Remember: 1. What trends have dominated the Ukrainian movement in Galicia in 60 70 years? 2. What can be explained by a split in the Ukrainian movement?
Out of the Ukrainian movement (as Old Ruthenians and populists) in the broad political arena was inevitable The result influence of modern European political theory, particularly socialism. New developments in eastern Galicia initiated intelligentsia at that time was more developed in the intellectual plane. This was caused, particularly vigorous activity Drahomanov Michael, who urged young people expand their intellectual horizons, to get acquainted with the best achievements of European and Russian culture, science, go on the older generation, not only words but raise deed Ukrainian society. Responded to his call a small Western group of young people. So the Ukrainian movement took another trend - radically.
The first proponents Drahomanov appeared in the Vienna of Ukrainian Students Club Sich. End 70's Nineteenth century. it supported the idea of two students of Lviv groups: one that was influenced by Old Ruthenians - "Akademycheskyy circle, another - populist "friendly uncle". Then circle supporters extended. The most capable followers became John opinions Drahomanov Franco and Michael Pavlik, who raised the Ukrainian movement in Galicia on the new intellectual level, overcome its limitations and provincial conservatism.
Michael I. Pavlik (1853-1915) - social, cultural and educational activist, writer. He came from a peasant family from Stanislav. After graduating from high school in Lvov 1874 entered Lviv National University. There he became a member of "Akademycheskoho mug and collaborated in its printed media of "Friend", where he met Ivan Franko. Ideas Drahomanov made a great impression on him, and he became an ardent supporter of them. Together with Frank published the magazine "Public Friend", almanacs "Bell" and "Hammer". For his socialist views suffered persecution. Five times getting to the prison. In the end, was forced to emigrate to Switzerland, where he with Podolynsky Drahomanov and published the magazine "Community". He was one of the founders Ruthenian-Ukrainian Radical Party and editor of its print "Khliborob" and "People" (1890-1895 biennium). In 1895-1905 - the first librarian Scientific Society. Shevchenko (Shevchenko Scientific Society). In 1914 became deputy chairman Main Ukrainian Rada. Pavlik's creative heritage consists of art works, translations and publications.
The activity of representatives of the new flow began with an active outreach. Since 1876 Pavlik and Franco edited the magazine "friend." They rejected "yazychiye", which published magazine, and went on Ukrainian folk dialect. My first critical article they are directed against the Old Ruthenians, causing them yet another serious blow. Then they touched and populists, ridiculing them for literary peresichnist products and conservatism. But the brunt of criticism was directed against clergy that his radical youth tried to eliminate from leadership role in the spiritual life of society. This sharp criticism mixed perceived as the leaders of the Ukrainian movement, and the Western Ukrainian society in general.
Exodus in the new political trend in broad political arena contributed lawsuit 1877-1878 biennium against Franco and his comrades. Socialist ideas, which advocated a new flow figures were The result in charges of subversion.
Although the general idea that proclaimed radicals were not accepted by the Ukrainian society, they led to the emergence of new supporters of socialist ideas (Nicholas perpetual, Stanislav Kozlovsky, Cyril Trylovskyy, Vyacheslav Budzynovskyy, Vladimir Ohrimovych etc.)..
Radicals created in October 1890 the first Ukrainian political party in Galicia - Ruthenian-Ukrainian Radical Party (RURP). In sharp internal debate between old and young radicals for the first time the Ukrainian movement was launched and reasonably postulate the unity of Ukrainian lands and political autonomy Ukraine. It was contained in the book Julian Bachinskiy «Ukraina Irredenta »(1895).
Beginning Ukrainian politicization movement and crystallization of the idea of political independence of Ukraine were held under conditions When the Ukrainian question in Galicia was a political factor in primary value. It turned out in three areas:
· nationwide. Aspiration Austro-Hungarian ruling circles to use the Ukrainian question in the confrontation with Russia, to avoid the radicalization of the Ukrainian movement, turning it into destructive force;
· International relations in the region. The rise of the Ukrainian movement made the inevitable transformation of the system relations with the Poles;
· Ukrainian. Implementation of ideas in the transformation of Galicia "Ukrainian Piedmont.
