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§ 23. Czechoslovakia. Czech and Slovak republics (textbook)

§23. Czechoslovakia. Czech and Slovak republics


1. Installationcommunism

            Betrayed by his Western allies(Munich Agreement 1938), Czechoslovakia became one of the first victimsfascist aggression. Bohemia and Moravia became a protectorate of Germany. Slovakia- Declared independence and became a German ally. Carpatho-Ukraine wasoccupied Hungary. World War II gave impetus to the deploymentmass antifascist movement, which was attended by almost all politicalforces in the country. In September 1941 they created a revolutionary CentralNational  Committee. In Londonemigre government was led by Beneshom. In England and the USSR wereformed Czechoslovak military units that participated in combat operationsAfrica, Western Europe and the Eastern Front (from 1943).

            Approaching the front to the limitsCzechoslovakia led to the intensification of anti-fascist forces in the country. 29August 1944 Slovakia began the national uprising led bySlovak National Council, established in 1943 Originally insurgent couldestablish control over the whole Slovakia. Steering cent was in revoltBansk

            Germany failed to take decisive action tosuppression of the uprising. And the Czechoslovak Corps (commanded by Ludwig Freedom) andSoviet troops failed to overcome the resistance of German troops on Duklenskomupass in the Carpathians and cleave with revolted. This enabled the German troopsin October 1944 crush the rebellion.

            Of Soviet troops on the territoryCHSR led to the formation in January 1945 Czech National Council, and inApril, the Government of National Front of Czechs and Slovaks, who headed the socialistQ. Ferlinher. He joined the Communist July 3, the Social Democrats, and in 3 of the national-socialist,National and Democratic parties.

            Ended anti-fascist strugglePrague uprising in the country. The first post-war president wasBenesh. The government coalition was. Authorities on the ground passed into the hands of nationalcommittees. National Front government took a number of reformsof the general  character. Wasproperty confiscated by the Germans, which by decision of the Federal States were resettledin Germany, and those who collaborated with the Nazis. In Slovakia the finalabolished landlordism.

            Addressing the nationaltasks led to a dramatic struggle within the National Front.

            In May, 1946 heldelections to the Legislative Assembly,  where KPCHhas 38 percent of the vote. June 2, 1946 formed a coalitiongovernment, headed by leader KPCH K. Gotvald. The government led by Communists"Power" ministries and offered a broad programnationalization.

            Nationalization led to a split inCzechoslovak society, broke a sharp political struggle, which wasincreased discussion about joining the Marshall Plan. " In thispoint in the events intervened Stalin, who forced the CHSR opt out ofThe Marshall Plan. These events were simultaneously and defeat pro-Westernforces embodied in a president Benesh. This directly benefited the Communistscame to power. In February, 1948 they are relying on the army, the mainpart of which was formed in the USSR, and the armed workers' militiaorganized the "armed" demonstration with the slogans of fix-capitalistsfrom the government. As a result of armed pressure February 25, 1948 with the government werenot eliminated the communists, and June 7 Benesh resigned. June 14 PresidentCHSR was K. Gotvald - KPCH leader. At this time the association heldSocial Democratic and KPCH. Thus in power in Czechoslovakia camecommunists.


2. Constructionsocialism. "Prague Spring"

            Dostupyvshys to power, communistscommitted themselves to building a communist society by the Soviet model. IXKPCH the gathering in May 1949 was developed  first five yatyrichnyy plan (1949-1953 biennium)course and was taken to build socialism.

            In building socialism in CHSR werethe features. Czechoslovakia was the industrialized countries and notneed of industrialization and therefore the main emphasis was onnationalization and structural changes in industry (mainly development groupA). In another development of socialism was on the same circuit,  and that of other countries: agricultural cooperationEconomy  (Completed in 1960)mass repression and show trials (against the Slovak nationalists,against a group of economists, etc.).

