Subject IV. Western European states in XVI - FIRST HALF XVII art.
§ 7-8. France
1. What were the features of socio-eCONOMIC France at the end of XV century.?
2. Name Main features of the centralized state in France at the end of XV century.
3. What were consequences are French centralized state?
4.What were the reasons for the victory of the Reformation in Germany?
5.What are the signs of birth monarchy you know?
At the beginning of the XVII century. France was the most populated country in Europe. At the end of XV century. its population amounted to 14-15 million, and in the middle of XVII century. reached 16-18 million souls. The vast most of it lived in the villages and the country as a whole remained agrarian. Association French centralized state was completed at the end of XV century.
At the same time reunification fixings power of the king. General States (Birth-representative authority) is not convened in early 1484, King Louis XII (1498-1515 biennium), not radyachys with them, led the war for the conquest of Italy, established a tax on maintenance of the army, spent huge sums of their ambitious plans.
Next steps for establishment of absolute monarchy in France was made by Francis I (1515-1547 biennium). He managed to conquer his power Catholic Church. In 1516 Francis and agreed with Пapoyu Рymskym Leo X, which King himself appointed to senior church positions, but only the pope asserted his decision. Religious entities are subordinate king. All cases resolved on life Royal Council, which prepared the decrees of the King, decide important legal cases, appointed the new taxes. To approve a new tax decree or Francis I it was enough to write: "This is my good will."
Fig. Francis and
Royal lawyers publicly declared that the power of the king and nobody is unlimited. During one of the meetings of the Paris parliament (the highest authority that reviewed court cases) its president declared, referring to Francis I: "You stand above the laws, the laws and ordinance can not You force, and generally there is no power that could you to something force.
His power king performed based on a huge army of officials. In no country contemporary Europe was not so many government officials. Create new post King was extremely beneficial, because the vast majority of positions sold money received by the royal treasury.
Italian War. End XV Art. French kings started wars rich by winning the Italian lands, which lasted more than half a century (1494-1559 biennium). In Europe were known Italian artists, engineers and scientists, but the main thing that attracted France - the center of the Catholic world - the city Rome. Conquered his French kings could claim the presidency throughout western Christendom. Prompted the French attempts to conquer Italy and that it remained politically fragmented country.
The reason for Italian Wars became hereditary rights of the French king Charles VIII (1483-1498 biennium) for some Italian land. Start Wars was very successful for the French. But gradually the war dragged on and entered lasting nature. Enraged by violence and robbery French Italian States have united to fight against invaders. The French were forced to leave Italy, nothing short of.
King Francis I continued 1521 fighting for the conquest of Italy. However, the situation in Europe while changed. Holy Roman Emperor Charles V did not want to strengthen French influence in Europe. Since then, more than two centuries the main enemy France in Europe were the Habsburgs.
Notwithstanding some military successes and considerable diplomatic talent of Francis I, who for against the Habsburgs in Europe made its ally the Turkish sultan And Suleiman the Magnificent, the French army suffered defeats. After failing to French Battle of Pavia in 1525 Francis I even ended up in captivity. Confident easy victory, Charles V in 1544 invaded the territory of France and began the offensive in Paris. However, French resistance forced Charles V to abandon their plans. He concluded an agreement with Francisco and at which both parties abandoned their gains. Under the successors of King Francis I Henry II (1547-1559 biennium) war resumed. However, to achieve decisive success any party could not. Finally war ended in peace, concluded in 1559 in between the Kato-Kambrezi Henry II and his son Charles V Spanish King Philip II. Under the agreement France finally abandoning its claims to Italy, but by convention Philip II received land Lorraine. England, who fought on the side of the Habsburgs, agreed to return the city of Calais, which the British ruled since the Hundred Years War. Thus was completed union of lands in France almost its modern borders.
