Soviet Union deployed the first strategic echelon 190 divisions (in including 19 tank and 14 motorized), which numbered 5.5 million soldiers and officers, 4300 tanks and assault guns 47,2 thousand guns and mortars, 4980 combat aircraft.

All this mass of troops divided into three main groups: "Midnight", "Center" and "South", which were respectively aimed at Leningrad, Moscow and Kyiv directions.

Focusing on the main directions stroke forces that dominated the Soviet army, the Wehrmacht command expected to conduct "Blitzkrieg" - "Lightning war": Breakthrough Red Army, its main environment forces and destroy them within two weeks.

Determining the political purpose of war against USSR, 21 July 1940 Hitler said that the western regions of the USSR must be made three states Ukraine, Belarus and the Baltic republics of the Federation under the protection of Germany, which will serve as buffer states.

Hitler followed this plan to Spring 1941 A few days before the attack on the Soviet Union, he refused from the previous intentions, putting on top of economic necessity operation in Eastern Europe. He stressed: "Regarding the war on East, then surely it will be severe. But not for a moment doubt of success. First of all I hope that we can provide a basis for long Food in Ukraine. It will supply the resources that we would be required.

Zatverdyvshys in his intentions to world domination, the leadership of Nazi Germany planned to ethnically cleansing of "racially inferior peoples," which considered Gypsies, Jews, and also Slavs, primarily Russian and Ukrainian.

The plans of the Nazis assigned Ukraine special place. To the Republic was aimed blade Army Group South (commander General Field Marshal G.Rundshtedt). It has counted 57 Divisional and 13 brigades. Actions land forces had the cover 4 and the German fleet and Romanian aircraft. In disposal of Army Group South were 850 tanks, 16 000 guns and 1 300 aircraft. In German and Romanian troops to the invasion of Ukraine Hungarian Division also prepared.

Nazi plan to capture Ukrainian territory, turn them into their colony, using raw and land in the interests of the Third Reich. Hitler repeatedly stated that for the Germans Ukrainian lands like India to England. There can be operated using handful of people. With the attack on the Soviet Union, he said: "We difficulties in pulling out of the sea a few meters of land, we muchymosya mastering the swamp while in Ukraine immensely fertile land ... And this land is waiting for us. "

Before the war, Hitler representatives promised creation of an autonomous Ukrainian emigration from Germany Ukrainian state. But with the war he abandoned this idea. 19 September 1941 in the General Staff Fuhrer was recorded: "Conversations around the table there were mainly around the theme" Free Ukraine ". Fuehrer and Reichscommissariat rejected the idea of a free Ukraine. "


Ukraine in the Great Patriotic War (June 1941 - November 1942)


2. Border battles summer Fall 1941

22 June 1941 at 3 hours 30 minutes Wehrmacht troops launched a powerful artillery, mortar attack on Soviet territory. A few minutes armored and motorized parts Nazi army crossed the Soviet Union.


Enemy shelling position of Soviet troops


Enemy aircraft attacked the town and important industrial centers of the country. Air attacks were Lviv, Rivne, Zhytomyr, Kyiv, Odessa, Sevastopol, and settlements are located on territory Baltic republics, Belarus, Russian Federation Moldavia. Were subjected to bombardment military airfields, where German 1 aircraft destroyed 200 Soviet aircraft, mostly new models. Hitler prevailed aircraft in the air.

In Ukraine, Hitler's troops resisted the army of the Kiev Special Military District (bone) converted to the South-Western Front (commander Colonel General М.Kyrponosa) and Odessa Military District (PSB), renamed as Southern Front (commander general І.Tulenev).


Kyrponosa Mikhail Petrovich (1892–1941) Colonel General (1941), Hero of the Soviet Union (1940). Under time Civil War - a commander of the regiment. Graduated Military Academy them. MV Frunze (1927). During the Soviet-Finnish war Infantry Division commander. From January 1941 - Commander of the Kiev Special Military District. When the war commanded the Southwest Front. Killed in action September 20, 1941 in an area near Shumeykove Lokhvytsia Poltava region. during the breakout from the encirclement. He was buried in Kiev.