International situation has contributed Ukrainian production problems at European level. Balkan crisis aggravated relations Austria-Hungary and Germany and Russia. Ukraine began considered as a possible thorn war. In September 1886 Galicia visited Caesar, in summer 1887 - the successor of the throne, Rudolf, who said that Ukrainian is the "ancient cultural nation." Considerable publicity was inspired by German A. Chancellor Bismarck article "Russia in Europe, where the idea expressed restoration of the Kingdom of Kiev under the protection of the Habsburgs.
The idea of formation of the Kiev Kingdom resonance caused by the Austrian, German, Russian, Ukrainian and Polish communities. Austro-Hungarian government is seriously interested Ukrainian movement in Dnieper Ukraine, hoping to use it to to separate Ukraine from Russia. This idea coincided with the aspirations of some leaders Kyiv community (A., Rodin and others.) Incline to the side of Ukrainian case by the decision of Austro-Hungarian monarchy in order to obtain new national and cultural rights for the Ukrainian Galician. For this purpose it was reconcile the Ukrainian and Polish in Galicia.
Negotiations to reach a understanding began in the mid 80's They were conducted secretly in a narrow circle of people. The Polish side presented Prince Adam Sapieha. He was of the one of the most influential at that time in the land of family, his father Leon was 1861-1875 biennium Galician Sejm Marshal. Ukrainian - O. Barvinsky, A. Vahnyanyn, K. Telishevskyy et al. Who decided to keep the policy in Galician consultation with the Kiev community. Summer 1888 agreement was reached on monthly publication "The Truth", which would become the body of "the whole of Ukraine-Rus" promote "spiritual unity" of the Ukrainian people, redistributed between the two states, and simultaneously prepare the society to the Polish-Ukrainian agreement. It defended the thesis that "the future of the Ruthenian people connected with the interests of the state Austrian and the fate of the Polish people. " Further convergence failed tension over the election of 1889 to the Galician Diet.
Eventually, under pressure from Vienna and Kiev parties to the agreement was reached and November 25, 1890 public. Official text of the agreement were not: she stuck to her promise initiators.
Ukrainian demanded that the Polish land administration to recognize the independence of the Ukrainian nation and more to take care of its development, with equal commitment to treat two people in Galicia, promising loyalty to the Austro-Hungarian monarchy and the Habsburg dynasty. Agreement supported by the Greek Catholic Metropolitan Sylvester Sembratovych and Galician governor Count Casimir Baden. As asserted by both parties, agreement had to start "New era" in the Ukraine-Polish relations. And yet, this policy did not last long. The Polish side was unwilling to make concessions that would allow the Ukrainian movement ask questions about the division of Galicia to the Ukrainian and Polish and seek autonomous rights. In early 1894 both sides gave up its continuation.
Yet, despite the failure, "NE" had a profound effect. Slowly realized the program, portrayed her triggers. It included: the opening of the department of history of Ukraine in Lviv University of the Company name. Shevchenko scientific status with the prospect its transformation into the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. In fact, the department has been opened Ukrainian history (she called the Department of Eastern European history), Scientific Company by Shevchenko with a constant state subsidies, but without academic status; chotyryklasni school founded with the Ukrainian language of teaching men seminaries in Ternopil and Stanislav and women in Ukraine, Ukrainian parallel Kolomiysky classes at school, a teacher seminary in Sambor, separated Ukrainian high school from Przemysl in Poland and more. In 1893 Ukrainian phonetic spelling was given official status and put it in school books. It was also established precise society "Dniester" (1892) for Ukrainian population. One of the direct consequences of the "new era" was visit to Lviv in 1894 Kiev young historian, a student of Mr. Antonovich Hrushevsky, headed by our new department at Lviv University.