In addition to small territorial gains, the Italian War did not bring the desired France results. One consequence of the Italian wars was that among the French found many people like Italian fashion, customs, art and literature. In Paris in the style of Italian architecture was built a new royal palace - Louvre, the royal court and became the center of the spread of new crops - Renaissance, which came from Italy.
2. Community Development
Most influential part of the French population at the beginning XVI Art. was nobility. French nobility in contrast to the German did not seek independence. Privileged situation of centralized state in its suit, as nobles received huge salaries, pensions, gifts from the king. It remained only a few families of old nobility (Giza, Bourbon, Montmorency) that have retained great influence and hurtuvaly around him supporters among the middle and minor nobility.
In the single privileged status of French nobility at that time formed two separate groups - old and new nobility.
Since middle XV Art. to the ancestral, gentle nobility that originated from the ancient knight beat for families Residents can (the street, shop craftsmen) who received nobility purchase, through royal favor or possession of the High ragout. now said that is "Nobles shlahy"(Noblemen, who comes from a noble family ") and ordinary nobles.
The difference between old and new nobility was the lack of equal privileges. New nobleman was not bound to military service that was a privilege gentle nobility. Military service exempted from hereditary nobility taxes. The new nobility did not pay taxes only if their leave previous trading or financial activities.
The way in nobility through the post within the state apparatus was the most widespread. Early XVII Art. France has developed numerous stratum bureaucratic nobility, which is called the "mantle of nobility." It bought land of gentle nobility that rozorylosya during the Revolution prices, combined operating and public service of noble land ownership.
In XVI-XVII centuries. in France formed market relations. This process was very slow: prevented feudal remnants, class privileges of the nobility and clergy, lack of political rights of entrepreneurs. Characteristic feature France was the time growing number of wealthy bourgeois entrepreneurs and their inappropriate position in society.
Centres of new relationship became city. Center of perfumes, jewelry, manufacture of glassware, furniture, clothing became Paris, the capital French publishing and banking - Lyon. Four times a year here Lyon held the famous fairs, where merchants participated from all over Europe. In making the trading merchants began to use instead metal money written loan commitments. The largest port city, through which trade was carried Mediterranean France, Marseille remained. At the same time increased the value of western and northern ports located on Atlantic coast - Bordeaux, La Rochelle, Nantes, Le Havre.
Gradually in most sectors of French industry Manufacturers superseded craft shop. A lot of manufactories appeared in the production of cloth, linen and silk fabrics. On well-known Lyon silk manufactory employed about 12 thousand employees. Still, compared with England and the Netherlands of market in France was much slower, the vast majority population, as before, was engaged in agriculture economy.
With the development of business and trade in France formed by the bourgeoisie. It played a significant role in economic development, borrowed money impoverished "Nobility swordsBut remained politically no rights. However, with increased power over the bourgeoisie, the more it sought to influence public life. Based on their interests, bourgeoisie supported the royal government in its fight against the old nobility for the unity and integrity of the country. However, the buying public office bourgeois were “дvoryanamy mantle.
3. Reformation in France
In 20-ies XVI Art. France began to spread reform economy ideas. The origin of ideas in the reform of the church France started well in humanistic circles. Booster idea cleaning the church was a prominent humanist Lefebvre d'Etapl (1450 or 1455-1536 or 1539) which set out its views on reform Church is in 1512, five years before the famous speech by M. Luther. He first to formulate two principles defining the future of the Reformation - justification faith and the need to recognize the Scriptures the sole source of religious truth. Then he began to translate the Bible in French. Lefebvre its activities prepared by the Reformation, although he never became a Protestant.
Great impact on the development of Protestantism in France was to disseminate the ideas of Luther resettlement there with his followers in Germany. In Southern France a huge number of supporters of Calvinistic doctrine. Adherents Calvinistic doctrine called in France Huguenots (From zahidnoshveytsarskoho - "joint" "Comrades").
Fig. France in the XVAnd - the first half of XVII art.
