§ 18. France
· How and why the struggle for the unification of France under royal authority?
· About the famous kings of the dynasty of France Kapetinhiv.
· What started Hundred Years War between France and England and how it ended?
· When completed unification of France?
1. Reasons of strengthening royal power and unite the country
At the end of the tenth century. France was a change of dynasty. Latter Carolingian placement suffered the fate that their predecessors Merovingians. The founder of a new dynasties became one of the descendants of Count Paris EdThat glorified his name during protection City of Norman - Hugo Capet of France. So the French government began a new Dynasty Capet (987-1328 years).
Board of a new dynasty began when Frantsiyiyagoing through difficult times of feudal disintegration. The first Capethad almost no power and recognized only "first among equals." King did not was even the strongest among the feudal lords. Master it was only in his own possessions - Royal domain - Duchy Ile-de-France. It was a narrow strip of land that stretched along the river Seine and the Loire from Paris to Orleans and from all sides otochuvalysya holdings of other feudal lords. Other dukes and earls held more often land than the king, and not yield to his power. But even in its own domain King had to keep persevering against arbitrary barons who abode in castles and not too afraid of his superior.
Representatives of the new Dynasty did not want to put up with this situation and у first half of XII century. Kings started to strengthen its authority, backed by different population of France.
The period of Kapetinhiv coincided with the time when France, like all of Europe, experienced an economic boom. Inhastily developed agriculture Industry, crafts, growing city. However, the development of restrained internecine and arbitrariness of feudal wars. Therefore, farmers, artisans and merchants were interested in strong royal power, which would unite the country and put an end to arbitrariness feudal lords. Kings skillfully used such situations and maintain city protect them in the fight against feudal landlords. Cities, in turn, helped King tame recalcitrant vassals.
With the development of feudal relations between management and farmers quickly changed. Some feudal lords tried to force peasants to pay more, and dissatisfied villagers fled to the cities, others - liberated from dependence on farmers and requiring only regular payment of money. To keep in subjection free villagers and to find the fugitives, small and medium needed a strong feudal central government. They began to support the King. Some small knights, dissatisfied with their seniors, also sought justice in the king.
The church also sided with the King. She condemned the senseless internecine war in the country, during which thousands died. Relying on the support of townspeople, small and medium-feudal lords and the church, French kings began fighting for reunification.
2. The beginning of the struggle for unification France
Start the XII century. a time to strengthen royal power. King Louis VI Thick (1108 - 1137's) along with his assistant Abbe Suheriyem order cited in the royal domain. Locks rebellious barons were destroyed or are housed in the royal garrisons.
Louis VI Thick different from their predecessors more persistence and energy. He started a real war against the inhabitants "Waspish nests that his country pozhyraly robberies," as contemporaries called barons. The king personally led the punitive forces, fought against the barons organized siege castles. Twenty years it took King to conquer rebellious barons. Especially hard was the struggle against Hugo de Pyuyize. He was excommunicated from the church, but it caused in Baron just laugh. Louis IV held three times in the siege of his castle, destroyed three times and burning it, but nothing ever did. Every where Pyuyizegave promise of obedience to the king, restored the castle, and it started again. Only after the third defeat he skoryvsya.
The fight for the unification of Louis VI the country was gradually paying off. Evidence of this are the following events. In 1124 King Henry I of England with a German Emperor Henry V went to war against the King of France. In this hard to French day first time in history, all vassals Northern France united around their king, who ensured the victory.
At the end of his life Louis VI managed to achieve, as all thought, a great strengthening of royal power, ozhenyvshy 17-year-old son Louis VII (1137 - 1180's) with 15-year-old Eleonora Aquitaine. After his father's death Eleanor desolation was the only heir Acquitaine - A huge duchy in the south. However, for some time, Louis VII had Eleonora negligence divorce, she married Henry II PlantagenetWhich in 1154 became king of England, and brought him in possession possession. Thus, a person close to Combat Capet France became a unification english Plantagenet. By the middle of the XII century. under their power was almost half of France. Possession Plantagenet, considered to be vassals of the French King, several times larger domain latter. French kings had to begin a long and exhausting fight Plantagenet association with France.