            The first opposition to Stalinmodel of socialism took place in 1953 especially in the Moravian-Ostravskomuindustrial area, but they have not acquired such proportions as in the GDR. De-Stalinization,which started after the XX Congress of the Communist Party in Czechoslovakia adopted a purelybeauty  form.  Rehabilitation of the victims started during1962 and carried out inconsistently.

            Meanwhile, the economic situation incountry deteriorated. In 1963, was even a recession. AlthoughHowever KPCH declared course to build communism.


A memoir Z. Mlynarzha, a member of the CC KPCH

            "Years of Stalinism inCzechoslovakia  only reinforced innational consciousness that the ideals that power any measures triederadicate. Dictatorship  clearly showedthe effect of their ignorance, and it has pushed to reform even"Ideologically convinced" Stalinists. In the minds of people. Values of democracy andhumanism were rehabilitated long before 1968?. "


            Since the population grew to distrustparty leadership, headed by A. Navotnym,  who served both as president. Along with that of homeComplicating the situation nevyrishennyam Slovak question. Output was thenshowing the process initiated in 1965 economic reform. In the adoptedleadership "Principles handling operations management"anticipated transition to a market economy: a combination of centralof management in commodity-money relations, enlargementauthorizations and responsibilities of enterprises, encouraging initiative workersetc.  Main rate in  improving economic efficiency being made onmanagement mechanism: competition, free choice of partner companies,commercial credit, contract pricing.

            But the reforms were carried outinconsistently. Reform efforts led to the intensification of the reform wingKPCH, which severely criticized the policy of compro Navotnoho. In January 1968 onCC plenum KPCH it was corrected and was elected first secretary of A. Dubcek. Newparty leaders have developed a broad program of political and economic reforms,to create the new face of socialism, as if saying "socialism withhuman face. "


Alexander Dubcek



            Alexander Dubcek (1921-1992). In925-1938 years lived with parents in the USSR, where he graduated from high school. In 1938family returned to Slovakia, where he received the profession of mechanical fitter. In1940-1941 biennium worked at the gas station, and in 1941-1944 he - Byplants Skoda. There began his anti-fascist activities. Since 1949become a professional politician who held various positions in the Communist PartyParty of Slovakia. In 1952-1955, the student at the FacultyKamensky University in Bratislava, and in 1955-1958 he - GraduateParty School of the Central Committee in Moscow. In 1960 KPCH becomes secretary of the CC in1962-1968 biennium PCC secretary and later first secretary of the PCC. In January1968 elected the first secretary of the CC KPCH. He became a leader on reforms"Socialism with a human face." But after the suppression of "Prague Spring" underMoscow's dictation was removed from all positions. From 1969 to 1989 actuallywas under house arrest, working machine operator in the state forest.In November 1989 returned to political activity. 17sichnya1990 was The European Parliament awarded him the prize Andrei Sakharov. FromDecember 1989 - In July 1992 - Chairman of the Federal Assembly CHSFR,Deputy Head of the Social Democratic Party of Slovakia, Member of Parliamentthis party. Died in 1992 in the Prague hospital from serious injuriesgot in a car accident, the circumstances of which no Determined topresent.


                Important role in disseminating these ideas played a press that was free fromcensorship, and informal  socio-political organizations. Spring 1968 KPCH adopted"Programme" in which a new attitude a number of fundamental issues. Thisprogram has received wide support of all walks of society.


Table.: Guideline Program of Action "

·         Elimination of monopolies  KPCH to power, consolidation of multi-real and democratic freedoms.  The ruling party should  exercise  his leadership role, not by domination over society and serve the  relationship between  parties in  National Front should be built on the principles of equality and partnership;

·         Reduction of administrative  staff;

·         Introduction  federal state structure, to ensure real equality of Czechs and  Slovaks;

·         Implementation basics  market economy;

·         Multilateral  cooperation with all countries.

