Topic 4.Kovalenko NA Cimmerian-Scythian world
§ 22. Nomadic peoples of North and Black millennium BC
1. Cimmerians andtheir neighbors
Late second millennium BC the Indo-European communityvydilylosya tribe of Cimmerians. This is the first people who lived inUkraine, which is mentioned in written sources - "Odyssey" by Homer.The largest and most reliable told Cimmerians Greek historianV cent. BC Herodotus.
Memory to be found also in Assyrian sources.Assyrian name "kimmirayi" means "giants". In another version ofdavnoiranskoyi - rolling equestrian squad.
There are three versions about the origin of the Cimmerians. First - thisdavnoiranskyy people who came to the lands of Ukraine through the Caucasus. Second -Cimmerians the result of a gradual historical development prairanskoyisteppe culture, and was originated by their lower Volga region. Third -Cimmerians were locals.
Archaeologists find real interest in CimmeriansNorthern Black Sea, the North Caucasus, Volga region, the lower reachesDniester and the Danube. Cimmerians were Iranian.
Early Cimmerians were sedentary. Later,Due to the onset of arid climate, they were nomadic people and bredmainly horses, which studied izdyty riding.
Cimmerians united the tribes of the great alliances of tribes,which led the king-chieftain. They had a large army. It consisted of movingdetachments of horsemen, armed with steel and iron swords and daggers, bowsand arrows, battle hammers and maces. Cimmerians fought against the kings of Lydia;Urartu and Assyria.
Kovalenko NA Cimmerian warriors
Refreshment Cimmerians were temporary, basically -camps winterers. But they had their own forges and smiths who made ironand steel swords and daggers, the best at that time in the ancient world. Themselvesthey are not extracted metal, used iron, or get lisostepovykamyCaucasian tribes. Their masters made horse bridle, arrowheads,Jewelry. They had a high level of ceramic production. EspeciallyCups were good with glazed surface, decorated with geometric ornamentation.
Cimmerians were able to perfectly handle the bones. Very nicethey were ornaments made of semiprecious stones. Survived todays Cimmerians made stone grave slabs depicting people.
Cimmerians lived in patriarchal families, which consisted offamilies. Gradually, they highlighted the military nobility. This has greatlypromoted predatory war. Their main purpose was to plunder the neighboringtribes and nations.
Religious ideas Cimmerians known materialsgraves. Notable people buried in the large mound. Were male and femaleburial. In the men's funeral put daggers, bridles, set of nozzlesfor arrows, stone bars, sacrificial food, horse. In the women's funeral put goldand bronze rings, gold and glass beads, pottery.
Archaeological finds show that the Cimmerians hadrelationships with tribes Azov region, Western Siberia and the Caucasus. Among the productsArt found women's jewelry, decorated weapons, stone stelae withoutimage of the head, but with carefully displayed a dagger and a quiver ofarrows.
Along with the central part of the Ukrainian Cimmeriansforest occupied by descendants of the Bronze Age bielogrudovskii culture, mediachornoliska culture, thought to be the ancestors of the Eastern Slavs. The mainsource of life study is chornolistsiv settlement. Found as usualsettlement of 6.10 dwellings and fortified city. Line from 12 settlements,built on the edge of wilderness, protected from attacks chornolistsiv nomidiv.Located on were well protected nature areas. Hill surroundedshaft, which was built with wooden wall and ditch uprooting. The authortown, southern outpost of defense, defended the three lines of walls and ditches. Duringattacks on their walls of protection find their neighbors settlements.
The basis of the economy amounted chornolistsiv ornehomestead farming and ranching. Outstanding level of development reached metalworkingcraft. Iron was used primarily for weapons production. OnSubotivskomu largest settlement found in Europe at that time with a steel swordpin total length of 108 cm
The need for constant struggle against attacks forced the Cimmerianschornolistsiv create foot soldiers and cavalry. In many graves foundhorse harness parts and even a horse skeleton laid next to the dead.Archeological finds have shown the existence of Cimmerian Forest in the day ratherpowerful association of Slav-farmers, which long opposedthreat from the steppe.
Life and development of Cimmerian tribes were interrupted bybeginning of VII century. BC invasion of Scythian tribes, which is linkednext phase of the ancient history of Ukraine.
Almost simultaneously with theCimmerians in the southern part of Crimea inhabited by indigenous people - Taurus (fromGreek word "tavros - round). Tauris comes from the name of the CrimeanPeninsula-Taurida introduced by the tsarist government after joining the Crimea to Russia1783 Ancient Greek historian Herodotus in his book "History toldthat the Taurus mountain plateau were cattle in the river valleys -agriculture, and on the Black Sea coast - fishing. They werealso trades - were skillful potters, were able to spin, processing stone,wood, bone, horn and metal.
Since the second half of the millennium BC inTauris, as in other tribes, there was inequality property, birth formedaristocracy. Around their settlements, Taurus built fortifications. Together withneighbors - the Scythians who fought against the Greek city-states Chersonese, whichcaptured lands.
