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§ 1-2. World War II (textbook)

OV Hisem




§ 1-2.World War II


            In World War II involvedmore than 72 countries on whose territory the population 80% population. Operationsthere were in Europe, Asia, Africa, Oceania in area 22 million km2 and in the vast ocean. ByDuring the war the army was called Warring States 110 million people.

            On the front were killed, according to variousestimated 50 to 65-67 million. 95 million wounding ormaimed. About half of the victims was the civilian population. Materialcosts were 4 trillion. dollars.


















1. Reasonsconditions, the nature of war

            First, the injusticeVersailles-Washington system put many people in the humiliatingsituation and contributed to power the forces that sought revenge, newredistribution of the world. At the highest level is manifested in the policy of Germany, Italy,Japan. They were incendiary war.

            Secondly, economic crisis30 years has exacerbated conflicts between countries, making themopportunities to join efforts in the struggle for peace. The entire systemSecurity, created in the 20's, was destroyed.

            Thirdly, the decision of the war helpedGovernment policy in England and France, aimed at "appeasement" the aggressor, andand "isolation" The U.S., which, adopting the law of neutrality, actually samousunulysimpact of developments in the world.

            Fourth, an important role inof war played the USSR, which by signing non-aggression pact with Germanyand a secret protocol to it (the division of spheres of influence in Eastern Europe), revealedway to Germany to attack Poland.



Stalin,J. Ribbentrop (second and third right) and Molotov (seated) during a signingNon-aggression treaty between Germany and the Soviet Union. Moscow, 1939


            Aggressive state soughtexpand their territories and gain market zbutku and components. Atheir main goal - the conquest of world domination. On their part the war wasinjustice and aggression. The countries that have experienced aggression and wereoccupied, the war was just and liberation. The most difficult to determine the natureWar on the USSR. Between September 17, 1939 June 221941 he acted as the aggressor, joined to a significantterritory which belonged at that time Poland, Romania, Finland andBaltic States (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania). But after Germany attacked the Soviet Union introducedbrunt of the fight against Nazi Germany and the war it becamerighteous character. It is rightly called the Great Patriotic War.


2. PeriodizationWWII:

I. September 1, 1939 - November 19, 1942(From the German invasion of Poland to the Soviet counteroffensive in the BattleStalingrad). The strategic initiative is an aggressive states. GermanyItaly, Japan and its allies have managed to seize large swathes of territory in Europe,Africa, Asia and Oceania. At the same time the formation of anti-Hitlercoalition (the leading role it played in the U.S. and the USSR Velykoblytariya) -association of states, which became obstruct aggressive plans.

II. November 19, 1942 - May 9, 1945(From the beginning of the Soviet counteroffensive at Stalingrad to complete routNazi Germany). The strategic initiative is fully transferred to countriesanti-Hitler coalition, whose troops defeated the armies of Germany and itsEuropean allies and forced them to capitulate. In the Pacific theaterAction anti-Hitler coalition troops approached close to Japanperelomyvshy course of the war in their favor.

III. May 9, 1945 - September 2, 1945(From Germany's capitulation to the surrender of Japan) Completion of the Pacific WarOcean defeat militaristic Japan. The Second World War.


3. BeginningWar. The attack on Poland (Operation "Weiss")





       WorldWar began with Nazi Germany's attack on Poland. Poland bestpidhodyla to test in practice strategy "lightning war"("Blitzkrieg") - vyny success in what was supposed to achieve  instant action, capturing the enemysuddenly, not giving him and come to organize an effective resistance. CommonPolish border nimetskyy stretched to 1750 miles i, byrecognized experts, could not protect him any army around the world, becauseadversary could launch an offensive in any location from any direction.Serious defensive structures i natural obstacles on the Polish border-nimetskomupractically did not exist.


German soldiersbreak the barrier

onPolish-German border (September 1, 1939 р.)


            According to the German model "Weiss"approved in April 1939, the strategic focus and deploymentGerman troops ended August 25, but the offensive was delayed byEngland shown willingness to make an ally of Poland i nerishuchist Italy.