            ButConservative Party of considering everything that happened in the country, asloss of "conquests of socialism" and accused supporters of reformrevisionism.

            The Soviet leaders and other alliesreacted to changes in Czechoslovakia sharply negative. At the meeting of thefive of the ATS (18 August 1968) endorsed the assessment and suggestionsBrezhnev, according to which an end to activities reformers.Substantiating the need for military intervention in the internal affairs of the country,CPSU leadership was based on a letter which he addressed to some  figures KPCH asking you to enter the army and"Defend socialism". The atmosphere of aggravated messagemedia to prepare counter-revolutionary coup in Czechoslovakia.


Soviettrooper in the streets of Prague. 1968


            On the night of 20 troops of 21 Augustfive of the ATS - Bulgaria, East Germany, Poland, Hungary and the USSR - crossed the borderCzechoslovakia, based on what they supposedly invited "members of the group and KPCHgovernment "to address the threat of counterrevolution. Occupation  has carried 124 thousand people. and 500 tanks.Quickly captured the most important strategic points: airfields, railway stations,radio, television, CC KPCH, the seat of government, Academy of Sciences, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, etc., werePolice also confiscated weapons. Czechoslovak leaders A. Dubcek, J. Smrkovskyy,A. Chernik, F. Kryhel, J.

            The Presidium of the CC KPCH majorityevaluated the action of "allies", as being contrary to the principles of relations betweensocialist state and international law.

            August 21 "Message to the PeopleCzechoslovakia "called for following the peace, and not resistance  invasion. President L. Svobodaordered the army not to resistance.

            However, for the first three days ofstreets killed 30 and wounded 300. In general, as a resultinvasion killed 94 and wounded 345 people in Czechoslovakia. There were lossesamong Soviet soldiers - 11 people.

            In one of the shops of Prague factory


DemonstrationCzech students against

Soviet tanksin Prague. 1968


            The occupation of Czechoslovakia was sharply condemnedGovernments of many countries, including Yugoslavia, Romania, Albania,China.

            August 21 meeting of the BoardUN Security Council, which discussed the "Czechoslovak question. Was asresolution, which condemned the intervention and demanded  immediate withdrawal of occupying troops. But thisresolution by the Soviet veto not entered into force.

            August 22 Minister of Foreign AffairsCSSR I. Hayek said protest against invasion of ATS.

            The reaction in Czechoslovakia and the worldpublic forced the Soviet leadership  leave  to negotiate. PresidentCSSR L. Liberty and other state officials arrived in Moscow, where Brezhnev pressureleaders were forced to sign "program out of the crisissituation.

            Czechoslovak party assumedcommitment to invalidate decisions of Congress Vysochansky KPCH and inCzechoslovakia Soviet troops leave.

            Based on Soviet support,conservative forces in KPCH went on the offensive. Since the party's supporters usuvalysreforms. With programs developed by them could make a conversion only in Czechoslovakiafederation of two equal republics - the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

            In April 1969 DIRECTIONScountry came G. Husak, who started the process of "normalization", meaningwhich was the return to the old management, which led to furtherstagnation. The bank in broad cleaning KPCH from which was extractedalmost 500 thousand members. There existed an undeclared ban on professionalthe activities of intellectuals - supporters of reform.


3. Crisistotalitarian regime. "Velvet Revolution

            In the 70 years was announced coursedeveloped to build socialism, that rating KPCH meant a combination of"Advantages of socialism" with STC, the application of intensive factors. Thisstrategy gave effect in the first half of 70 years, but further growtheconomic growth slowed. Economics was not adapted to changesin technology, leading to a drop in competitiveness of Czechoslovak goodsthe world market.

            The only organization that protestedagainst the existing political order was the group Charter 77. Figuresculture and science, which were included in this organization in January, 1977 mademanifesto, which, recalling the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the HelsinkiFinal Act, demanded that the leadership of the Constitution, Czechoslovakia, liberationpolitical prisoners, the withdrawal of Soviet troops, etc.