Tauris fate was tragic: first - inII art. BC - They conquered the Pontic king Mithradates VIEupator, and in the second half of the century. BC captured by the Roman army.In the Middle Ages, Taurus were exterminated or assimilated by the Tartars, who wonCrimea. Tauris original culture was lost.
The name of the people
Period of stay in the Ukrainian lands
VII-IX centuries. BC
III. BC - III. BC
Great Scythia. Ancient city-state in NorthBlack Sea
In the VII century. to III. BC terrifyingtribes and states of Eastern Europe and Middle East nations nahanyaly ScythiansWho came from the depths of Asia and overranon the Black Sea. Scythians conquered a huge territory for those times betweenDon, Danube and Dnieper, part of the Crimea (the territory of modern South andSouth-Eastern Ukraine), creating a state there Scythia. Most fundamentalcharacterization and description of the life of the Scythians Herodotus left. In the V century.BC he personally visited Scythia and described it. The Scythians were descendantsIndo-European tribes. They had their own mythology, ritual, worshipgods and mountains, brought them blood sacrifice.
Herodotus allocated among the Scythians the following groups: Royal ScythiansWho lived in the Lower Dnieperand Don and considered the tip of the union of tribes; Orach-ScythiansWho lived between the Dnieper and the Dniester (historiansbelieve that they were descendants of the Scythians defeated chornoliska culture); Scythians-farmersThat were highlyarea, and nomadic Scythians, thatsettled in the Black Sea steppes. Among these tribes actually HerodotusScythians were the families of the Royal Scythians and the nomadic Scythians. They ruled overall other tribes.
Scythian king's coatand warlord
At the end of VI century. BC in Black Seaplains formed a powerful state union, led by the Scythians - LargeScythia, which consisted of local people and forest steppeRegions (Skolots). Great Scythia, the Herodotus, divided into three kingdoms;one of them led the chief king, and two others - younger kings (probably sonshead).
Scythian state - the first political association in the southEastern Europe in the early iron age (Scythia in the center of V-III century.BC Kamians'ke Settlement was near Nikopol). Scythia was divided intodistricts (nomy), managed by princes, kings designed skiff.
Highest elevation reached Scythia in the fourth century.BC It is concerned with the name of the king Ateya. Power Ateya extended tovast territory from the Danube to the Don. This king minted its own coins. PowerScythia not shaken even after the defeat of the Macedonian kingPhilip II (father of Alexander Macedonian). Mighty remained stateScythians and the death of 90-year-old in 339, the Ateya BC However, on the vergeIV-III century. BC Scythia decline. At the end of the third century.BC Great Scythia under pressure Sarmatians ceases to exist.Part of the Scythian people went to the south and created two small Scythia.One that called Scythian kingdom (III century BC. - III.BC) with its capital in the Scythian Naples in the Crimea, another - in the lower reaches of the Dnieper.
Scythian society consisted of three main sections:warriors, priests, ordinary congregation (farmers and ranchers). Each of the groups ledtheir origin to one of the sons pershopredka and had their sacredattribute. For the soldiers it was the ax, for priests - a cup for the congregation - with plowyoke. Herodotus says that the special honor of the Scythians used the seven gods;it is believed their ancestors of humans and creators of all things on earth.
Written sources and archaeological materials indicatethat was the basis of Scythian farming, because it gavealmost everything needed for life - horses, meat, milk, wool and felt for clothes.Scythia rural population grew wheat, millet, hemp and others.,sown with bread not only for themselves but also for sale. Farmers lived insettlements (settlement), which were located on the banks of rivers and entrenchedmoats and ramparts.
Decline and later - were caused by the collapse of a number of Scythiafactors: worsening climatic conditions, dry steppes, economic declineforest resources and more. In addition, III-I century. BC significantof the Scythians Sarmatians conquered.
Today, researchers believe that the first shootsstatehood in Ukraine there is in Scythian times. Scythians createddistinctive culture. In the art of so-called dominant. "Animal" style.
Widely known monuments of the Scythian burial mounds of days: and SolokhaHaymanova Tombs in Zaporizhia, and thick Tomb Chortomlyk in Dnipropetrovsk,Kul-Oba et al. Found royal jewelry (gold pectoral), weapons and more.
Scythian Gold Pectoral
with the sword and scabbard Tolstoy Graves
Head of Dionysos.
Golden comb. Mound Solokha
Herodotus described burial rite Scythian king: Before the king to bury hersacred territory - Guerra (Dnieper, at the Rapids) -Scythians carried his embalmed body in all the Scythian tribes, where upon itperformed the ritual of memory. In Guerra body buried in the tomb along with a spaciouswife, the closest servants, horses and others. Near the king put goldexpensive jewelry. Above the tombs poured huge mounds - the chiefking, the higher the mound. This shows the stratification of the Scythians.
4. Scythian from the Persian king Darius I
The Scythians were a militant nation. They actively intervened inConflicts between the Front Asia (Scythians fighting Persian king Dariuset al.).