            Overall on the Polish borderWehrmacht (army of Nazi Germany) has focused more than 50 of the 75 existinghe Division numbering 1.5 million people.

            German troops opposedPolish army, which numbered more than 1 million soldiers i officers, but which hadlittle tanks, planes, guns.

            Before the war, well prepared andThe Soviet Union, which was under a secret protocol to leave the territory of Polandthe river Vistula.


Table.: The balance of power party on September 1, 1939.






1500 thousand

1000 thousand






Guns / mortars









IntrusionGerman troops into Poland began September 1, 1939 Himprovocation was preceded by the Nazis in the border town of Hleyvits.


I wonder

August 31, 1939 20.00 specially trained squad of Gestapo penalcriminals, disguised in Polish form, attacked the radio stationGerman border town Hleyvits. After her "delight" beforemicrophone was several shots and one of the attackers, who knewPolish language, read a statement, whose meaning lies in the fact that "the war camePoland against Germany. " Then the skirmish with a detachment of policesurrounded the station. To cover up the traces of this provocation, all members wereexecuted on the orders of Himmler.

            Already in the early days of organized offensivePolish Army resistance was broken. By 8 September and its main forces weredefeated, despite the desperate resistance. Many of them settled inenvironment or was captured. Resistance Army Kutsheby only did thatdefended the Warsaw area, i harnizon capital. Heroic pagesPolish history has defense Westerplatte Peninsula, the cities of Warsaw, Krakow,Hdyni.



Hitler and Keitelexamine blown armored train. Poland, 1939


            September 17, when the collapse of Poland was alreadyobvious and the Polish government left the country, the Polish border crossed Soviettroops. For the invasion of Poland was created two frontsUkrainian and Belarusian. At the request of the Red Army forced Hitleramoved towards Coloma - Kosovo to cross the retreating Polishi road the soldiers refugees in Romania. After 12-day march and short battle withsome parts of the Polish (Polish Army commanders gave the order notdo resistance CHA) Red Army entered the Western Bug and San, where he stopped.


Boyjunkyard building. Warsaw, 1940

            According to agreements,made in negotiations August 23, 1939 i zafiksovanymy in secretprotokoli, nimetske vidvelo command troops in line demarkatsiynu(The line that separates) from Lviv and Brest. Before in Bresti, Grodno, Koveliand by common parades were held Pinsku troops-winners (the German and Soviet).

            The result of the aggression of Germany and the USSRbetween us was the conclusion on 28 September in Moscow Treaty of Friendship and abroad andsecret agreements on the division of spheres of influence i cooperation between the two countries. Thiscontract fixed part of Poland and specified line Soviet-German border.By agreement it was moved to the east compared with the conditions of a secretProtocol of August 23, 1939 and passed around by ethnographicPoles living abroad, on the one hand, Ukrainian, Belarusian, on the other("Curzon Line"). Earth purely Polish population remaining in stockGermany and the USSR in exchange got its sphere of influence in Lithuania. Therefore, theGermany passed 48,6% in Poland and 69.9% of its population, and to the USSR 51,4%territory and 30,1% of the population.

            Despite all the negative crime iside of this division between two independent states by totalitarian regimes, thisi certainly had one positive feature - at last two fraternal peoples,Belarusian Ukrainian i - merged into a single republic, though i withinanti-Stalin's repressive regime. These changes allowedSoviet leadership called aggression and division of Poland as a "liberation campaign"for the reunification of Western Ukraine and Western Belorussia and in accordance with the USSRBSSR. They also showed reluctance to give rise to the Soviet leadershipBritain and France declare war to the USSR, the Red Army did notcrossed the "Curzon Line" which the British themselves have identified as the optimalSoviet-Polish border, even in 1919

            With the new division of Poland is linked moremany crimes of Stalinism. During the attack the Red Army were taken prisonerabout 250 thousand Polish troops, of which much of the soldiersand sergeants was released, another - deported to distant regions of the USSR.Officers, around 20 thousand were detained in camps near Kozelsk inSTAROBELSK, Ostashkovs. Two thirds of prisoners were reserve officers - physicians,engineers, teachers, writers, public figures, which put military form afterGerman invasion. It was the intellectual elite of Polish society. In April1940 15 thousand were killed by the NKVD in Smolensk (Katyn) and Kharkiv.



