Remember: 1. Which all-political, revolutionary movements were in the Ukrainian lands in the first half of the nineteenth century.? 2. What changes have occurred in the Russian Empire in the early 60's?
Limited and inconsistent Reform 60's caused the growth of different layers of discontent society. Young people tend to maximalism, became the basis for the radical movement, who advocated the acceleration of dramatic change. Radical youth Empire, which at’yednuvalas in a secret organization to against the existing order, called populists. This name was derived from idealization of the young people of different ranks of intellectuals (in Russian Empire - the peasantry). Populists, adopting the ideology of their predecessors A. Herzen, M. Chernyshevsky of peasant socialism on the path of uncompromising anti-tsarist.
Populism - a different ranks of the intelligentsia-wide movement, which arose under the influence of Socialism and the features of Russia in the second half of the XIX century. They advocated the overthrow of the autocracy through peasant revolution. Appearing late 60's XIX century., The populist movement became a significant factor social and political life in the mid 70's Narodniks were convinced that collectivist traditions of rural communities is the foundation of the socialist organization of society. Russia, they are interpreted, unlike Western Europe must avoid a capitalist stage of development and farmers populists considered the driving force behind the revolution in the way of society to socialism.
In General-motion populists took an active part and radical Ukrainian youngsters did not satisfy the cultural boundaries of the Ukrainian movement.
The first circle was populists organized in 1871 in St. Petersburg Michael Czajkowski. Subsequently similar groups emerged in many cities of the empire.
Populism in Ukraine developed almost the same as in the whole Russian Empire, having, however, some features. Here it is, despite its social direction, had to take account of the Ukrainian National movement, Ukrainian national characteristics, their history. In addition to Ukrainian peasant village community did not play such a role as central areas of Russia, and Ukrainian peasants were developed sense of ownership. It immediately included in contrast with the main idea of populism, the natural inclination peasants to socialism.
The first circle like St. Petersburg, appeared in Kiev in 1872 (P. Axelrod, G. Gurevich, S. Lurie et al.). In 1873 in the city was one of the largest Russian Empire under the leadership circle F. Bolkhovsky. Among its 115 Members were such prominent figures in the future of the populist movement, as Andrew Zhelyabov Andrew Frandzhali, S. Chudnovsky, V. Kostyurin et al.
Deployment of the populist movement has caused controversy regarding the most effective way of achieving this goal. One of the areas associated with the famous Russian populists Peter Lavrov, defended gradual approach to preparing people for the revolution through education and propaganda. Another approach was associated with the figure known not only in Russia but Mikhail Bakunin in Europe. He was the founder of a revolutionary new direction in movement - anarchism, which denied the need for government and other political power, preached unlimited individual liberty. Supporters of anarchism (Bakuninismm) believed that people in poverty who are always ready the rebellion (rebellion). You just need to raise a rebellion, which develop into revolution. He argued that for the revolution can be used any means: "A knife, poison, noose - a revolution is equally justified.
In Ukraine, the most active Bakuninists circle was "Kiev commune. She united to 80 persons mostly students. Such its members as Faith Zasulich, Vladimir Debahoriy-Mokriyevych Stefanovic and James, later became prominent revolutionary populists.
In the two areas there was a third, which was the ideologue P. Tkachev. He believed that the Russian Empire either propaganda or appeal to people's revolt does not give effect. In his opinion, the only way to change society was a revolutionary conspiracy, namely: small group of conspirators, through the coup, had to take power, and then make the necessary socialist transformation.
In 1874 About 3 thousand populists "went to the people." They launched a propaganda work among peasants. Throwing their university studies, disguised in peasant clothing, populists took the village of revolutionary socialist ideas. However, this "walking in people "were defeated. Not all participants "walking" suffered repression by government. The peasants simply refused to deal with foreigners from the city, and often even helped identify gendarmes revolutionaries. Where lucky establishing contact, the villagers have heard that directly touched their needs, but the talk of socialism in general do not understand. Villagers believed "Good" king who satisfy the aspirations of the peasants of equitable distribution land and punish offenders (landlords and bureaucrats).
The failure of "people walking in" forced populists seek new ways to fight.
One of them was to unify revolutionary populists in a single organization, which was coordinated and direct the activities of all revolutionary forces. Spring 1876 in St. Petersburg was founded undercover revolutionary organization "Earth and freedom ". At various times, included her more than 60 active members, among them were come from Ukraine: son Joseph Aptekman Pavlogradskogo merchant, son Tulchinskogo merchant Lev Deich, son of a military physician from Poltava Sergei Kravchynskyy, descendant of the ancient family from Chernigov Hetman Dmytro Lyzogub et al. In the "Earth and will" stressed the need to create "National-revolutionary". To do this, planned to deploy a wide agitation among the population, cause a protest against authorities' actions and organize armed rebellion. Go to the new society was to take place through the transfer of land farmers, public land ownership and secular government. And grab assumed power in the shortest time through a violent coup.