In the two fronts there were 80 divisions, including 45 shooting, 20 tank, 10 motorized, 5 cavalry. On they were armed with 5625 tanks, 17 thousand guns and 2700 aircraft. However, 80% of the military equipment was obsolete.

You need to also note that Infantry Division Kiev and Odessa military districts met with war significant deficiency. By staffing a Division was number 14 483 men, but it actually consisted of 8792 people in Kyiv and 8400 people in Odessa districts. At the same time German Rifle Division consisted 16 859 people.

З the first hours of war aggressor troops met desperate resistance forces Southwestern Front. Heroically fought the enemy guards and soldiers Rava-Ruskafortified area. For 22-26 June 1941 they suppressed enemy onslaught of five infantry divisions.

The first shot took Wehrmacht divisions frontier and small garrisons still unfinished and not fully equipped fortified border areas. Soviet soldiers and officers heroically performing their military duty. "No Border  mortgage, no garrison pillboxes did not leave their position under the pressure of superior forces the enemy, recalled a famous commander І.Baghramyan.


Fights at the border


One of the Nazi soldiers who took participating in the first battle and was taken prisoner, told me: "Nowhere, we never seen such stability, such a dedication of the military. We have avoided Fire point, they went, but no power could move two or three guards with their positions. They were going to die, but do not retreat. In my battalion was then 900 people. Only we lost killed 150. Over one hundred wounded ... "


I wonder

Great courage and heroism of soldiers found commanders and 13 th pledge Vladimir-Volyn border detachment on led by Lieutenant О.Lopatin, that within 11 days of the field in environment. From 73's guards were alive three. The commander of a regiment Wehrmacht recalled: "With remarkable perseverance and heroism of Soviet soldiers I first met in June 1941 days We moved forward between Rava-Ruska and lions and stumbled on a number of concreted small fortification, which stubbornly resisted. When the Soviet soldiers was no single opportunity to keep the fortified settlement, they planted it in the air and died in it. "


Five days and nights there were tank battles line Luck Brody Exactly Dubno. It was the first and largest tank battle of the war. From both the participation of about 2000 tanks. Tank and motorized part of a group of general Kleist Prize resisted Soviet mechanized corps that led the battle General М.Kyrponosa.

Heroically fought the enemy Ukrainian warriors. Yes, Tank battle crew A. rush, without shells, went to ram and destroy several Nazi T-III.

But Soviet troops, armed mostly old-style technique and using it skillfully experienced large losses. German machine guns opening the large-Soviet armor T-27 and BT-5 BT-7. Therefore trooper were often forced to keep fighting Machinery and fight as infantry. "During the fighting, mentioned in Col. Retired Y. Borodin, I commanded a tank platoon. No radios, communications supported flags. Imagine: all around in the smoke, noise, bullets whistle, and we like Vanka-Vstanka in lyukah. Vidmahav: "Do as I ' and down. "

Yet, at the first tank battle mechanized corps destroyed the enemy, the enemy offensive was delayed pas one week. But Soviet troops suffered heavy casualties. From 4 201 tanks left only 737. Discards the enemy were only 50 tanks.

Having lost a significant of military equipment, troops of Southwest Front were forced retreat.



From the war diary of F.Haldera

22 June 1941 g. (Sunday);

1 st Day War.

Utrennye soobschayut official summary that all of the Army,  except 11 (on the right flank of the army group "South" in Romania), over a nastuplenye according to plan. Nastuplenye our Forces of, in the visible, appeared for the enemy to all Full, fron taktycheskoy vnezapnostyu.