Another important consequence Polish-Ukrainian agreement was accelerated structuring Ukrainian political life in Galicia. Started the clear separation of political currents. More to proclaim a "new era" old radicals - Franco, Pavlik, and Terlecki others. convened in early October 1890 Meeting of radical intellectuals in Lviv and proclaimed the creation RURP. The radicals skillfully used the "new era" for political self-affirmation on the basis of its critics, and its failure led them to leading position in the Ukrainian movement. In the mid 90's they were rise, but 1895 packaged for its program of political demand Ukraine's independence. In the ranks of the populists split. Continued policy agreement with the Poles defended group hurtuvalas around O. Barvinskyi - their novokursnykamy called. Later they turned into a small Christian-social party. They are supported above the Greek Catholic clergy. Most of the populists, led by J. Romanchuk won distinctively anti-Polish stance. Their called independent. But the constant vacillation of the populists fighting for cooperation the Poles blew their credibility. In its current leadership starorusynskiy skochuvavsya to Russophilism and lost positions.
That same "new era" led to schism in the Ukrainian movement, which reflected negatively on the results of elections Galician Sejm in 1895 Attempts by the convene a congress of representatives of all currents in March 1894 to develop further joint position no success small.
Nevertheless, the split and had positive consequences: at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. have political parties with well-defined national, state programs (national independence of Ukraine, unification of all Ukrainian lands into one state) that prevailed in Ukrainian movement. Starorusynstvo finally declined.
The end of the nineteenth century. was crucial in the development of Ukrainian national movement. From the appearance of the first Ukrainian national idea vyhopylasya parties outside the intelligentsia Environment and penetrated in masses. On the historical scene came new generation of energetic leaders, which demanded full independence of Ukraine. It was the late nineteenth century., Especially after the celebration of 100 years anniversary "Aeneid" Kotlyarevskogo began distributing the terms "Ukraine," Ukrainian " instead of "Rus", "Rus."
As mentioned, the first political party was established in October 1890 Lviv Ruthenian-Ukrainian Radical Party (RURP), headed by I. Frank and M. Pavlik. In 1895. the program was one added provision that most fully the idea of socialism can realized within the independent Ukrainian state, but in the short perspective - an autonomous province within the Austrian-Hungarian monarchy. In addition to these provisions, the program put forward by farmers as the transfer requirements more land. Deklaruvalosya installation labor organization and collective collective ownership of means of production in an evolutionary way. Party issued newspaper Khliborob "and" Community ". To promote program provisions were released a series of pamphlets under the title "Radical tactics" (Franko). Much attention has provided Party propaganda of the ideas in the peasant masses through various institutions and organizations.
Despite the hard work, through radicalism, anticlericalism and socialist ideology RURP not received wide support in Galician society, though in 90's took the leading position. Opposition to it has been configured clergy, which blocked access to the party to the peasantry. Socialist ideas were not supported by paucity Ukrainian proletariat. At the end of 1899 party into crisis.
Differences in management RURP preconditions for the emergence of new parties. Yes, 1899 from her away supporters of Marxism. They founded the Ukrainian Social Democratic Party (USDP), its members were prominent perpetual Nikolai, Semyon Wityk, Julian Bachinsky. It had to defend the interests of Ukrainian workers, supporting slogan of the political independence of Ukraine. In the absence of broad societal Base USDP was not numerous, but its leaders have considerable influence in the region. In addition same party played a prominent role in the trade union movement.