4. "StrangeWar

            September 3, England, and later for her andFrance, after a vain attempt to persuade Hitlera take the path of negotiations, i printtroops from the territory of occupied Poland and Czechoslovakia announcedWar Germany. But the offensive Allies pospishaly. War periodbetween September 3, 1939 and May 10, 1940 distav called "strangewar ", because, formally announcedwar, neither side actually led it.

French troops vidsydzhuvalysya for "Maginot line, (110divisions), which have yet to arrive and dtviziyi English and German - with"Zikfrida line" (23 Division). On the west border from belhiyskoho Alliesbuild a new line ukriplen way to the northern sea. Unwillingengage in zatyazhni kryvavi fights, as it was during the First World War,Allies began to blockade Germany and the USSR and of raidsbombing of industrial centers in Germany.



"Maginot Line"



One of the forts "Maginot Line" (modern look)


Immediately after the defeat of Poland Hitler ordered the generalsArmed Forces to prepare for an immediate offensive in the West. However, even collecting allGerman army troops inferior allies. To win it was necessarystandard solution. And such a plan was developed. It is based once againresponsible strategy "blikrihu. Instead of streamlined plan Shliffena Staffdeveloped a plan of attack through the gorge on Battle of the Bulge stytsi bordersBelgium-Luxembourg - French obhid "Mazhino line from the north and with shocktank groups in the region of Calais - Dunkerque. This plan ("Gr


Hitler and F. Paulus at the maps of military operations. 1940


6. Soviet attackin Finland ("Winter War")

            Meanwhile, fighting erupted atNorthern Europe between the USSR and Finland. For a long time between the two countries foughtnegotiations in the course of which the Soviet Union demanded from the parties finskoyiyield significant benefits to its territories in region of Leninhrada (nowSt. Petersburg) and the Gulf coast Finskoyi in exchange for territory bolotysti and lisystiin the north that is not offset loss None Vyborg i strategically importantdefense "Mannerheim line" - the Finnish defense system built in1927-1939 biennium The Government of Finland has not agreed to this proposal.

            At dawn on November 301939 large force of Soviet troops went on the offensive in the Finnish armyFortifications held that border.


I wonder

The Soviet troops preceded the incident at the border. Onterritory of the Soviet frontier broke hard shell, whichflew from whence unknown. Killed several pohranychnykiv. The Soviet sideaccused in the Finns. However, Fini denied his involvement,claiming that they have no shot at a distance similar guns. ButSoviet side is already irrelevant. Casus belli was found.


            Grouping of Soviet troopsnalichuvalo 240 thousand votes, 1915 kalibriv various guns, tank and 1131 967combat aircraft. 140,000th finska army had at its ozbroyenni400 guns, 60 tankiv i 270 aircraft.

            It seemed that the fate of Finland hasresolved. In the USSR even created a future Soviet governmentFinland - Government  A. Kuusinena (called"Government Terioki), which Stalin concluded treaty of mutual assistance. But it happenedunpredictable. The small Finnish army was able to deter first strike and powerfuleven defeated some Soviet units. December 30 attack SovietTroops stopped. Stalin has taken violent methods to bring order to thetroops. Begun brutal bombing Finnish cities. Continuous flowthe front received a new armament and equipment and troops.

            Little Finland actuallyfound herself alone with mohutnim aggressor. England and France only limitedto continue to break promises i resistance in the north landing. ButThis was against Norway. Her government is not willing to violate the neutrality i missthrough their territories of the Allied troops. In support arms i FinlandVolunteers come to Sweden. Germany has expressed willingness to assistUSSR i was even on pereshkodi Italy? who wanted to send to Finlandechelons USED weapons. The U.S. also usunulysya from providing direct military Finlandassistance.