But Most French do not support Calvinism. The population north of the country, including including Paris, remained supporters of Catholicism. Unlike Germany, Catholic Church in France was obedient to the king and symbol of national unity of the country. Finally, the peasantry, representing as many people as was true Catholicism.
King Francis I for a long time did not obstacles spread Reformation ideas, as during the struggle against Charles V enjoyed the support of German Princes Protestants. However, in the middle 1530's King decided that Protestants too rozperezalysya, and began to chase them. In 1535 300 Protestants were arrested and 35 were sentenced to be burned. Since 1540 deployed in the country, the activities of the Inquisition. The new King Henry II in the first year of his administration created to fight against Calvinist special "fire Chamber ", which for the first three years of condemnation passed 500 sentences.
But it could not stop the spread of Reformation ideas in France. Among the population pohlyblyuvavsya split supporters and opponents of the Reformation.
4. The causes of civil wars and the beginning
At the turn of the 50's and 60's France he experienced a severe crisis. Calculations of the French nobility for military booty, land and new positions due to the Italian war was not justified. Frustrated by the nobles suspected failures of the king. In addition, the "price revolution" led to a sharp decrease in their profits. In this situation, reform economy attracted to the ideals of nobility first opportunity to seize the church land. At the same time, those who remained faithful to the King and the Catholic Church, counted get in reward for their loyalty to the possession of opponents.
Thus, most French nobility were thinking to which factions of greater profits for themselves. Led by people like the Catholic church was family lotarynzkyh Dukes Hiziv. Leaders Huguenots were the principles of family Bourbon,which belonged to the Kingdom of Navarre on the border of France and Spain.
Both groups relied on the support of other states. Catholics supported the King Philip II of Spain, Calvinist - Queen Elizabeth I, German princes and the Swiss.
Between these two groups and began War which lasted 36 years old (1562-1598 biennium) and was called huhenotskyh (religious) or civil wars.
The causes of war was to raise religious struggle between Catholics and Calvinists and complications of the political situation in France on the brink of 50-60's
French government tried to pursue a religious tolerance.
In order to achieve a compromise between Catholics and Calvinists in Orleans in 1560 after 75-year absence was General donated states. But reconciling the warring parties not to lucky. In 1562 was another attempt to reach peace - published edict (decree) in which Calvinists were right to publicly assemble and carry out their worship, but only outside the city walls. As conceived policy of religious tolerance people like this should was to improve the situation but the opposite happened: Calvinists (Which were mostly burgers) thought this permission is an insult, and Catholics in this concession has caused irritation. A month later and the country began a civil war.
The reason for war was murder of Huguenots in Baсsi. The Duke of Guise in March 1562 while driving with his squad through it, fell of Huguenots who came to service. It killed 23 people and nearly 200 wounded. Catholic Paris met Giza as a hero. France swept war.
The first ten years were especially brutal. Both tried subordinate to its influence King Karl IX (1560-1574 biennium). Mother of the King Catherine de 'Medici, treacherous and cunning, skillfully maneuvered between the Catholic and Calvinistic noblemen groups, seeking to reduce their mutual struggle. She did not stop before the poisoning and killing her enemies. Noticing that the leader of the Huguenots Kolinyi had influence on Charles IX, The Medici decided to remove his hands the Duke of Giza. She urged Catholics Destroy all the Protestant leaders who gathered in Paris the occasion of the wedding Huguenot leader Henry of Bourbon Sister Margarita King August 24, 1574, the day of Saint Bartholomew.
Fig. Charles IX
5. Massacre of St. Bartholomew
Catherine Medici persuaded Charles IXThat Huguenots want to kill him. Frightened king betrayed Admiral Kolinyi and supported Catholics.
On the eve of the St. Bartholomew mIJ 2 nd and 4 th am August 24, 1572 zakalatav bell in the bell tower of Saint Germain. He was supported by all the churches of Paris. This was a signal to Catholics. Buildings Huguenots were previously observed by white crosses. Huguenots killed unarmed, in beds, not zhaliyuchy children and women. Admiral Kolinyi were killed, other leaders of the Huguenots were forced to accept the Catholic faith. CARVED lasted more several days and in other cities. Within two weeks after Bartholomew throughout France were exterminated over 30 thousand Protestants.