With Charter -77 provazahystnoho movement in Czechoslovakia

            "13October 1976 in the collection of existing laws Czechoslovakia (№ 120) were publishedtexts of the International Covenant Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenanteconomic, social and cultural rights. What were signed on behalf of ourRepublic in 1968, confirmed in Helsinki in 1975 and acquiredinto law March 23, 1976 Since then, our citizens have the right, andState obliged to follow this document?

            Theirpublication, however, forces us to recall with great urgency that mostfundamental civil rights in our country, unfortunately, are recognized onlypaper?

            Byrespect for civil rights is responsible, of course, primarily political,state power, but it is not one. Each has its share of responsibility forpublic affairs and from this point of view of observance of covenants that have the force of law,mandatory not only for government but for all citizens.

            Fromsense of public responsibility, faith in the importance of publicinitiatives, the desire to participate in them, the public need to seek newmore effective forms of manifestation of them led us to make the Charter 77, whichopenly claimed today.

            Charter 77- A non-profit, non-governmental, open association of people of different beliefs andjobs, united to bring to together and separately to fight for that in ourcountry in the world and respected civil rights?

            Charter 77based on solidarity and friendship of people who share the care of idealsthey considered and consider part of their lives and activities.

Charter 77 - is not an organization, there is no suchstatus, permanent governing bodies of membership. Anyone who agrees with herideas involved in its work, supports it as a member.

Charter 77 - is not a base of political opposition.She wants to serve the common good, like many other community initiativesWest and East. Accordingly, it does not seek to defend their own agendapolitical or social reforms, but lead in its sphere of activityconstructive dialogue with the political and state authorities, drawing attention todifferent cases when an individual and civil rights, preparingdocuments on them, offering a solution. In presenting the broader proposalaimed at strengthening these rights and guarantees, acting as intermediaries inpossible conflict situations that may be  caused by restriction of rights, and others.

            Hissymbolically called Charter 77 highlights of my year when declaredyear of political prisoners and that the conference in Belgrade must considerhow to run the decisions taken in Helsinki.

            Persons. Thatsigned this declaration delegate professor, Dr. J. Patochku, Dr.V. Havel and professor, Dr. I. Haeku present Charter 77? relations withState and other organizations, the public at home and abroad? "


            In the early 80'seconomic situation in the country deteriorated. Not performed tasksintensification of production. Welcoming words of the restructuring that began in the USSRUser Czechoslovakia almost wanted to administrative and command systemalthough in 1987 and changes were made in the management (GeneralSecretary of the CC was KPCH M. Yakesh.).

            In 1988-1989 he strengthenedKPCH criticism from the opposition, which has grown every year. But the partyleadership refused to go to dialogue with the opposition.

            Fall of the GDR in E. Honekkera  accelerated development. Opposition  organized a series of demonstrations to demandrefuse KPCH of leadership, but they rozhanyalys police.

            The revolutionary events that werecalled "Velvet Revolution" began November 17, 1989,when the international day students on the streets of Prague came out almost 50 thousandstudents. Police resorted to violent means of dispersal of demonstrators. ItStrikes students, joined by students and theater personalitiesvocational schools and technical schools. The next day at itsyatyvoyu"Charter-77" appeared "Public  Forum,  which  objects united  number of opposition groups. Support "Public Forum" providedSocialist Party. The highest point antigovernment movement reached 25 November, whenLetenskomu on the field in Prague  gathered750 thousand people. Chairman of the Catholic Church in Czechoslovakia, Frantisek CardinalTomashek said the church on the side of people.

            The guide KPCH were immediatelyconducted by personnel changes. General Secretary of the CC was KPCH Karel Urbanek. Butit could not save power KPCH.

            November 27 federal charges CSSRexcluded from the constitution article 4 of the leadership KPCH. It was decidedbegin negotiations on withdrawal of Soviet troops (80 thousand people.) from Czechoslovakia.These include the government led by Marian Chalfoyu.