Significant progress in the fight for union French lands under royal authority of Louis VII son reached the king Philippe Augustus II(1180 - 1223's). PhilippeII was King at 15 years of age, but he disappointed those who expected him to inexperience. Vigorous and wary, distrustful and deceitful, he managed achieve brilliant success in the fight against Plantagenet. PhilippeII accused King Henry II of England to institute vassal obligations (as Plantagenetwere his vassals) and simultaneously took the oath of a vassal of his sons supporting their struggle against the father.
Fighting Plantagenet ended in complete victory PhilippeII. During 1202 - 1214 рр. he conquered most of the French possessions Plantagenet. Then the royal domain area increased several times. In addition, son of Philip II, Louis Leo VIII (1223-1226 biennium) used Albihoyskymy Wars (1209-1229 biennium) for connecting many South France. He rozoryv pryluchyv and to seize the Duchy of Toulouse.
3. Board St. Louis IX
At the time of the Board granddaughter Philippe II - King Louis IX St. (1226 - 1270's) There were great wars, but was held on changes in state administration, strengthened the royal authority power.
Louis IX became king when he was 11 years. When he became of age, the showed himself a worthy successor of his grandfather's business PhilippeII. At a time when power was a decisive moment on, Louis IX surprised everyone with its adherence to the law. When his old enemy, King England, had quarreled with his barons, both sides decided to seek to Louis IX, that he found out who was right. Maybe barons counted while the fact that the French king to support them, but in vain: Louis IX gave a verdict in favor of King.
In Louis IX the country tried to achieve the rule of law. They said that Every day, King allegedly came from his palace at the appointed time, got under tree, and listened rozbyrav complaint of any person.
Unusual for contemporaries were great kindness and piety of the king. He arranged for shelters and maimed poor people. At the Royal Palace in the room for the royal meals daily table covered with beggars and cripples. King personally followed them to received the same food, as he was. Louis IX took part in the seventh and eighth Crusades. When he bought from captivity after unsuccessful seventh Crusade, Louis IX had returned home, and left to wait New Crusaders in Palestine. For three years spent there, the French King earned fame of the saint. He made a barefoot pilgrimage in plain clothes to Nazareth, Worked as a bricklayer and a simple left buried adrift corpses of dead Christians. Only the news of the death of his mother forced his return to France, which remained for six years without their king. Respect for King Louis IX was so great, that has passed and 20 years Church proclaimed him a saint.
By Louis IX of France was created a small royal council - meeting the King continued with his closest supporters. There was a royal domain fights bannedas a means of resolving legal disputes. If a person is not agreed with the decision senyorialnoho or city court, it could apply to Royal Court - Paris Parliament proceedings. He became the highest Court of France. The most important case (arson, chasing counterfeit money, abduction of women and others.) dealt exclusively in the royal court. Could turn to him and those who lived in areas not linked to the royal domain.
Of order in the state and reduce number of wars between the feudal ban contributed to wage wars of Louis IX on territory of its domain and set policies "40 days of the King"That there were throughout the kingdom. Under this rule, between the declaration of war and its installed beginning in the 40-day period during which the weaker party could appeal seeking justice for the King.
Louis IX launched in France creating a single monetary system. King did not banned seniors mint their own coins (right to mint coins then had 40 seniors), but made them as his vassals, to permit in their possession royal coin along with her. Gradually the royal coin, which distinguished by high quality, replaced with traffic worse than the quality of local money. The introduction of a single monetary system contributed to the economic unity country.
Great territorial gains in the years rule of Louis IX was implemented, although increased royal possession. Louis IX was signed for a utility agreement with English King, which he finally refused to claims for lost earlier province. King of England retained only for a Aquitaine; for this he had to accept a vassal of the French king.
Louis IX repeatedly said that his rule is to peace and justice in the country and abroad. Activities King was evidence of his desire to implement these ideas: during the reign of Louis IX, France got stronger as the only State and achieved economic prosperity. It is not famous as day Louis IX golden age in the history of the country.