Pohranychnыe bridges across the Bug and others rivers throughout zahvachenы our troops without Boya and in Full, sohrannosty. Full, O neozhydannosty nastuplenyya of our enemy to have that indicates the fact that particles were zahvachenы vrasploh in location of the barracks, stood on samoletы aэrodromah, pokrыtыe tarps and peredovыe part, vnezapno atakovannыe our troops, zaprashyvaly command, at volume, that im to do. Can Ozhydiv else bolsheho vnezapnosty element of the effects on the future, progresses as a result of rapid Events advancing our podvyzhnыh frequent, for anything Currently, everywhere there Complete opportunity.

Air Force commanders said that by unychtozheno date, 850 aircraft, in Volume Including the tselыe эskadryly bombardyrovschykov, which, in the air without podnyavshys prykrыtyya and ystrebyteley, were atakovanы our ystrebytelyamy and unychtozhenы.


Inquiries to document

What conclusion about the degree of readiness of Soviet Troops can be done from memories of Hitler's general?


3. Mobilization Events 1941 in Ukraine

War from the very first days of acute tasked to mobilize all human and material resources for repel enemy invasion.

Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on Ukraine, as in other areas pryfrontovyh, was introduced martial law. In the hands of military management moved all the functions of public administration.

26 June 1941 Presidium of the Supreme Soviet adopted a decree mode of working time in time of war for workers and employees, which aimed at strengthening the organization, discipline and order. On production overturned the ordinary and additional leave. On the defensive transport enterprises and implemented wartime regime.

29 June 1941 Council of People's Commissars of the USSR and the CPSU (B) sent a directive to party and state bodies pryfrontovyh areas of restructuring the national economy on a war footing, mobilization of forces to resist Hitler aggression.

30 June 1941 was formed National Defence (DKO)To pass to all the fullness of political, civil and military authorities in the country. Him and High Bid Command (LPG), Led Й.Stalin.

Only July 3, 1941 Stalin appealed to the people a speech on the radio and declared war on German fascist invaders "sacred", "domestic". The fact such treatment until two weeks after Hitler's attack Germany on the Soviet Union witnessed a complete embarrassment and the Kremlin leadership Stalin personally.

Primary The Soviet government was to strengthen the Red Army. As held mobilization by the fall of 1941 filled the ranks of the army 2,5 million inhabitants of Ukraine. Rayviyskkomaty barely keep up consider the flow of applications in which young people and those not subject to appeal, requested direct them to the front volunteers.


Applications for admission from Volunteers (23 June 1941)


Decisive action by local authorities and population required activities enemy sabotage groups in the Soviet rear. In cities have created special Bomber and reconnaissance battalions to combat saboteurs and spies.

Series extending the Red Army soldiers People Address which recorded people aged 18 to 60 years, not subject to mobilization. According to incomplete data in the first months of war to national squads militia entered 1 million 300 thousand Volunteers workers, students, researchers, senior students and even home mistresses.

In difficult conditions was carried out restructuring of the economy on a war footing. To meet the needs of the Army were transferred all manufacturing sectors. Engineering factories Kyiv, Kharkov, Zaporozhye, Odessa, Dnipropetrovsk and other cities went on release tanks, artillery, small arms, shells, mines, aircraft and tank engines. The food and light industries provided the army food, clothing, footwear, various ammunition.

On the jobs of men who went to front, were women, teenagers and pensioners. Already in the first months of war they accounted for one third of all employees. Despite the difficulties of wartime, the territory of the republic managed to harvest.

During the second half of 1941 with Ukraine to the east were evacuated 550 industrial enterprises, many various equipment and material values of collective and state farms. In Volga the Urals, in Siberia and Central Asia were evacuated research Institutions USSR, many theaters and other cultural institutions. At the same time in eastern USSR regions were transported 3.5 million people in the republic.