            February 11, 1940 startedsecond offensive of Soviet troops. He ended breakthrough "Mannerheim line". InOffensive actions of 1,5 thousand participated tankiv i 3 thousand airplanes. Great pricelosses (234 thousand votes were killed, wounded, frostbite and captured) radyanskitroops have achieved victory in chief of the Finnish Army i KA Mannerheimwas forced to agree to start peace negotiations.

            March 12 through under ipressure nimetskoyi Soviet diplomacy i Finland signed a peace treaty, sovictim of aggression lost much of its territory, where war lived 450thousand votes, that is 1 / 8 population. International consequences were severeWar and the USSR. League ruled the USSR USED Nations on its members, its complicatedrelations practically with all the European countries and USA. USSR was ininternational isolation. In November 1940 Neutral naperedodni conflictFinland joined the aggressive "axis" Berlin-Rome-Tokyo and participated inWar against the USSR ("continuation war", as it is called Finns).

            War also showed weakness and allunpreparedness of the Soviet army in modern warfare. It then gave a reasontalk to Hitler that the Soviet Union - a "colossus with feet of clay.


The Soviet machine gunner near Leningrad
before the war with Finland. 1939


7. OccupationGermany, of Denmark, Norway, Holland, Belgium and Luxembourg. Defeat of France

            Events in the North of Europe ledEngland and France to more decisive action. Seeking a more compactblockade around Germany (to stop export of iron ore from Sweden viaNorwegian port of Narvik and block the German fleet in the Baltic Sea), theystarted mining of Norwegian coastal waters and ran back April 8 transportswith troops. But German troops vypyredyly their opponents. 9 April1940 hitlerivski troops without declaring war and attacked DataNorway (Operation Vezerski training "). Denmark kapitulyuvala immediately afterassault, Norway has committed aggression resistance. Norwegian army, together withAnglo-French housing ekspedytsiynym tried to delay the promotionzaharbnykiv into the interior. However, in the Norwegian army komanduvanni aktyvizuvalysnatsystiv supporters led by Minister Kvislinhom kolyshnim military, and inJune, 1940 in connection with the threatening situation on the West during WW IITroopers allies was evacuated to England. All of Norway, with its nonfreezingfjords (bays) was occupied by troops hitlerivskymy.


Germanmotorcyclists on the streets of Copenhagen


            Fighting in Norway had toallies, despite the defeat, one positive aspect: The German navy has undergoneso tangible losses, so that eventually failed to recover their strength. It wasone of the factors which forced Germany to abandon troops in England.

            The attack on German forces of Denmark andNorway ostanochno buried hope the authorities to find an understanding with EnglandHitler. Government Chamberlain resigned. Prime Minister of Ireland wasWinston Churchill, strong supporter of the fight against Nazi Germany.


W. ChurchillBritish Prime Minister. 1943


            May 10, 1940 Germanarmy invaded Belgium, Holland i Luxembourg. Anglo-French troopscame to their aid. At this point the main force of German troops launchedmain shock in the Ardennes, which the Allies considered unfit for Action tanks.Broken through on the field, weak defense, a German tank general wedgeHuderiana, beating "Maginot Line" i turned to the north 20-May went toEnglish Channel. Near Calais - Dunkirk as "sickle", was cut and curtailedto the sea 40 British, Belgian French Division i (about400 thousand people.). May 15 Holland surrendered on 28 May wasbelhiyska army weapons. Attempts by British and French commanders organizecounterblows were unsuccessful. But unexpectedly received a personal order HuderianHitler stop their troops.


Correlationforces the parties to May 1940







Soldiers, thousand










minor  of light





several  thousands








            It is enabled to provide evacuationAllied soldiers and officers of the British Isles (Operation Dynamo).Total in England was transported 338 thousand people, mostly anhliytsiv,40 thousand French soldiers were left to the mercies of the enemy. On the coast alsoremaining 82 thousand vehicles and other transport means, 2,4 thousandcannon, 90 thousand hvyntivok 8 kulemetiv thousand, many of the other militaryequipment.