Reforms King Louis St. IX (1226-1270рр.)
Forbidden court fights in Royal domain. High judicial authority was Parisianparliament. Forbidden private Warin its domain й introduced on other Territories Kingdom rule "40 daysKing "
Started replacement Address knights, vassals hired army
I made single money systemRoyal domain й ordered accept royal coin for other Territories country
4. Victory and defeat PhilippeIV beautiful
Philippe IV Beautiful(1284 - 1314 years), the grandson of Louis IX, was the fourth prominent dynast KapetinhivIn which closed combining France. PhilippeIV was vigorous, decisive personality, but unlike his grandfather, he is very concerned such things as law and morality when he wanted to achieve his goal. He, like his predecessors, led a relentless struggle to increase their holdings.
Then royal domain at the beginning of XIV Art. covered 3 / 4 lands of the kingdom. When the British government remained only narrow strip of territory on the coast Bay of Biscay.
PhilippeIV opened a long struggle for accession of Flanders, the main center of woolen manufacturing in Europe. King attracted to the rich flandrski City Gent, Bruges, Ypreset al. But he suffered the setback. In Battle KurtreJuly 11, 1302 French knights suffered a crushing defeat of the militias artisans and peasants of Flanders. Raised on the battlefield 4 thousand gilded spurs, withdrawals from the French knights were killed, was posted in Kurtre, hence this battle was called "battle of gold spurs. Despite this defeat, Philippe IV still attached to their holdings of West Flanders.
Significant cost of the war in Flanders and tremendous waste of the royal court led to a full financial ruins. To replenish its treasury PhilippeIV does not abhor nothing. He borrowed money from the city and not turning them, cast out of the country Jews Lombard bankers konfiskovuyuchy while their money and then again took money from them for returning to the country under his orders greater hash coin (Reduced amount of gold in it) that eroded sales, but enriched King, in royal estates peasants were forced to buy their freedom. Philippe IV in search of sources to replenish the treasury could not avoid his "attention" and the Catholic church. He was to require payment of the clergy King of the permanent tax. King spoke against Pope Boniface VIII, which categorically forbade the clergy to pay taxes. But the time changed. In response to the intervention of the pope PhilippeIV collected in 1302 the three estates of the realm - the clergy, nobles and burghers to General States and invited them to consider it dispute with the pope. This meeting was convened for the first time in history.
Meeting General states 1468
Clergy and nobles belonging to the privileged classes. They had several advantages over others, were particularly exempted from paying taxes. The rest of the population - peasants, artisans, commoners - belonging to the unprivileged Third Estate. They worked, paid taxes and had no benefits. To participate in the general states of the third King asked only of the rich burghers. Each state had one vote. Often controversy arose because by the third condition had only one vote, and feudal lords - the clergy and nobility - two votes.
General States in France in the fourteenth century.
And the Chamber
Clergy (Arhiyepyskopy. Bishops Abbot large monasteries)
Representatives medium and small nobility
By the third condition (2 senators from each city, mostly mayors and members municipalities)
· Adoption of new taxes;
· Solving the issue of disposable cash subsidies to public needs.
Collected for the first time PhilippeIV General States unanimously opposed interference in the internal affairs of the pope Kingdom.
Relying on the support of its policies majority of the country, Philippe IV started winning the fight against Boniface VIII. Under pressure PhilippeIV the new pope was elected French Archbishop Clement V. By insistence Philippe IV had a new pope his residence to the city of Avignon in France. This event began 70 years period (1309 - 1378's) Avignoncaptivity popes who were under the control of French kings.
Second time used support of general states PhilippeIV in 1308, when he decided to lay their hands great wealth Order of the Knights Templar.