July 6, 1941 CC КП(B) The Presidium of the Supreme Council and Council of People's Commissars of Republic requested an appeal to the Ukrainian people. "The time has come. mentioned in the proclamation when each, without sparing the life must to finish sacred duty to the country before their own people. Wherever it is enemy he must find a grave. Let every house, every home and let every city and village killing Nazi thieves. The Soviet government sought to compensate own mistakes sacrifice and heroism of the people.

However, despite large losses, the German army continued to advance in Ukrainian territory.


4. Defensive battles in the summer autumn 1341

Unassailable fortress on the way Nazi troops were the city Kyiv, Odessa, Sevastopol.

The capital of Ukraine from the very beginning of the war pryfrontovym became a city already at dawn June 22 she underwent attack Nazi bombers. Developed plan for Hitler generals took away from Kyiv to capture a few hours to two days. Hero-City on the Dnieper reflected attack the enemy 87 days. For comparison: for 5-day Nazis seized Netherlands; for 19 Belgium 35 Poland, for 44 France, for 63 Norway and for 1 day Denmark.

At dawn on June 22, covering the sky Kiev, Soviet pilots joined the fight with German Asami. In the air Lieutenant battle І.Denisov і M. Voronin shot down by one hostile aircraft. Pilot one of Hitler's bombers were taken captivity. He was a famous pilot, who was awarded three "iron crosses "for the bombing of Paris, Warsaw and other cities in Europe.

Around Kyiv was established three lines of defense. If the first was located within the PA 15 miles from the city, the third took place directly in the vicinity. On this line Defense roads and streets were peretyati antitank ditches, crowfoot, barricades. Areas where there was danger of breaking the tank parts enemy, a cover of mine fields. At the last turn of the defense of Kyiv was concentrated a large number of pillboxes, trenches built system.

The town was founded in 1913 fighter battalions and 19 people's militia units in total 32 805 people. Along with soldiers of the South-Western Front in the first half they August 1941 managed to stop an enemy offensive on Kyiv. In the vaults Soviet Informbureau constantly been newly examples of heroic deeds militias Kiev confectionery factory, furniture factory named. Vavilov rubber EnterpriseRed rezynschyk" students and teachers of Kyiv universities. Heroic deeds carried out 20 years student James Twin, a bunch of grenades which ran under the tracks German tanks and summed it cost his life.



            Of Appeals Chief South West forces toward the fighters, commanders and political instructors a call to strengthen the fight against the Nazis (August 1941)

Nahlыy hyschnыy Vragi verolomno invaded Sacred sovetskuyu ground.

Terrorom brutal, massive treasury pыtkamy, ystreblenyem Starikov, women, children and neslыhannыmy yzdevatelstvamy over population poraboschennыh countries marked by brigandish way hytlerovskyh bandits. Krovavыy Monster Hitler put the view to podchynyt dominions own way the whole world. Hytlerovskye razboynyky grips they want our land, our bread and pasture Oil. They they want to restore the power in our country king pomeschyka and onemechyt svobodny narodы Soviet Union. They prevratyt russkyy they want, Ukrainian and others in slavyanskye narodы servant nemetskyh before my face and baronov. Wormy Vragi proschytalsya. Never not pokoryatsya narodы Soviet Union Nazi zavoevatelyam. Zlodeyskye planы fashystov obrechenы to a full collapse. Our forces of neyschyslymы.

On the protection of defense, at the Sacred Otechestvennuyu wars against svyrepoho Vragi podnyalsya entire Soviet people, Rabochye, kolhoznyky, yntellyhentsyya our Great country, do not place hands, working well for the front, Krasnaya obespechyvaya victory over Army Vragi. In towns and areas zahvachennыh Nazi thugs, our Brothers and sisters sozdayut partyzanskye otryadы derzkymy struck and beaten and hromyat Vragi. The lands Slavic peoples, in Poland and Yugoslavia razhorayutsya partyzanskye movement. Slavyanskye narodы with ohromnыm sochuvstvyem sledyat for heroic borboy Krasnaya Total Army and Soviet people.