Fig. Massacre of St. Bartholomew
In those days the total hatred of Protestants except behavior was governor of Bayon in southern France Viscount d'Ortesa. In response to the order to destroy the king in all Huguenots, he said: "Your Majesty! In the right city you live Bayon famous men and women are honest, brave soldiers and hardworking craftsmen who willing to give their lives for your Majesty, but I did not find among them any kata.
Bartholomew implications were different than expected Catherine Medici: War between Catholic and huhenotskym camps erupted with renewed strength.
Huguenot convinced that the King can not be trusted and that they constitute a minority in the country as launched a struggle to change the royal dynasty and established in 1576 to South of France real huhenotsku state - Confederation of different entities government, taxes, war. It was led by Henry of Navarre.
King of France after the death of Charles IX was Henry III(1574-1589 biennium). Absence of the descendants of King Henry made a Navarre in the likeliest candidates to the throne. Possibility of Huguenot King urged Catholics to action. In 1585, was created League - the federation of Catholic cities. At the head of the League was Henry Guise, who nominated claim to the French crown. League came to northern nobility and the cities headed north to Paris. The country split into two parts: huhenotskyy Catholic south and north. Both parts were fighting among themselves and at the same time acted against the King.
Fig. Henry III
6. The civil war
With particular huhenotskoyu struggle between the Confederation and the Catholic League of France more more falling into the abyss of anarchy. King Henry III was unable to control the situation. Henry Guise requested the King to deprive Henry Navarre right of succession to the throne. King in response to announced the dissolution of League and caused the army to Paris. Guise of Paris raised the nation to fight King. The rebels successfully opposed forces. King Henry III and panicked Following the assassination of Henry escaped from Giza surrounded Paris to seek help in Henry Navarre.
King made a pact of the Huguenots, and with their help took Paris. But soon Henry III killed lihist-fanatic who hid poisoned than under monastic ryasoyu.
France has come interregnum. The country did tyranny of foreign fighters, Catholic and huhenotski troops. Flashed numerous peasant uprisings. France found itself the face of national destruction. King Philip II of Spain and Pope even contemplated the election of the king of France to the Spanish prince.
Scared anarchy in the country gentry and bourgeoisie agreed to recognize King Henry Navarre, but demanded that he go to Catholicism. Henry replied to it is said that immediately became the cruise: "Paris is worth the Mass" (Mass - Catholic church services) and agreed to be Catholic.
In 1594 by Henry of Navarre became King Henry IV (1594-1610 biennium) and, encountering no resistance, came to Paris.
The purpose his reign, King believed a new restoration of civil peace, cessation religious disputes, the return of its former power France.
Figure in history
Henry IV was of the Bourbon family and launched a new royal dynasty in France. With years of distinguished young cheerful disposition, loved knightly tournaments hunting. Enjoyed the favor of the common people. Before Heprih Navarre he took the royal trails repeatedly changed their religious preference - from Huguenot to Catholic and vice versa, when thought it useful for themselves and France.
Huhenotski war ended publication in 1598 Edict of Nantes. Catholicism recognized dominant religion, but the Huguenots were allowed to freely profess their faith and form religious communities in all cities except Paris. They could occupy any public office. A guarantee of implementation of this agreement Huguenots kept 200 forts in the south of the garrisons and 25-thousand soldiers.
Value mantskoho Nantes was the fact that he ended the war between the Huguenots and Catholics gave the Huguenots freedom of religion and its warranties
7. The rise of France for Henry IV
Henry IV the French got the nickname "good king". When it was given to order During the war years much discouraged because of the country, supervising the collection was put taxes, then state officials returned to the treasury neglected 3600 000 livriv, taxes from the people was regulated and reduced. Henry IV understood that the welfare and prosperity of France created its workers, protected the peasants from arbitrary masters. The French remember King saying that welfare in France will come when every peasant in Sunday's pot varytymetsya chicken.