Order Templar was under special care of the popes. In the XIII century. he became a major landowner, master ports, shipyards, had a powerful fleet. Center of its activity after the defeat of the Crusades the Knights Templar moved to Europe, where borrowed money impoverished kings and thus influenced on European policy. It Templar, by the way, the first launched of accounting documents and the use of bank checks. Owe Knights Templar and PhilippeIV. Lacking something pay, he decided to use cunning and asked to take him to the Order. Grand Master of the Order of the Knights Templar Jean de moles refused, realizing that the king would subsequently lead the order and assign its wealth. In 1307 by decision PhilippeIV in one day, in secret, was arrested all the Templars of France with the Grand Master. They accused in the service of witchcraft and the devil.
Seven years continued investigation. Under torture Templar admitted all charges, but during Court rejected them. Templars were found guilty, the order dissolved, most of their property was king. But PhilippeIV waited for a big disappointment: most of the treasures of the order mysteriously disappeared. Not Templars found the treasures are still confused by the imagination of many adventurers.
Grand Master Jean de moles 18 March 1314 burned by a slow fire. Before his death, he cursed pope, the king and his descendants, stating: "Pope Clement! King Philippe! Do not pass a year as I will call you on the Judgement. " Thousands of residents of Paris was horrified to hear the last words of the Great Masters. Through Two weeks curse became a reality. The first died Clement VI. Autumn - King PhilippeIV. Later died and four adults sons PhilippeAnd the royal throne has passed through 14 years to side branches Capet - Dynasty Valois. That might be coincidence, and perhaps work Templar brothers that known for great skill in making poisons…
Capital punishment in the presence of PhilippeIV. Figure XV.
Since the Louis VI Tolstogo, who ruled at the beginning of the XII century., To the times PhilippeIV, to the XIV century., Continued process Association France. As a result, the state association in Franceearly XIV century. established the estate monarchy - centralized state in which the King ruled, based on charges of state. Simultaneously Frantsiyastalaone of the first nation-states.
5. Hundred Years War
In the XIV century. on political landscape of Europe has the nation states that contrary to the interests individual feudal lords. At the same time lost the sense of a universal state under supremacy of the emperor or the pope. The two most significant national kingdoms in Western Europe were France and England. The rivalry between them resulted in a long conflict, which was named Hundred Years War (1337 - 1453). - It was the first armed conflict of the European dimension in which battles interspersed with long truce. In the war involved not only France and England, but Scotland, Castile, Aragon, Portugal, Anjou, Burgundy.
One reason for the conflict in the choir feudal system of government. English king, as vassals of the French King, but with significant holdings in France, stood in the way of a single French state. A second important reason for war was the rivalry between England and France through Flanders. French kings sought to conquer vassal, but essentially independent county. England, with close economic ties, in turn supported the struggle flandrskyhcities against the French king.
The reason for war was supereka continuity of the French throne. After the death of all three sons PhilippeIV was King of France proclaimed his nephew PhilippeVI Long (1328 - 1350's) of the dynasty of France. But for the English King advice flandrskyh cities said their claims to French throne. How dear grandson of Philip IV, he believed that a more human to the throne of France than any of Valois family.
To reject a claim by King, French lawyers relied back to laws Clovis - "Salic truth" where stated that the land can not inherit a woman. From this they did concluded that because the kingdom - a land, and mother of Edward iii as daughter PhilippeIV, has no right to inherit land, and it can not convey the right son to the throne.
In 1337 French King claimed that takes away from the King on his possession southwest France. In response, Edward III declared war.
Hundred Years War, whose routine date - 1337-1453 he was - was not an official or a continuous war between France and England. This is a shortcut. What is invented by historians, his first vzhyvshy 1823 name for a long period of unrest that they always used English as an opportunity for walks, hit and justified war. (This war time called Second Hundred Years' War - after the older Anglo-French Conflict 1152-1259 biennium) and it was first orgy phenomena. With their follow- generation later find it 's the ugliest in the Middle Ages: infinite ubyvst, Absurd prejudices and deceitful knighthood countless particular interest. Utverdzhuvanyh, despite the common good.
Anhliysky1 historian Norman Davis "Europe. History.