Populist organizations that were in Ukraine does not join the "Land and freedom", but kept it close ties. They are at the beginning of 1875 united in a circle "Southern rebels "led by V.Debahoriyem-Mokriyevychem. It consisted of 30 persons in including I. Kochanowski, L. Deutsch, V. Zasulich, M. Kovalevskaya et al. In 1877 group separated from group Y. Stefanovich, who tried use the unrest that has gripped rural counties Chigirinskogo and Cherkasy Kyiv province to organize the uprising little spill over to other counties. Given previous experience, Stefanovic decided to take advantage of monarchical Confidence peasants. With the help of Deutsch and he rigged Bohanovskoho "Imperial secret charter" which was written that the king knows about the plight of his subjects, but was prevented landowners. So farmers have to take care of themselves himself: the landlords and fairly clear divide all the land. And for this they should unite in a "secret wife". Statute of underground peasant organizations also have been developed.
Stefanovich, pretending royal commissioner, relying on the "royal charter", began to organize illegal peasant organization "secret wife". In mid-1877 it consisted of about 2000 members, led by its chieftain was E. Oleynik. October 1 1877 planned to begin the uprising. However, in September of conspiracy was series, about 1000 participants were arrested. Events Chigirinskoy County, known as Chygyryns'ka conspiracy, were the only mass peasant speech, provoked by the populists.
Having lost faith in the peasantry able to rise against autocracy, populists reviewed tactics and combat resorted to terror. V. Zasulich shot in St. Petersburg mayor in Trepova January 1878 and its justification in the court the father of a wave of attacks on senior royal officials and staff directly to the king.
Yes, February 23, 1878 in Kiev Valerian Osinsky, Ivan and Alexey Medvedev Ivychevych utterly unsuccessful attempt on known for his intransigence to the populists of the deputy prosecutor of the Kiev District Court of Kotlyarevskogo. In May, Gregory Popko Dagger stabbed gendarmerie lieutenant Baron Heykinha known for its struggle against populists. The most publicized murder came with H. Goldenberg L. Kobilyanskogo Kharkiv governor Kropotkin, because in local prisons abused for political prisoners.
Terror from the populists start was doomed to failure. Without broad public support to change existing system with single characters can not. In the fight against populists were throw all the police forces. During the 1878-1879 biennium Police crushed major groups and groups and gave the court their participants.
Despite repression, radical minded populists sought to intensify terrorist activity. But not all shared those views.
In August 1879 "Earth and Will "split into separate organizations - the People's will" and "Black Division. "People's Will" opened a new phase of the revolutionary movement, the revolutionary stage terror. It has developed a military organization. Similar groups existed in Odessa Nikolaev, Kherson and other cities of Ukraine. Members of organizations committed terrorist acts against senior officials and the king. The most active members of the People's liberty "in Ukraine was I. Glushkov, V. Bychkov, I. Levinsky, M. Trigon, V. Zhebunov, Fihner V. et al. Boom narodovoltsyamy death sentence King Alexander II was executed March 1, 1881 But positive results are not led. The death of the king caused a general condemnation of violence in society, discredit terrorists. The new Tsar Alexander III intensified repression against populists, and in domestic policy, implemented a policy kontrreform. Politics Revolutionary terror has suffered complete defeat.
Chornoperediltsi abide ideas of "Land and freedom" and continued advocacy. To guide This organization consisted, in particular, P. Axelrod, L. Deutsch, V. Zasulich, G. Plekhanov, J. Stefanovic. Group "Black manufactured" acted in Kiev, Kharkov and other cities of Ukraine. Harassment by the police forced the founders of the "Black redistribution" emigrate.
Thus, neither a terrorist nor advocacy populists not reached the goal. Among leaders of the movement was published errors awareness of their views and beliefs. Make a socialist revolution based on the peasantry, it was not possible.
Late 80 - early 90's populist movement yielded a mass working-class and socialist movements. Over 90's one part is moved to a populist position liberalism, the second - perceived Marxism, the third - remained on the old positions, by organizing in the early twentieth century. Party sotsialystiv-revolutionaries.
The second half of the nineteenth century. was period distribution in Europe, the labor movement and socialist ideas. It because the industrial revolution and industrialization have contributed formation of a new layer of society - the proletariat with specific traits and interests. Without ownership, he could rely only on their work. This situation made the proletarians, on the one hand, vulnerable to away with divers life difficulties (economic crisis, disease, tyranny business owner et al.), on the other - perceptible to the various revolutionary doctrines that promised "bright future".