In December 1899 part radicals, which adhered to the nationalist (Franko et al.), and as the bulk of the populists, led by E. Levitsky and V. Okhrymovych by Mediation Hrushevsky financial support from Dnieper formed Ukrainian National Democratic Party (the UNDP). Lead the party Hrushevsky, E. Levitsky, V. Ohrimovych, D. Savchak, Ivan Franko. The first party congress was held 1900 In your program, the UNDP declared the maximum unity of Ukraine, "where to all parts of our nation united in one novochasnu cultural state, and national independence of Ukraine. In the minimum task was edge to achieve autonomy within Austria. In other respects it was a typical Liberal Party, which sought to avoid social conflicts. His people 'tactics of moderation and commitment she has won most of the population. Under her influence were "Enlightenment", other organizations and institutions.
1. Plugin RURP taken at the Fourth Congress in 1895
"Standing on the basis of scientific Socialism and hodyachys all popup apparent reason consequence - so the field political, economic and cultural - says the Rus-Ukrainian Party radical that the implementation of all its socialist ideals possible at full Ruthenian political independence of the Ukrainian people and a full, unrestricted right it: solved with himself in all his affairs dotykayuchyh. Particularly in Austria seeks it to form a single political territory of the Rus Rus earthed Galicia and Bukovina with the widest possible autonomy. "
2. On appeal of the People Committee of the Ukrainian National-Democratic Party to the people (January 5 1900)
"? Our ideal should be independent Rus-Ukraine, which like all parts of our nation united in one novochasnu cultural state? But is this until attain our ideal? have motivated the present relations and in the Austrian state and to the creation of a separate zmahaty National separate province with its administration and its national Diet? "
Judge: What was due to the emergence of parties in programs leading item on the independence of Galicia Ukraine?
In these games, there were others. Yes, 1896 group Barvinskyi - Vahnyanyna that remained position of cooperation with Poland in the spirit of a "new era", appeared, as already noted, Christian Social Party. It supported the higher clergy.
Some of the duhovnytstva formed the Ruthenian Catholic Union. As the clerical-conservative party she found no support even among priests.
With the growing organizational and political force in Galicia Ukrainophiles waning influence Russophiles who handed its position as the organization and on the political level.
Thus, the Ukrainian movement in Galicia early twentieth century. held a final party systems and political stabilization: a leading place in this structure took the UNDP, in opposition to it were RURP and USDP. United all Ukrainian parties desire political independence Ukraine.
In a political movement and development social and political thought in Galicia and all Ukraine Ivan Franko (1856-1916) played an important role.
Franko - Writer scholar, social activist. In 1875 Drohobych graduated high school, he studied Lviv, Chernivtsi and University of Vienna. Since 1894 led the Anthropos, and since 1898 Commission also ethnographic NTSh edited "Literary and Scientific Journal". Was behind the Ukrainian Radical party. His works began to print in the early 70's He left a considerable poetic prose, journalistic heritage.
His political views formed in the college years. For a long time was under Franko ideological influence Dragomanova spending federal principles in theory and practice of the socialist movement in Galicia. He even opposed the slogan political independence of Ukraine, arguing that it is advantageous to the ruling class, rather than workers.
After death he Drahomanov freed from its ideological influences and moved on to positions samostiynytstva. Break with the Socialists was due to the fact that he realized: not socialism will lead to national liberation of Ukraine, because under the socialist slogans powerful nation can absorb others. He said that "the Polish Social Democrats is worst enemies ", and Russian Social Democrats - far" the worst enemy than the Russian autocracy and the Russian censorship. For if the sovereign is the pressure pressure and physical ... knits hand, Social-Democracy steals the souls of their watereth empty and false doctrines and away from work on native soil.
The transition to independence-position caused the rupture with Franco radicals. He became one of the leaders of Ukrainian national Democratic Party.
The ideal in society Franco considered a free independent nation. Everything is made out of a nation is a lie or cover for the enslavement of another nation. To achieve this, not sorry no casualties.
These ideas, which began Franco manifest at the turn of the century, became dominant in Galicia. The ideal of the independent State zhurtovuvav all segments of Ukrainian society in the region.