The war began with marine incursions French and British on the coast of one another. Finally, 1340two fleets have agreed in a sea battle near the town Sleyse, Located at the mouth Schelde. The French fleet was completely destroyed. After the battle the British joked: "If fish could say they would speak French. "
Hundred Years War (1337 - 1453's)
Since 1341 war moved into the territory of France. Then fought long and great battles were rare. Only in 1346 first serious battle took place near KressIn which the French army was completely routed.
Battle Kress August 26, 1346
English achieved victory because of their infantry, armed with bows that shot on the significant distances quickly and accurately. These infantrymen gained from free English peasant yeoman.
The French army consisted mainly knight of the units which were formed on the principle of personal loyalty suzerenovi. Every gentleman who went into battle, sought to gain glory and make a feat. This army was unmanageable, and the battle turned into a series of hertz. In addition, knightly battle was a few, equipment because of one knight, as stated before, pricey. So knightly army during the Battle of Kress Due on the English infantry, which operated in a closed unit and was manageable.
The battle began English archers who showered with arrows and attacking French cavalry arbaletnykiv. Not stand such attacks, Knights retreated. British counterattack done it. In battle of the French knights were killed in 1500 and only 3 english. It was also one signal, which heralded the era of knights coming to an end.
After several years of war English King went to the tactics of the important cities and the annexation of raids deep into French territory with robbery and taking large prey. The war escalated into battles of attrition.
French King Dear John II decided to end raids Black Prince (so called son of Edward King of England by the color of his armor). In 135625000th French troops caught near the town Poitiers6000th British squad. Having a chance to win, the French again lost, and King was taken prisoner.
Prince Edward was ready to give all the spoil and all seized the city in exchange for the French to it missed. But the French king demanded that he surrendered. Then the British arrayed in battle formation, and prepared to fight to the last.
The French, mindful of the defeat at Kress, All the army hastened and drew up in three lines. But Knights were not adapted to walking in the battle line, and when the first line French rushed into battle, she was immediately broken English. Second Line French also came under showers of arrows and the British began to retreat. Retreat into a panic that engulfed the line, led by King. The first left the battlefield next to the King people, including the eldest son of King Dauphin Charles - the future King Charles V (1364 - 1380's). British counterattack done it. Losing Poitiersput France to the brink of losing independence.
For the captive King British demanded a huge ransom - 3 million gold marks, nearly three-year revenue of France. Dauphin (Successor to the throne) Karl, who ruled the country, understood that without the consent of subjects not to collect such funds. It was convened by the General States. In response to Money deputies, especially by the third condition demanded condemn those responsible for hardships in France, and to take control of their part in collecting and spending taxes. Trying to resist reforms sparked Dauphin Parisians revolt in 1358 led Rev- Chairman of the city administration of Paris Etienne Marcel. The rebels captured royal palace and killed several close Karl. Revessentially become the master of France. However, the Dauphin was able to escape, and France were two rulers. In the political struggle of the French king intervened relative of the King Navarra Karl evil that falsely supported Etienne Marcel, intending to capture French throne. The situation in the country is extremely deteriorated.
The entire burden of the war and difficulties lie on the shoulders of peasants. Last straw filled their cup of patience was required to make them work strengthening locks. In May, 1358 north of Paris erupted the uprising quickly spread to the North-Eastern France. It was called jacquerie (French seniors contemptuously called all the villagers zhakamy). The peasants attacked castles, destroyed records duties, tax documents, severely stretch with families seniors. Farmers accused of betraying seniors king who was captured. The rebels saw no difference between the English and French feudal. Seniors do not immediately able to cope with this peasant movement. Only after the treacherous assassination of heads of the rebellion was suppressed. After some time like rebellion broke out in England (1381).
After all these troubles France with great difficulty regained their force. Dauphin Charles although it was physically weak and cowardly was remarkable statesman. He succeeded in 1360 make peace with England. In this peace, almost a third of France betrayed by the English Department, confirmed the obligation for payment of ransom of a king, but - and this was major - English King refused to claim the French throne. After signing the peace John II paroled released to France. And when the latter realized that the ransom for him will not be collected, he dotrymavshy his word, returned to England, where he soon died. Dauphin Charles becoming king, tried to justify the nickname given him wise. Although it reversed the decision General States, and still order the tax system, began formation of management staff, and ordered pereozbroyiv army strongly tried to bring it order. The consequences of reasonable decisions is delayed.