JV Stalin cite our way of combating Nazi fiend and eater. CEI way - hrabrost, courage, neznanye fear in the fight, the willingness to dratsya The last drop of blood for Our city and village. In our series no and could not Being mesta trusosty, panic, lack of will. Forsake all mortal attempts Boya field without permission starsheho head - there Betrayal and Family Change.

Besposchadno borytes with disorganizer tыla, deserters, alarmists rasprostranytelyamy lozhnыh listening! Vыlavlyvayte shpyonov, and dyversantov ystreblyayte s!

FAQ task

1. What is the real situation existed at the front at the onset of this document?

2. What was calculated extreme emotional appeal?


Resistance and heroism forced Kiev Nazi command abandon plans quick capture of the city. Lost 100 thousand soldiers and officers, the German army halted the offensive. Head General Staff Army Gen. Nazi Germany Halder in his diary on this subject wrote: "10serpnya 1941 ... command of Army Group (South Author.) gave the order on time cessation of the offensive on Kyiv and the temporary move to defense 6 Army ... "

However, the situation in and around the town remained difficult. Command Southwest Front features not throwing attack on Kyiv German troops from the north. That avoid disaster Representative G. Zhukov rates offered to withdraw troops on the left bank of the Dnieper and strengthen the front. Stalin flatly refused from this proposal.

In early September 1941 Tank groups Huderiana and Kleist Prizeforsuvaly Sky and went on the Left Bank, September 15, were surrounded 4 Soviet army. September 19 Soviet troops left Kyiv.

Near ShumeykivskohoHay in Poltava during attack on enemy convoy killed Staff Colonel General М.Kyrponosa member of the Military Council А.Burmystenka, Chief of Staff Gen. Front В.Tupikov.

As a result military catastrophe of 663 thousand Red opynyshsya in enemy captivity, huge number of them perished in Nazi concentration camps.

Erasable won the glory Defenders of the largest port on the Black Sea Naval Base Black Sea Fleet Odessa.

73 days (out of 5 August 1916 October 1941) Seashore army, seamen-Chernomortsev, reflecting people's militia attack German and Romanian troops. In Odessa the enemy lost about 200 thousands killed, wounded and prisoners.

250 days (from 30 October 1941 to 4 July 1942) long heroic defense Sevastopol. Soviet troops fought off three major offensives of the enemy. Surrounded by the sea and land, suffering from a shortage of stocks, Food, water, medications, they bravely performed their duty



Workers surrounded by shells made in Sevastopol


A detachment of sailors sent to defend Sevastopol (1941)


            Defenders destroyed the city 300 thousand occupants. Loss of the Wehrmacht during the war from September 1 1939 on June 22, 1941 in Europe, North Africa were significantly less.

Sevastopol defense foiled Nazi plans for an attack on the Caucasus and Transcaucasia. At the same time failures rates Peel the evacuation of Soviet troops from Sevastopol led to that of the defenders of the city remained in the environment. Blocked from all sides, armed only with light  WEAPONS warriors Sevastopol until the last breath reflect enemy attacks.


5. Losses Soviet troops in the south and near Kharkiv

The consequences of inappropriate command Betting ended a disaster for Soviet troops in the Kerch Peninsula. General Incompetence Kozlova and politkomisara Mehlisa enabled the German-Romanian troops under the command Manshteyna achieved significant successes in the south.

In May 1942, at the same time battles in the Crimea, opened active fighting Soviet troops in the area Kharkov. Considering that the brunt of enemy troops will be sent to Moscow, Stalin adventures took the decision to attack Soviet troops in the area Kharkov and to break the enemy on the southern wing of the Soviet-German Front. Ignoring the criticisms of the General Staff, Stalin ordered the attack, which began May 12.