Due to the lack of its own intellectuals Ukrainian national revival in Bukovina started rather late. Home role of early Ukrainian national revival of the land played the clergy. Outstanding figure of that time was an Orthodox Bishop Yevhen Hakman (1834-1873 biennium). It opened orderly religious life and established the first Ukrainian cultural and educational society "Ruska conversation "(1869).
As in Galicia, the Ukrainian Bukovina movement formed two parts: Rusyn (Russophile, moskvofilska) and populist (Ukrainophile). In 70-80's forefront Rusyn flow. A few Ukrainian elite, speaking against the Romanian dominance, attempted prove that it was the same old political and cultural traditions, as Romanian or German, and then turned to the Old Rus culture and traditions, and later to Russia. To spread its influence in developing a flow figures Ruthenian network training and education, cultural institutions, newspapers, magazines. In 1870 they organized a political society "Rus Rada" under by V. Prodan, who is also headed "Rus conversation.
Still, under the influence of people ' Galicia and the flow of Ukrainian literature from Dnieper in the environment Bukovyna intellectuals began to overpower Ukrainophile mood. One of first in Bukovina began writing his vernacular works of Osip-Yuri Fedkovich-Hordynsky (1834-1888). His first independent collection of poems appeared in 1862 Following Fedkovych went Sydir Vorobkevych his brother Gregory. At the end of the nineteenth century. the literary horizon of Bukovina Olga appeared Kobylyanskaya talented.
To change the situation in favor of Ukrainian flow caused opening in 1875 in Chernivtsi University which was first three departments of the Ukrainian language, and later - five. Open University obsadzhennya departments require new people. Part of them were Galician Ukrainian, who became leaders of the national idea.
The national movement in Bukovina was strong after moving there Galician leader Stepan Smal-Stotsky, who 1885 became a university professor.
Beginning 80's was highly successful people 'to spread (Ukrainian) currents in Bukovina. In 1884-1885 biennium Bukovina populists took over leadership in the "Russkaya conversation" and Ruska happy. Society was founded "Ruthenian People's House", the first head of which was Yerotey Pihulyak and Secretary - Omelian Popovich. It began issueing the Bukovina "edited by Fed 'and then - Sylvester Dashkevich, Osip Makovey who played a prominent role in national development thought and consciousness Ukrainian Bukovina.
In 1887 initiative Popovich appeared Company "Russkaya School (from 1910 -" Ukrainian school "). This community cared about the needs of Ukrainian in public schools, founded Ukrainian private schools maintained Teaching female seminary in Chernivtsi and a real high school in Vyshkivtsyah, had 12 of its outlets in the land and organized training courses for teachers, issues textbooks and other books for children. Through the activities of the company and personally Popovic case Ukrainian schools in Bukovina was one of the best Ukrainian lands.
With the growth of Ukrainian intelligentsia and its national consciousness has changed for the better and the political situation for Ukrainian Bukovina.
Since the late nineteenth century. political life in Bukovina developed similar to Galician. Ukrainian political Party of Bukovina were identical Galician. Yes, 1906 facing radical (Theodore Halipov, Fisher and Ostap Popovic, Napoleon Bihar) and Social Democratic (Osip Bezpalko, Gregory Andriyaschuk, M. Gavrischuk etc.). party. In 1908 launched the National Democratic Party (S.Smal-Stotsky, Baron Nicholas Vasylko, Omelian Popovich, and Yerotey Pihulyak etc..), which became the leading political force in the province.
A lively national educational activities conducted by various Ukrainian student, female, Teacher, church, theater, music, sports and other organizations, which before World War there were 590.
So, in Ukrainian Bukovina XIX - early XX century. made a big step in converting to national conscious of the Ukrainian nation.
After the Hungarian Revolution 1848-1849 biennium Austrian authorities were forced to go to some extension democratic freedoms to satisfy certain national interests of nations Transcarpathian Rusyns in particular. Recently even been allowed to hold government positions. Taking advantage of softening denatsionalizatorskoyi policy, Ruthenian Transcarpathia intellectuals launched activities to spread education among the people protect and develop their native language, customs, faith and church.