After recovery hostilities in 1369 French army under the command of the talented commander Dyudeklena almost completely liberated territory of France. While changed nature of war: the war between the noble knights who fought for glory, seniors and ladies, it became a battle between States and nations.
After the death of Charles V Wise situation in France deteriorated again. His son Charles VI went mad and could not manage the state. Power struggle erupted between the two groups that tried to land on the French throne representative. One - burhinyony led Duke of Burgundy, etc. - Armagnac (orleantsi) - Headed by the Duke of Orleans. This struggle decided to use British and renewed war.
France during the Hundred Years War (Chronicle of Saint-Denis, 1415)
Living in the suburbs and villages preferred to hide in cities or flee into the forests like wild beasts, with their wives and children, with all treasure than the King to meet people (tax collectors) to be more feared than the enemy. Soon they really feel in their own skin, that there was no difference between these people and the English, or that they were robbed and fiercely committed robbery. They took away the power of gold, money and all that was most valuable. Their cruelty has caused such horror, that the priests were taken from churches and buried treasure in a safe place that belonged to God and the saints, because robbers took away whatever they could find outside the city walls, and did so without remorse.
1. What impact has the war on life in France?
2. What are the sufferings of the common people suffered war?
3. What can explain the behavior royal tax collectors?
Autumn 1415 English army led by King Henry V in Normandy and boarded near the village Azincourt again defeated the French. Englishmen came to Paris. For peace Contract 1420 France and England were the only kingdom. It seemed that the war was over.
Battle Azincourt October 25, 1415
King Henry V proclaimed regent and successor to the French took the throne and married the daughter of Charles VI. Son Charles VI - Charles pozbavlyavsya right to inherit the throne. But Dauphin did not recognize the treaty and fled to the south of France where it has been supporters. Just then the dead Henry V and Charles VI. Again broke war. Obstacle to full British conquest of the country was Fortress Orleans, they were besieged in 1428 While defenders of the fortress was much more than English, they had believed in the victory.
6. Jeanne d'Arc. Completion of the Hundred Years War
In March 1429 to the court of the Dauphin Karl, proclaimed Charles VII, Arrived like a man wearing and she said that she - farmer from the village Domremi in Lorraine, that her name is Jeanne, and she came, to liberate Orleans drive England with France and to crown the Dauphin. This was informed archangel Michael, St. Catherine and Margaret, who appeared to her in visions. Jeanne admitted to the army. In knight costumes, a royal flag in his hands it became a symbol of future victory. Army and France believe in miracles. In Jane saw the instrument of God, and God can not help the work wrong. So God with France. Patriotic exaltation swept the country. When Carl started to gather flags those who would save France.
Meanwhile, Joan led the army actually committed a miracle. For 17 days, French army lifted the siege of Orleans and made raid to Reims - the city where there was the coronation of French kings. Coronation Charles the Dauphin in Rheims transformed in the eyes of the French in the "legitimate" king. And because-rotba by King in the minds of those people - a struggle for the country.
After the coronation of Charles VII nastorohoyu with suspicion and treated the growing popularity of "Virgin of Orleans" fearing that she might overshadow him. King and his entourage tried to somehow resolve it. Jane assigned to minor, but risky military operations, during one of them (defense of the city Komp'yen) She came captive to burhundtsivThat were allies of the English. Charles VII did nothing to save Jeanne. It confronts English court, where judges have tried to prove that Jeanne and witch yeretychka, so the coronation of Charles had no legal force. All charges Jeanne answered bravely and wittily. It burned an area of Rouenas a witch, and the ashes thrown into the water.
While Jeanne and killed, right, started it, had a positive outcome. In 1436 Charles VII entered Paris and by 1453 whole territory of France, except Calais town, Was released from the British. Hundred Years War ended, although there was no sign of peace.