            Meanwhile, June 5 nimetski troopslaunched the offensive to the South. Attempts to organize a General de Gaulle lineDefence pidstupah to Paris had no success. June 10 French governmentmoved to the city of Bordeaux, and June 14 nimtsi been put in Paris. The French Governmentsubmitted to resign. The new head of government Peten Marshal, the hero of WorldWar, appealed to nimetskoho command asking for a truce. 22it was signed in June in a forest in Komp'yenskomu delivered Museum StaffMarshal Foch car (car in this 1918 Germany signed the Armisticewhich meant the defeat of Germany in the First World War).


Charles de Gaulle

            Under the influence of success nimetskyh troopsItaly declared war allies, who wanted to participate in the division of France.On the eve of truce `I crossed the border of France italiyski forces. However, zustrivshyorganized resistance to several French Division troops Mussolini could notadvance a little further.

            In the battles for France nimetski troopssuffered relatively minor losses - 27 thousand killed, 111 thousandinjuries, 18.4 thousand bezvisty missed.

            Under the armistice Francelost more than two-thirds of its territory, which pass under the controlokupatsiynyh authorities. Alsace and Lorraine entered directly into the Reich.Marionetkovyy Petena government controlled so-called "area freely, which will have an outletinto the Atlantic, but only to the Mediterranean. Place the location was chosenPlace Vishi, from whom he inherited his name - "regime Vishi. Hitlerknowingly went up to the total elimination of the French state. Keeping it, heprovide a control over the vast French colonial empire andFrench fleet.

            Not all the French agreed tosurrender. Center for their association became a French national committeecreated by General de Gaulle in London. August 7, 1940 between Churchill andde Gaulle an agreement that gave the right to form in England, Frenchforces.

            England desperate step, thatleft without allies, was the operation of seizing or destroyingFrench Navy, he got to the enemy. During the operation"Catapult" (July 3 1940) in the ports of Oran, Algeria, Alexandria,Casablanca, Dakar was znychenno or captured a significant portion of Frenchfleet. Although this operation and provided the advantage of England at sea, but shelong and complicated poisoned relations with France.


8. FateWestern Ukraine, Western Belarus and Northern Bukovina, Bessarabia, statesBaltic

            Meanwhile, as Germany was occupied byin the West, the USSR "uporyadkovuvav" their "zone of influence" given to it by secretProtocols August 23 and September 28, 1939

            Introduction of Soviet troops in the WestUkraine and Western Belarus was ambiguously received by the public. Partpopulation welcomed the Red Army as liberators, the other perceived her asoccupiers.

            In 1939, in western Ukraine wasprohibited activities Ukrainian national parties, many community,cultural, scientific, commercial and industrial companies i institutions.Ceased to act, in particular, "Prosvita, Scientific Society. Shevchenko, They believemagazines. OUN was forced to go underground.

            To address the question ofsocial order i state power in Western Ukraine were heldElections to the People's Assembly. At the request of the extraordinary assembly of people'sVerhovnoyi Session of the USSR in November 1939 adopted a law on inclusionWestern Ukraine into the USSR i reunion with her Ukrainian SSR. Onterritory of Western Ukraine was established six areas - Lviv,Stanislavsky (later Ivano-Frankivsk), Volyn, Ternopil, RivneDrohobych and that in 1959 was merged with of Lviv. Similarlydid decide the fate of Western Belarus, which was incorporated in the BelarusianSSR.

            The next target of expansion of the USSRare the Baltic countries. September 28, 1939 in Moscow signed a pacton Mutual Assistance in Estonia, so the USSR received the right to enter on itsterritory of their troops. Similar agreements were also signed with Latvia iLithuania. In all contracts of the Soviet party assumed the obligation notinterfere in the internal affairs of the Baltic states. Also, the USSR passed LithuaniaVilna region, which it in 1920 occupied Poland.