On the initiative of A. Duhnovicha 1862 established the Society of John the Baptist, and 1866 - St. Basil the Great. Last played a significant role in the suspension denatsionalizatorskoyi Hungarian government policy. Company prior to his formalize launched an extensive publishing and educational activities. In 1865 was published "Grammar pysmennaho russkaho language" Sabov K., which for a long time became a textbook for secondary schools in Transcarpathia, and 1890 - Russkaya grammar and reader "by the same author.
Through the activities of members Society in Transcarpathia, the first periodical. In 1867-1871, the Uzhgorod forth in weekly newspaper "light", and by 1873 - "Novy Svet", and Then the in 1886 - "Karpaty". All Issues Society published the aforementioned "yazychiyem. The main task for the company believed "Sochynenye, Establishment, publication, and to spread the award of school books? altogether in the same language russkom Establishment and nature of any such madyarskom nazydatelnыh Pack books and journal obrazov.
However, the continued weakening is not long. After reorganization in 1867 Austrian Empire in dual Austro-Hungarian monarchy, the Hungarian government launched a broad attack on the right Transcarpathian Rusyns. Hungarians seemed Rusyns revenged himself for the fact that they did not support them during the Revolution and helped the Russian army in suppressing the Hungarian revolution. During the short time they liquidated all the achievements of Rusyns 40-60's Began to attack the Greek Catholic church in Transcarpathia: was made an attempt to introduce the Hungarian language in the liturgy, but failed. In 1868 Hungarian parliament passed a law on equality nationalities, according to which all citizens of Hungary in the political sphere constituted "a single indivisible Magyar nation. Violent Magyarization neuhorskyh vyvyschyly people to the state of national policy. Hungarian attack was so powerful that in the early twentieth century. completely disappeared school education in the vernacular, and the Society of St. Basil the Great in 1902 ceased activity.
Therefore especially acutely problem of studying the history of Transcarpathia to justify the historical rights Rusyns in political existence, the awakening of their national identity. This task had to be put on a scientific basis, because of early nineteenth century. there was no published research on the history of the province. Weighty contribution to the successful resolution of this important task has made two Historians - Anatoly Kralytskyy and John Dulishkovych. Of labor last "Ystorycheskye chertы Finno-Russians" has become an important historical evidence and political rights of the country's population.
In addition to these figures, significant contribution to the preservation of national identity defending his country's population interests have also Deshko A., I. Rakovski, I. Silvay, O. Mytrak et al.
Due to the development of national movement in the Dnieper and the Western Ukrainian lands was that he synhronizuvavsya and developed as a single, despite their differences mentality of the population and political situation of the land. Generally difficult understand why both sides of the Russian-Ukrainian Austrian border decided that they constitute one nation. In the history of modern national movements rather examples of nations having a common ethnic base, created several nations - Serbs and Croats, Germans and Austrians, and others. Crucial This agreement was for two political elites - and the Dnieper Western - to create a common nation. Zahidnoukrayintsi drew with Naddniprianshchyna intellectual potential, develop the Dnipro region in Galicia "Ukrainian Piedmont. However, this process was difficult, open to considerable obstacles, overcame numerous contradictions.
1. Emergence of radical flow in the Ukrainian movement in the late nineteenth century.? What purpose is pursued?
2. What were the causes and consequences "New era" in Ukrainian-Polish relations?
3. Describe the process development of Ukrainian political parties give their classification.
4. What role in the development Franko political thought at Western?
5. Compare the development of Ukrainian movement in Bukovina, Galicia, Transcarpathia. Where the Ukrainian movement achieved most success and why?
6. As relations between the composed Greek Catholic Church and various currents of the Ukrainian movement?
7. What are the main achievements movement in the Western Ukrainian lands in the late nineteenth century.
8. What role was played by Ukrainian movement in Western Ukraine in the all movement?