The beginning of hostilities was successful: Soviet troops moved in three days of 25 battles-30 km. But May 17 at the flanks of attacking forces South-Western Front were marked significant enemy groups. Neglecting Alert members of the Military Council Khrushchev and І.Baghramian, Stalin ordered to continue offensive. As a result of strong retaliation Nazi divisions in the north and South found themselves surrounded by 240 thousand fighters and commanders of the Red Army.

Strategic initiative belonged to the enemy. For several weeks, German troops vdayusya advance to 400 km. July 22, 1942 after the capture of Hitler Sverdlovsk Voroshylovhrad (now Luhansk) region was the territory of the Ukrainian SSR permanently occupied.


Major battles in Ukraine, the Soviet-German front in 1941



The course of events, results

Panzer   Battle in the Rivne - Dubno - Luck - Brody

23-29   June 1941

Home   great tank battle of World War II, in which both sides participated   more than 5 thousand tanks. Soviet mechanized corps, receiving orders immediately   discarded before the enemy tank parts that broke, took the offensive   without proper training and aviation cover. Oncoming tank battle   resulted in almost complete defeat of Soviet mechanized corps

Value. While promoting the enemy and was arrested on   week, this was achieved with a price: from 4.2 thousand tanks   South-Western Front there are only 737. The enemy lost several hundred   tanks. Beat mechanized corps ripping attempt to master the enemy of progress   Kyiv and made it possible to prepare a defense turn on the approaches to the city,   forced the enemy to enter into battle prematurely reserves

Kiev   defensive operation

July 7   - 26 September 1941.

July 5, 1941 German troops were able to   break through the defenses between 5 th and 6 th Soviet army and came to the defense   structures of the city. This event is considered the beginning of the Kiev Strategic Defense   operation, which lasted 83 days. The German command as estimated breakthrough   decisive victory and the fall of Kyiv regarded as a near-term. But   German parts that come into the first zone defense, were unable to overcome.   First storm of July 11-14, Kyiv was a failure for the enemy. These events   began a heroic defense of the city, which lasted 71 days. Unsuccessful   for the enemy were other attempts to master the city. Defenders of Heroism   (Over 120 thousand soldiers, of which amounted to 33 thousand people's   militia) held steady defense. August 21 Hitler decided   frontal attack to stop the city

Kiev   defensive operation


In the meantime Historically threatening situation on the flanks of Southwest   front, which defended the city. German tanks bypassed the defenders of the city   from the south and north and locked ring near Lokhvytsia environment. Retire   Soviet troops were given too late and got four in the environment   Soviet army. September 19 German troops came to Kyiv

Value. Foiled the plans of the German commanders quickly   take the city. Forced him to change the direction of the main shock, which finally   led to the failure of the plan "Barbarossa»

Defense   Odessa

August 5   - October 16, 1941

After the defeat of the Southern Front, Romanians German troops   was besieged Odessa. But the enemy quickly take the city failed.   Several assaults were repulsed cities with large losses for the enemy. Before   leaving the city, Soviet troops had a successful amphibious operation in the area   village Hryhorivka, Capturing the heavy guns that   fired city. The decision to cease defense of the city was taken in   due to the breakthrough of German troops in the Crimea. Evacuation of troops from Odessa   was no loss and suddenly the enemy

Value. Soviet troops that within 72 days   carried out defense of the city, distracting themselves significant enemy force, causing   him heavy losses (over 300 thousand people). The defense of the city created   possibility of the Black Sea Fleet during the second half of 1941   control all the Black Sea - and threatening the coast of Romania   oil fields

Defense   Sevastopol

October 30   1941 - July 4, 1942

In October 1941 German troops stormed into   Crimea. October 30 they reached the distant approaches to the city. The city was not   defensive buildings equipped with the land, but had a well defined   defense from the sea. In a short time around it was established three lines   defense. Although the city was separated from rear areas of land, the Black Sea   fleet during the 250 days provided all the necessary defense of the city.   The repeated assaults of German and Romanian troops were imprinted with   considerable damage to an enemy (over 300 thousand people). But the defeat of the Soviet   troops on the Crimean front Kerch p-ovi gave   German troops to make a decisive offensive to break through defenses   Sevastopol. July 3, 1942 Rate gave the order to evacuate   troops, but it was too late. Able to evacuate only a small part   Defenders of