            Summer 1940 USSR startedthe second stage of territorial-political restructuring in Prybaltiyskyhrepublic, upon presentation yihnim governments neobhruntovani ultimatums violationliabilities and their special nadislavshy there emisariv - Zhdanova inEstonia, Lithuania and Dekanozova Wyszy

            In 1940 complicatedand relations with Romania susidnoyu. Using the fact that The basic forces of the Wehrmachtwere employed in the West, radyanski troops after an ultimatum in June of the sameBessarabia, the territory occupied Northern Bukovina i. This caused resentment inBerlini, as the Territory of Bukovina not znachylasya protokoli in secret as the areaSoviet influence, the same Soviet troops came too close to the Romanianoil,  which supplied the GermanArmy fuel.


9. Strengtheningfascist bloc. Relations between the USSR and Germany

            September 27, 1940 GermanyItaly and Japan made a Triple pact. Thus was completedblock formation of aggressive and distribution between the two spheres of influence.


Triple pact betweenJapan, Germany and Italy

The Government of Great Japanese Empire, the German government and the Italian Government,

Recognizing that the preliminary and necessary condition for preservation of lasting peace isof every state to occupy its place in the world

consider the basic principle of creating and maintaining the new order.Necessary to ensure that people in relevant areas of the Great East AsiaEurope could reap the fruits of coexistence and mutual prosperity,

express their determination to cooperate and carry out mutually agreedaction  in the areas concerningefforts that are based at this doctrine.

The governments of three states desire for full cooperation  with all countries that put similarefforts  around the world, full of desiredemonstrate their unwavering desire for world peace, for which governmentGreat Japanese Empire, the Italian Government, the German government signed the followingAgreement:

Article 1. Japan recognizes and respects the guidelines in Germany and Italyestablishing a new order in Europe.

Article 2. Germany and Italy recognize and respect the guidelines of Japanin establishing the new order in the Great East Asia.


            Germany began to preparewar with the USSR (for development plan of war against the USSR was givenGeneral-Colonel Halderu end of July 1940). To somehow keepUSSR in the orbit of its policy to resolve the situation with moments Ahliyeyu, Hitlerresorted to a complicated diplomatic game. In October, 1940 Hitler sentletter to Stalin with an invitation to make an official visit. The proposal wasaccepted. November 12, 1940 came to Berlin Commissar for Foreign AffairsMolotov of the USSR. The meeting was organized by the Soviet delegation at the Summit:vaults under the Berlin train station majestically sounding tune "The Internationale(USSR anthem), throughout the city looked red Soviet and German flags.Molotov was adopted by the same Hitler. During their talk, Hitler offeredUSSR to join the Triple agreement to conduct joint military operations againstUK. USSR promised access to Gulf oil transfercraft in the south of Iran. Germany also assumed the obligationregulate relations between Turkey and the Soviet Union in matters ofBlack Sea Straits. These German proposals were greeted positivelySoviet leadership, which even began preparing to "throw the South."Thus Hitler could gain time to prepare for an attack on the USSR in handytime.

            But Germany made some plansCorrections developments in the Balkans.

10. ChangeU.S. Policy

            Military disaster which has undergoneFrance, caused a real shock to the U.S.. Number of people like policyisolationism steadily decreased. As for President F. Roosevelt, thenhe immediately after World War II headed for changeU.S. neutrality legislation in favor of England. It was initiallyintroduced the principle of cash and carry (and pay vezy), which allowed the purchaseweapons in the U.S. and export it to the English courts. In September 1940 wasagreed to transfer 50 American destroyers of England in exchange fortransfer available to rent for 99 years of air and naval militarybases in the West Indies (Bahamas, Jamaica, Caribbean Islands, etc.) toBermuda and Newfoundland. After his reelection for a thirdterm in November 1940, Roosevelt was even more strongly took on the Eliminationlaw of neutrality. Finally in March 1941 adoptedLaw Lend-lease. Lend-lease involved the provision of weapons and other militaryequipment on loan or rental to those countries whose defense is vital tointerests. This enabled England, whose financial resources have been exhausted,obtain weapons, food, raw materials in the right quantity andcontinue the war with Germany.


Fighters,obtained from the U.S. lend-lease program. 1941


11. Aerialwar over England. The struggle of the Atlantic

            After the defeat of France left Englandface to face with Germany. July 16, 1940 Hitler signed a plan of operation"Sea Lion", which included the conquest of England. As shown estimatesopportunities to make a mass landing of troops in the British Isles in Germanywas not. She lacked the required number of floating means.