            At the end of 1989 PresidentVaclav Havel became the country - the leader of "Charter 77" and "PublicForum. "Chairman of the Federal Assembly became A. Dubcek.

            1990 became a new stage inof Czechoslovakia. In May, a law on the freeentrepreneurship, and in June were held the first free elections and formednew government, which made a radical economic reform. Spring 1990a law on restitution: the return of former ownersnationalized property. Had been initiated, and afterwards a large privatization. Inthis time sharpened national problem. Slovak politicians were  disagree with the existing form of federation, andAfter lengthy negotiations December 1, 1990  legislative procedure was revised federal structure, reviewedcompetence of federal and republican authorities. Has changed the name of the country -it was called Czecho-Slovak Federal Republic (CHSFR).

            In early 1991 wasimplemented price liberalization. Crohn became internally convertible.

            BillPanel privatization. In the countrypurposefully formed a new development model based on market principleseconomy and liberal democracy. Changes in the economy gave rise to the problemunemployment, especially in heavy industry. However, they were not sokordynalnymy as in other Eastern European countries. However, the emergenceeconomic difficulties Rusyn changed the political scene. The parties whoadvocated radical reforms have lost popularity. Public Forumsplit into a number of right-wing and centrist parties. Popularity began writing leftparties, especially the Social Democrats, who spoke on socially-orientedmarket reforms.

            Disagreements and SlovakCzech political parties resulted in a new exacerbation of national problems. InSlovakia became the dominant views about the full independence of the republic. Afterlong negotiations it was decided to part CHSFR and January 1, 1993the map of Europe resurfaced two new state.


4. CzechRepublic

            After the formation of the Czech Republichas been continued political course. Founded after 1989 Evidencethis was the election of president V. Havel (president elected for ajoint session of both houses of the Czech Parliament), and head of government - Mr. Claus(Civic Democratic Forum leader, guide economic reforms).

            The new state was recognized as a worldcommunity. Arise member of the UN. She also joined the Council of Europe andOrganization for Economic Cooperation and Development (an organization calledmore "rich club").

            In 1994-1996 throughprevious reforms, the Czech Republic showed positive results of economicgrowth over 4% per year. Also, basically was overcome inflation. However, in1997 Czech Republic had to face serious economic difficulties.Failures in reforms (privatization actually ceased in 1995,third of companies were unprofitable, the Czech Republic was losing investmentappeal, was not completed structuring the economy, the banking systemdid not meet the requirements of time, the stock market is unevenly developed, etc.) led tofalling rates of development, rising unemployment, falling living standardspopulation and, consequently, the growing social tensions.

            Economic problems have causedgovernmental crisis. The new prime minister was J. Tosovskyy. His government has focusedfocuses on economic stabilization.

            In 1998, heldpresidential elections (again became president V. Havel) and earlyParliament, which won the Social Democrats. VictorySocial Democrats were not convincing (32,3%), it is not allowed them to formone-party government. All attempts to negotiate a coalition to resist natykalysmain political rivals GDP. Finally Favours and ODS leaders have concludedunprecedented Stabilization Agreement, which provided for the distribution of basicpositions in the state. Social Democrats leader M. Zeman became prime minister, leaderODS V. Klaus - Speaker of Parliament.


Vaclav Havel


            The Government continued its course to Zemanprivatization, deepening market reforms at the same time, the anticipated developmentsocial sphere. Also, the government undertook the review of all cases of doubtfulprivatization, deployed to fight corruption. These measures gave positiveresult. Czech Republic has resumed its dynamic development.

            In foreign policy, Zeman continuedefforts of their predecessors towards an early "return to Europe." In1999 Czech Republic joined NATO.

            An important focus of governmentwas to bring economic, political and social development model to the Czech RepublicEU standards. In this way the country has achieved significant success and 1 May2004 became a full member.