Around 514-512 years BC Scythians decidedconquer the Persian King Darius I. Having collected a great army, hecrossed floating bridge across the Danube and moved deep into the Great Scythia. ArmyDarius I, Herodotus argued, counted 700 thousand Soldiers, however, asbelieve this figure is several times exaggerated. Scythian army wasnumber is probably around 150 thousand fighters. The plan Scythiancommanders, their army had avoided an open fight with the Persians andgradually away, bait the enemy into the interior, destroying on its waywells and pasture lands. Currently, the Scythians had planned to gather strength and causedefeat weakened the Persians. This "Scythian tactics" as they called her laterhas been successful.
Dariuscamp erected in the Azov Sea. Breaking the vast distances, PersianArmy sought in vain to find the enemy. When the Scythians decided that the forces of Persiaundermined, they have to act decisively. On the eve of a decisive battle the Scythiansking of Persia sent a strange gift: a bird, mouse, frog and five arrows. Content"Scythian gift" Darius interpreted as his adviser: "If the Persians, you will notbirds and fly high in the sky, or mice and not shovayetes in the land, orfrogs and in bogs postrybayete, then you're back to you, youzhublyat these arrows. It is not known what thought Darius And,Despite these gifts and the Scythians, who shykuvaly troops to battle. But at night,left wounded in the camp, which had fire support, he maderemnants of his army fled.
Thus ignominiously ended the attempt of one of the most powerfulthe then rulers of the world to conquer Great Scythia. With the victory overPersian army, which was the strongest then, the Scythians gained fameinvincible warriors.
During the III century. BC - III. BC prevailed in the Northern Black Sea SarmatiansWho came from Volga-pryuralskyh steppes.
Ukrainian Land III and art. BC
As these tribes called themselves, we do not know. The Greeks and RomansSarmatians called them, which translates to davnoiranskoyi as "girded with the sword."Herodotus claimed that the ancestors lived Sarmatians Scythians east of the river Tanais(Don). He also told the legend that Sarmatians are descended fromAmazon, which took Scythian youths. However, well fluent in the language of menthey could not speak because Sarmatians corrupt Scythian language. Parttruth in the statement "the father of history" are: Sarmatians, Scythians as belonging toIranian group of people, and they had very high status of women.
Check-Black Sea steppes Sarmatians was peaceful.They destroyed the remains of the Scythian population and turned most of thetheir country for the desert. Later in Sarmatia, as they called these landsRomans, there is some Sarmatian tribal unions - aorsy, Sirak,Roksolana, Yazigi, Alans.
Settling in the Ukrainian steppes Sarmatians were attackingneighboring province of Rome, ancient city-states and townsfarmers-glorify `yan Zarubyntsi steppe culture. Evidence of attacks onSlav were numerous finds of Sarmatian tips of arrows during excavationsShaft Zarubynec'k hillforts.
Sarmatians were cattle-nomads. Required Productsagriculture and handicraft products they received from strangers by neighborsexchange of tribute and the usual violence. The basis of such relations was a militaryadvantage of the nomads.
Great importance in the life of the Sarmatians had war suburbsand prey.
No Sarmatian settlement archaeologists found.The only landmarks that they have left is a mound. Among the excavated mounds aremany women's graves. They found excellent examples of jewelry made in"Animal" style. An essential belonging male burials are weapons andequipment for the horse.
Fibula. Nahaychynskyymound. Crimea
At the beginning of AD in the reign of SarmatiansBlack nd reached the maximum point. A sarmatyzatsiya Greek city-states,for a long time Sarmatian dynasty rules Bosporus.
They, like the Scythians, there was private ownership ofcattle that was the major richness and the principal means of production. Significant roleSarmatians in the economy played a slave labor in which they turnedcaptured during the continuous war prisoners. However rodopleminnyy orderSarmatians held fairly steady.
NomadicLife Sarmatians and trade ties with many nations (China, India, Iran,Egypt) helped spread them among different cultural influences. Their culturecombining the elements of culture East, ancient South and West.
From mid-third century. BC Sarmatians lose leadsituation in the Black Sea steppes. During this time there were nativesNorthern Europe - Goths. Together withlocal tribes, among which were the Alans (one of the Sarmatian groups)Goths carried out devastating attacks on the Northern Black Sea city.
Questions and Tasks
1. What were the first nomadic tribes in NorthBlack Sea?
2. With the advent of the tribes which the Ukrainian lands coincidedTop of the Iron Age?
3. Where carried foray tribesCimmerians and Scythians?
4. What was the ancient Greek historian detailsGreat Scythia?
5. As it was called the most powerful king of Great Scythia?
6. What nations were Great Scythia?
7. What was the basis of economy Scythians?
8. In what year was Scythian king of PersiaDarius? How it ended?
9. What tribes displaced the Scythians from the NorthBlack?
10. What is life different from the Sarmatians Scythians?