            Then Germany failed toair attack on British cities to force UKcapitulate. In the bombing was part of almost 2,5 thousand aircraft. Airoffensive launched August 15, and ended late autumn. Bombingwent on and on, but had no such scope. Britain stood,suffered considerable material and human losses (over 30 thousand people.). Yes? cityCoventry was razed to the ground. The important role played in the struggle courageBritish pilots and the establishment in England in 1939 networkradar posts. The air war has cost over England in Germanyabout 2 thousand planes and thousands of experienced pilots.

            Another serious challenge forEngland was fighting for the Atlantic. Getting waterways 50% strategicraw food, England could find themselves in trouble? ifGermany managed to cut Atlantic communication.


German battleship"Doytchland" (later - "Lyuttslov). 1939


            The conquest of France, Norway, of Denmarkenabled Germany to become a decisive offensive. According to the conceptChief of the German fleet hrosadmirala Raeder's paratrigeminal decisive role in thisassigned combat battleship "Bismarck", "Tirpits" and others. But this armadadefeated? without causing significant losses to England.

            Were fruitful Germansubmarines, commanded by Admiral D  to fightBritish convoy. The English fleet could stand, and after the warU.S. allies gradually regained control of the Atlantic.


I wonder

During the air war over England, Deputy Hitler reyhs Minister withoutPortfolio, Member of Council of Defense Ministers of German Empire, member of the secretGerman Council cabinet and Nazi party leader Hermann Hesse secretlyone flew from Augsburg and landed on a parachute near the Duke estateHamilton in the west of Scotland. He tried to negotiate withroyal family and make peace with England. In implementing this act itguided by the desire to beat Hitler. But the British government did not go with him tocontact. He was detained, and after the war was transferredNuremberg Tribunal, who was sentenced to life imprisonment. In1995 hanged himself in his jail cell Spandau.


12. Fascistaggression in North Africa and the Balkans

Meanwhile the war continued to spread,taking new regions. After the defeat of France's majorthreat to Britain was not only Germany but also Italy, whichhad a significant land, naval and air force.


German EntryTank Da Libya. 1941


Summer 1940 Italians beganmilitary action against the British in East Africa, where Ethiopia had 300 thousandsoldiers and officers against 30 thousand Englishmen in Somalia, Kenya and Sudan. In JulyItalians have taken part of Kenya, a number of points in the Sudan and captured the BritishSomalia. However, in the Sudan and Kenya, the Italians failed to achieve success and theywere forced to move to defense. The main force of Italians cast a fascinationEgypt and the Suez Canal, hoping to establish their influence overMiddle East. In September 1940 Italian troops inflicted a blow fromLibya (Kirenayika, Tripolitania) in Egypt and moved into the interior to 90 km, but wereEngland stopped.

Also, more October 28, 1940 inheight of the battle over England Mussolini without prior consultation with Hitlerbegan to attack two of his armies from the territory of Albania for Greece, seekingimplement plans for a Mediterranean empire. Prime Minister of GreeceMetaksas mobilizatsiyu and declared a general appealed for help to GreatBritain. Although England was concerned by the situation in Egypt and not experiencedbest of times, it still pulled in Greece and the island of Crete some landand i sent aviatsiyni part to help the Greeks several ships. Golfattack very quickly i zahlynuvsya Greek army by going to counterattack,italiyski Division rejected by Albanian border.

Meanwhile, the British began to mount instruggle for the Mediterranean. Decisive blow to the Italian navy couldcause in November 1940, when English torpedo from USScaused the main naval base of Taranto Italy. Italy immediatelylost three battleships, and England got the advantage. After that hit Italianfleet dared to active measures, and England could keep its base inGibraltar, and especially to Fr. Malta. In January-travni 1941also English troops italiytsiv expelled from the British Somali, Kenya, Sudan,Efiopiyi. In early February 1941 British surrounded the sudden retaliationItalian troops in Egypt and captured Kirenayikoyu. Italian troops werecompletely demoralized and barely held back the British attack in Tripolitania.Thus, Mussolini's plans to create a Mediterranean empire suffered a collapse.