Value. In defense of Sevastopol long chained   significant forces of German troops, causing them significant losses. Plans were thwarted   Destruction of the Black Sea Fleet of the USSR


6. Causes of Soviet defeats troops

Causes   defeat the Red Army

Alternative   judgment

1. Soviet   management led by Joseph Stalin did not take the necessary measures for proper   training of Soviet troops to repel the enemy; constant consideration the contention that   non-aggression pact is a guarantee of peaceful relations with Nazi Germany,   dezoriyentuvalo army and the people (TASS declaration of 14 June 1941, in   which version of Germany's preparation for an attack on the USSR was called   provocative).


1. During the second and third five yatyrichok established industrial   base in the East. September 1, 1939 introduced a general   conscription. Was increased spending on military needs, widen   Issue weapons. Put into production new types of weapons are not inferior, and   sometimes were better than samples of weapons from other countries. Yes, the new park   T-34 and KV equal number of German medium tanks T-III and IV.   Accelerated pace clicked on a new structure for the troops.   Created mechanized corps, which by their strike force were able to   solve strategic problems. On the eve of the war was conducted blind   mobilization, which resulted in the Red Army's strength was increased by   800 thousand people. also in the western districts of the USSR was redeployed   five armies. Most of the population was convinced of the inevitability of war with   Germany. A General Staff developed plans for war with Germany ("Storm").

2. Serious mistakes were made and Stalin   General Staff in determining the direction of the main shock the enemy. Main   Soviet command mistakenly believed the attack on Ukraine, while under   plan "Barbarossa"The shock was applied   Army Group Center.

2. Brunt of German Army Groups Center had only   temporary success. After the Battle of Smolensk, the German command was   forced to order to move to Moscow to defend. Direction   main attack was changed. Main striking force of the German armies were   directed to Ukraine, the struggle for resources is still the main objective was to   further action opponents. 

3. Considerable   combat experience and command of German combat units for modern   mobile combat operations using a large number of tanks and planes.


3. The Soviet army also had considerable combat experience.   Soviet advisers and volunteers participated in the Civil War  in Spain (1936-1939), in battle in China   side Homindana against Japan (1937-1939). Soviet   Union had two serious conflicts with Japan: near Lake Hassan (1938) and on the river    Halhin-Chief (1939). In 1939, Red Army   made a "liberation campaign in Poland. In 1939-1940 he carried out aggression   v. Finland (Winter War). In 1940 Baltic states and seized   Bessarabia. In these conflicts, the Red Army losses were even greater than   Germans in Europe.

4. Failed   location of Soviet troops to conduct military battles. Location   Soviet troops three Fl (57, 52 and 62 Division) led to what   connection entered into battle by one, and this gave the opportunity to break them   parts.


4. Eshelonne location of Soviet troops, although   reduced the number of troops that were direct combat with the enemy, but did   Soviet defense in `viscous, each week, slowing the movement of the enemy. Yes   if in the first month of the war the enemy dug in the USSR for more than 600 km, then   next month, only 150 km.

5. Soviet troops did not even prepared for defensive battles.   Supposed to wage war "little blood and in the enemy. Players   ammunition and other military assets were located too close to   border and in the first days of the war found themselves in enemy hands. Yes, the enemy   took 5 million 400 thousand rifles, with 7 million 600 thousand,   191 of 240 thousand machine guns. As a result of a rifle were from   three to five fighters.

5. Having a numerical advantage the Soviet   command is not particularly pereymalosya defense issues. In the words of Hitler   how would he know that the true number of Soviet Army, he would have thought   or attack him in the USSR.