Charles VII, to finally resolve the issue with the prosecution that brought him to the throne and yeretychka witch, organized process that examined Jean-ing deal. When viewing from Jeanne was cleared of all charges, she was acquitted in death.
Hundred Years War had far-reaching consequences. In addition to destroying the country and its human losses (50% of the population), the main one - The merger of France and creating a strong centralized state. Integral Army and the single tax were its main features. If previously knight went to war because it was associated with senyorom oath of allegiance, the soldier - a duty to state. Previously, adjustments to national needs took place with the consent of those who paid, now belonged to taxes to pay for citizenship, and no agreement has not he asked. Thus, France withdrew from the war a different state that has determined its fate.
7. Complete unification of France
At the end of the Hundred Years War, some French remained in possession power outside the French king. Struggle for their accession was completed second half XV. Major role in France played a complete unification Louis XI (1461 - 1483's).
Louis XI was a prominent politician and diplomat his time, and yet - the first of the kings of France, whose power was unlimited, that is absolute. His appearance, he was reminded of the powerful King: thin, stooped, dressed in threadbare long camisole, constantly disturbed by the troubled business. It is this man the terror of their enemies and rivals. War, intrigue, bribery, unions were his weapons. In addition to collecting lands, it is very concerned with their economic development. Crafts and trade were his passion.
The main obstacle to Louis XI to unite the country was the Duke of Burgundy Charles the BoldWho had significant ownership in eastern France and the Netherlands. Unlike other great feudal lords who have resisted Louis XI, Charles the Bold in their estates held the same policies as his opponent. In fact, conflict between Louis and Charles was a conflict between two similar states. In this struggle winner Louis XI. A decisive battle took place in 1477 near Nancy. Burhundtsidefeated and killed Charles. Louis XI was delighted by his death main enemy, and immediately ordered him to take possession. Burgundy State ceased to exist. In Burgundy, Louis was able to attach to his possession of Picardy in the north, center and Berry in Provence in southern France.
Son of Louis XI - Charles VIII (1483 - 1498's) attached last possession, which preserves the autonomy - the Duchy of Brittany (1491). Thus ended a long process political centralization of France, which began on Capet, and ended by the dynasty of France. In the XVI century. France is among the most powerful and centralized states in Europe.
Check how to remember
1. Who was the founder of the dynasty Kapetinhiv?
2. Name four prominent representatives of the Royal Dynasty Kapetinhiv.
3. What is feudal fragmentation?
4. What was the Duchy of French management?
5. Who was the most dangerous opponent of French kings in struggle to unite the country?
6. What segments of the population supported the union and why France?
7. What is General States? For what purpose it had been convened? How to solve the issues at this meeting?
8. What are the consequences of the conflict of King PhilippeIV Nicely with Templars?
9. When and who led France Hundred Years War?
10. The top battle of the war. Why French knights suffered complete defeat them?
11. Who is Etienne Marseille?
12. Give reasons peasant uprisings ("jacquerie ") In France during Hundred Years War.
13. According to a French King started and which ended the Hundred Years War?
14. Who called "Orl
15. That caused France's victory in the war?
16. Find main consequences of the war.
17. Who was the main rival of Louis XI in the end unite France under the reign of King?
18. When was complete unification of France?
Think and answer
1. Describe the rule of France first Capet.
2. Identify factors that contributed to the unification of France and which prevented.
3. Specify the successes and failures of the King Philippe IV beautiful.
4. What were the causes and drive to the Hundred Years War between England and France?
5. What was the role of the General States in the events of the war?
6. Evaluate the role of Joan Arc in victory over England.
7. What methods are used for the completion of Louis XI unification of France?
Perform the task
1. Track, as happened in the strengthening of royal power France from the beginning of the XII century. to the XIV century. by defining basic milestones in this process.
2. Make a comparative historical portrait of Louis IX Holy and Philippe IV beautiful. What is your attitude to ways to achieve their goal?
3. Prepare a chronology: "Hundred Years War."
4. Make a story about Jeanne Arc.
For the curious
What has caused more than a century duration of the war?