Hitler in January 1941 intentionMussolini provide assistance in Greece. However, to get involved in a war in the Balkanseve of war with the USSR did not want. In deciding the case decidedrely on diplomacy. However, the Bulgarian government did not hasten to enter intodeployment on the territory of Bulgaria nimetskyh troops to attack Greece. ThenHitler used his diplomatic maneuvers, managing to sign with Yugoslavia in 1925March 1941 treaty of accession to the Covenant Antykominternivskoho andalso to Triple agreement. But patriotychno nastroyeni ofitsery led by Gen.D. Simovychem made the coup i was asked toMoscow to sign the agreement on mutual Byelhradi that was done in MayApril 1941 Hitler was furious. In response to attack Yugoslavianimetski troops (Operation Marit). Together with their army acting in Bulgaria andHungary, to the aggression against Yugoslavia joined Italy. Croatian Leaderustashiv A. Pavelych proclaimed the formation of the Independent Croatian State(NHD), which later joined the states' axis. Www.ukraina Yugoslavia ceasedits existence.

No delay on the territory of Yugoslavianimetska army launched an offensive on the territory of Greece in order to surround the GreekDivision and also English ekspedytsiyni force. Hretski army before kapitulyuvalynimetskymy troops. Under pressure from the prevailing nimetskyh forces were anhliytsiroll away to Athens. Subsequently had to leave them as well. The remnants of the British armyfocused on about. Crete. What acquire this strategically important islandGerman commanders held a unprecedented airborne operation (started in 1927May 1941). Both sides suffered significant losses. Germanairborne troops never regained its former strength andcombat and no longer used as an independent fighting unit, but only ininteraction with ground troops.


Duration of military companies in Germany

against European countries in 1939-1941




Number of days



September 1 - 5  October




April 3




April 3 - July 10




May 10




10-14 May




10-28 May




May 10 - 22  June




6-18 April




6 April - 1  June



Value that can be won Germanyafter the capture of the Balkan peninsula and the island Krit to advance to the East,Hitler could not take advantage, just as i successes in the German casecommand of General Rommel in Yehypti who came to help the Italians. Oncherzi was an attack on the USSR, which is already delayed a month, and a new theaterwar required the tension and concentration of all forces of the Reich.



            World War II began on 1September 1939 with the German invasion of Poland. The reasons for war were: allpreliminary development of international relations, the desire of Germany, Japan, Italy toredistribution of the world and global domination. Possession of strategic initiativebeginning of the war Germany by the summer of 1941 established its control overcontinental Europe (except USSR). First successes led to the leadersaggressors lost their sense of reality: the defeat and failure are consideredtemporary and minor. Aggressors develop plans for new seizures. ButGermany failed to break resistance to England, Italy suffered constant defeats inAfrica, USA, with its powerful industrial potential, more and more inclined toSupport England, began to unfold Resistance Movement oppressed peoples. All thatlaid the foundations of future defeat, but Germany still considered herselfinvincible.


Questions and tasks:

1.    What were the reasons of World War II?

2.    Which character was of war?

3.    Can events in September 1939 called "fourth partition of Poland?

4.    What is a "blitzkrieg"?

5.    Discover the causes and consequences of the war between the USSR and Finland?

6.    Estimate the "strange war".

7.    Why Germany managed to grab a relatively quick Denmark, Norway, the countryBenelux, France?

8.    Due to Great Britain stood in the fight against Germany? Asdeveloping struggle for the Atlantic?

9.    What has caused the fascist aggression in the Balkans? What was the developments inthis region?

10. What prevented Germany to take victories in the Balkans and Africa?

11. In 1939, Mehlis said: "Stalin set the task: in the caseWar to increase the number of Soviet republics. As this task Stalinwas realized in 1939-1941 years?

12. Can I say that in the USSR in 1939-1941 an ally of Germany?