One such revolutionary teachings most common in the second half of XIX - early XX century., was Marxism, which linked the socialist society is to pereustriy proletariat.
The Marxist doctrine in the Russian Empire in general and in Ukraine in particular has found many supporters. But it should Note that in Europe, Marxism emerged from the labor movement, while in the Russian his empire was a native intelligentsia that hastened with "new ideas" in working environment, as before, with the populist - the village.
The first advocates of the new teaching, namely its economic part, the Ukrainian lands in the early 70's were M. Sieber and S. Podolynsky.
Sieber, who is revered Marx, in 1871 first acquainted with their students and colleagues in Kyiv. However, he focusing only on the economic aspect of teaching, lowering his revolutionary side. Another popularizer of Marxism S. Podolynsky in the 70's participated in of community and Narodnicheskom movements. Organized in Vienna publishing popular socialist literature in Geneva together with M. and M. Drahomanov Pavlyk launched the journal "Community" and printed their own leaflets socio-economic lines: "The Wealth and Poverty", "On farming", "Crafts and factories in Ukraine and others. He studied the possibility of accumulation and solar energy. Corresponded with Karl Marx and F. Engels, popularized the teachings of their economic position. Developed the original theory of "socialism" (federation of free citizens) that based on national traditions of Ukrainian people.
The spread of revolutionary Marxist doctrine associated with the first Russian Marxist group "Emancipation of Labour, organized in Geneva in 1883 Georgi Plekhanov from disappointed in the Russian revolutionary populism.
The first permanent Marxist group in Ukraine entitled "Russian Party of Social Democrats" have a 1893 in Kiev. Its founder was Yuri Melnikov - a Russian, that established the industrial school, which served as a channel for distributing Marxist ideas. Other Marxist group appeared in Kharkov, Odessa and Yekaterynoslav. Ukrainian rarely occurred among those first Marxists. It explained that among workers in the Ukrainian lands were dominated by Russians, Jews and others. Illegal groups tried to spread Marxist doctrine and establish links with the labor movement. A qualitatively new step socialist (Social democratic) movement made the late 90's after the appearance in Petersburg led by Vladimir Ulyanov (Lenin) "fighting for the Union emancipation of the working class have similar groups started in Kyiv Yekaterinoslav Nikolayev and other cities. Subsequently, these groups have tried join the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party. In 1898 the in Minsk hosted the first congress of the party. With nine of its four delegates (N. Vyhdorchyk, B. Eidelman, K. Petrusevich, P. Tuchapskyy) represented social-democratic circles of Ukraine. Established at the Congress Party - RSDLP - the first all-party acting on the Ukrainian lands.
Labour movement in the Ukrainian lands began in the late 60-ies First it was spontaneous, unorganized character. Speeches workers occurred due to worsening working conditions, reducing wages. Forms of struggle of the workers were leaving the group work destruction of machinery and equipment, strikes and so on.
Since the mid 70's the labor movement started to gain an organized form. The first workers' organization became "South Russian Workers Union, which in 1875 originated in Odessa headed by Yevgeny Zaslavsky. Combining to 250 workers, he opened revolutionary propaganda distributed illegal literature, led strikes factories Odessa. In Rostov-on-Don and operated Chisinau branch of the organization that was under the influence of the ideology of populism. 9 months after the establishment organization was exposed and its leaders convicted.
With reports of secret Odessa provincial gendarmerie management of the activities of the South Russian Union workers "
"Inquest established that the main organizer and director of the company is Zaslavsky, guilt has been fully proved? Zaslavsky managed company workers: in railway workshops? and factories? Propagation was carried very carefully and consistently, for the masses Workers Association aim was to improve the material life of factory workers through the Association, and between them collected money for the organization offices mutual aid. Only proven and highly trained members of the open original revolutionary goals society, and as one of the questioned posvidchyv it consisted of bears and ringleader. Such bears, or uninitiated members Society, there were several hundred souls. Only a few of them knew that ultimate goal, which sought to society was to overthrow the existing social and political order, and that money collected, designed for sending members to other cities in order to strengthen the anti-governmental propaganda? "
Judge: 1. What was the main goal of "South Russian Workers Union"? 2. What were the organizational structure and working methods?
1. What were the main causes populist movement?
2. What was the basis of ideology Populism?
3. Find out the main provisions of the populist ideology.
4. Describe the basic flow populist movement.
5. Fill in the table: "Stages of the populist movement
The chronological limits
6. What were the main features populist movement in the Ukrainian lands?
7. What Chygyryns'ka conspiracy?
8. What are the main causes of decline populist movement.
9. What was due to appearance mass labor and social democratic movements?
10. Why is the main ideology Marxism was the labor movement?
11. What was the impact of populist and labor movements in Ukrainian?