            At the end of February 2003 afterlong campaign was elected president of the CR Vaclav Klaus.


5. SlovakRepublic

            January 1, 1993 on the world mapappeared with a new state - Slovak Republic. Slovaks ended a lengthy battlefor its statehood. In January 1993 was elected first presidentcountry - M. Kovach. former chairman of the Federal Assembly CHSFR. Prime Ministernew state was `Mr. Sword ravine.

            The formation of a new statetook place in conditions of economic reforms that were begun inCzechoslovakia. Apart from general difficulties of the transition to Slovakiaand specific problems faced due to the previous one-sided developmentindustrial countries (the vast number of companies specialized in primaryprocessing of raw materials, excessive concentration of enterprises of military industry). Thisspecific development stipulating greater depth of the economic crisis andrespectively, more negative its consequences than in the Czech Republic. There was considerableunemployment, there was more than half the population below the poverty line, significantwas inflation.

            Government mAh `spring (1992-1998),failed to provide an appropriate level of reform. The country became much lagfrom its neighbors, economic problems were solved dozhe slowly. Slovak Productswas non-competitive European market. At higher power flourishedcorruption. Foreign policy in the country was focused on Moscow (maintrading partner).

            All this led to the fall of the authority`Sword of spring and his party Movement for Democratic Slovakia. Finally in 1998there were changes of government, new prime minister was M. Dzurinda. He carries a steeptwist, as in foreign and domestic policy: "We will havechange almost everything, not to mention that Slovakia must return to the pathto the West. " Guarantor of the course the country was elected in 1999 newPresident Rudolf Schuster. New policies have given positive results.Country actively transcends economic difficulties adapting their economic,political and social structure to European standards. In 2004,Slovakia joined NATO and the EU.



            In February, 1948 as a resultcoup to power in Czechoslovakia the communists came. However, constructionSocialism did not ensure progress of the country. Once the most balanced economyEurope has become degraded. Realizing the need for change managementCzechoslovakia come from the reform of socialism, giving it a "humanface. In this reform the Soviet leadership saw a threatsocialism. "Prague Spring" was suppressed with tanks of ATS. This action onTwenty years vidtyahnula fall of socialism in the country. Therefore, the fall of socialismin Czechoslovakia occurred as a result of "velvet" revolution. January 11993 on the territory of Czechoslovakia  inresult of the "civilized divorce" broke up into two states: the Czech Republic andSlovakia. Both countries have taken the course to "return" to Europe. In 1999Czech Republic joined NATO in 2004 Czech Republic and Slovakia joined the EU.



1.    What factors contributed to the Communists came to power in 1948 inCzechoslovakia?

2.    Identify the characteristics of building socialism in Czechoslovakia in 40 or 50 yearsTwentieth century.

3.    Why Events in 1968 in Czechoslovakia called the "Prague Spring"?

4.    What is the symbolism of the title to one of the ideologists of the "Prague Spring" Z. Mlynarzha"Frost was a hit with the Kremlin?

5.    What has caused the decision to force the Soviet leadership againstCzechoslovakia?

6.    Why did not the population of Czechoslovakia mass armed resistanceaggression, as in Hungary in 1956?

7.    The most famous dissident organization in Czechoslovakia was "Charter 77" What purposeset for itself in this organization? What are some methods envisaged to achievegoal?

8.    Events 1989 in Czechoslovakia called the "Velvet Revolution".Explain why? What are the consequences of these events?

9.    When formed two separate states Czech Republic and Slovakia?

10. Describe the internal political struggle in the Czech Republic in the periodFrom 1993-2003 he What are the main factors influencing it?

11. Describe the internal political struggle in the Czech Republic in the periodFrom 1993-2003 he What are the main factors influencing it?

12. Make a comparison chart: "Czech and Slovak Republic independentdevelopment.

Items for comparison

Czech Republic

Slovak Republic