6. On the new frontier was not completed   defensive structures to the fighting. In addition, they were unsuccessful   located ("the Molotov Line"). Defence facilities in the old borders were   disarmed.

6. During World War II, none of the fenced   lines not played the role that they assigned, and not become an insurmountable   obstacle to enemy troops.

7. Mass repressions in the army 1937-1938 biennium and   the following years led to the extermination of the best command of Red Army personnel.   There have been repressed from 37 to 45 thousand people at all levels of command   (Repression was subjected to all officers of bone). New commanders were not   sufficient combat and life experiences.


7. One can not say that all the repressed   talented military commanders were due to which the USSR would benefit immediately   war. In addition, the part was not repressed by trumped up cases. If   best were repressed, where embarked commanders with whom the Soviet Union won the war?   Recent studies claim that in 1937-1939 he was exempt from army   about 45 thousand officers, of which only about 17 thousand can   to categorize the repressed, of which only about 2 thousand died and   about 4 thousand were brought to the tribunal.

8. Low   level of the Red Army soldiers. Top 1941 only 7%   command and management staff had university degrees, and 37%. Generally lacking   appropriate training. In Kiev, about 40% of PSB Red were   illiterate or malopysmennymy. Was weak engineering and technical training   fighters. Much of the tank crew to join the service is not even seen   tractor and the engine. G. Zhukov said on this subject: "We need the truth to say that because of   illiteracy and beskulturya our recruiters we very often bear the loss Large   Technics and alive in syle, not the possible dostyhnuv for success.

8. Red Army general introduction to military   duty was staffing and level of training fighters and commanders was high.   These are the memories of those veterans have passed the war from its beginning.   Falling levels of professionalism and preparation began after the rapid   increase in the CHA.

9. The troops were not given time to alert   (For individual exceptions) to give the proper repulse the enemy, despite   that the Stalinist leadership was timely notified of a possible attack.

9. On the eve of the war Stalin had dozens of messages from   various sources about the plans of Germany. Only few of these messages   indicated that the war will start in June 1941 Have had to believe   Stalin this message if the information about the outbreak of war in May 1941   not met.

10. Aircraft were focused on airfields, and   not on the field, leading to huge losses at the beginning of the war. (In the first   66 hours War airfields were destroyed 579 aircraft.)

10. Despite the destruction of a large number of aircraft in the first   Hours of war on airfields, Soviet aircraft anyway numerically dominant   enemy, but due to air combat in the first day of the war was 1:1.


Question and objectives

1. How to plan an attack called Nazi troops in the USSR?

2. Name the date Nazi Germany attacked the USSR.

3. Is that all political, civil and military power in the country concentrated in the hands of National Defence?

4. Name the main events in the Soviet-German front summer - autumn 1941

5. Name the group of Nazi armies targeted Ukraine.

6. What is a "blitzkrieg"?

7. Who commanded the Soviet forces that resisted Hitler's armies in Ukraine?

8. Spread the mobilization activities in 1941 in Ukraine

9. Define chronological sequence of events:

- Top defense of Sevastopol;

- Defeat of the Soviet troops near Kharkiv;

- Top defense Odessa;

- Abandonment Soviet troops Kyiv.

10. What is the role assigned to Ukraine in Hitler's plans Germany?

11. What is the impact on the further course of World War II had a heroic defense of Kyiv, Odessa, Sevastopol?

12. What are the causes of failures of the Red Army at the beginning of war? Express your own views and arguments it.

13. Fill in the table:

Correlation armed forces of the USSR and Germany before the war


Soviet troops   in Ukraine

German troops   Army Group South

Rifle Division









What can you conclude based on these statistics data?

14. How do you think it could prevent military catastrophe that befell the Soviet troops at the beginning of war? Give your point of view.

15. Why do you think Hitler army did not could make a "blitzkrieg"?

16. Do you agree with the idea that Stalin Management attempted to compensate for their massive military miscalculations heroism of Soviet people?