Guidance procedure in collecting taxes and implementing measures aimed at the reconstruction and economic development were primarily related to activities of the first minister King Сюллі (1560—1651).
Figure in history
СюлLee believed that the economy recover France can only promote the development of agriculture. "Agriculture, - said first Minister - are genuine Peruvian mines and treasures France. He believed that agricultural development will begin only after reduce the burden of taxes paid by French peasants. Therefore, orders Syuli was sorted and reduced collection of taxes from peasants, canceled debt in past years. Because the first Minister of severely punish those collectors taxes that are trying to poach them the money to the Royal Treasury has not diminished. Syuli carried out and other activities: organized inning, the government has promoted new crops (corn, beets, forage grasses).
Government Henry IV paid great attention and development of domestic industry. Artisans were exempted from restrictions on development that superimposed guild statutes, created favorable conditions for development manufactury industry. Importation of foreign industrial products was restricted and prohibited export of domestic raw materials. With royal treasury even provided subsidies to owners of manufactories for expansion production. There privileged royal manufactory, which produced silk, porcelain wares, perfume.
The policy, which performed for the French government's economic regeneration of Henry IV, acquired character mercantilism when the state actively interfere in economic life, using protectionism (Protection) of its producers.
His foreign Henry IV of policies directed at the successful development of overseas trade. By support it opened Shidnoindiysku trade campaign. In 1604 French colonization of Canada began forwarding - Champlain established here first colony.
Earth Eastern Canada opened and Frenchman Jacques Cartier explored in 1534 Exploring the St. Lawrence River, he found the settlement Indian-hunters, which locals call "Canada." So there Name of open land.
His main enemies of Henry IV in Europe thought the German and Spanish Habsburgs. He tried to counter attempts by the Spanish King Philip II to suppress Reformation understanding that strengthening of Spain affected by the interests of France. Considering the inevitable war with the Habsburgs, Henry IV and vigorously trained Syuli to it. However, in the midst of preparing for war Henry IV was murdered. May 14 1610 King was killed by a fanatical Catholic, Fran
8. Strengthening of absolutism in Richelieu
Energetic successor Henry case IV King became the first Minister Louis XIII (1610-1643 biennium), Cardinal and Duke Richelieu (1586—1642).
The figure in the history of
Born in Richelieu modest noble family. At first intention to join the army, but then decided to serve the church. In 23 years of age became a bishop. Had significant literary ability, received a good education, was ambitious and energetic. When he turned 30, became cardinal. Since 1624 - Member of the Royal Council, later - the first French minister (head of government). In fact, 1918 ruled France for the indecisiveness of Louis XIII. As aptly remarked one Cardinal contemporaries, Louis XIII only wore a crown and scepter Richelieu had.
Fig. Cardinal Richelieu
One of the main Cardinal tasks believed to strengthen the authority of royal power. In his "Political testament", in a letter to the King, Richelieu wrote: "When you, Your Majesty, I decided to show great confidence in management Your business, Huguenots shared the state with you, and lords behaved so if not your subjects. My first destination was the grandeur of the king, my second goal was a state power. " To achieve this, stopped Richelieu convening the General states, restricted the rights of the Paris parliament. Gradually all start getting used to the only source of power is king.
Imperative without the resolution of which France can not be considered whole section under the state Unlimited authority of the king, was the liquidation of the republic in southern huhenotskoyi country. The war against the Huguenots, that began in 1620, lasted 8 years and ended in victory for the royal army. Castles Huguenots were destroyed. In 1629 was adopted "Edict of mercy", by which the Huguenots were allowed to profess their faith, but was forbidden to have garrisons and forts.
The Cardinal opened decisive battle against old gentle aristocracy. Those who did not want to obey the royal power, was sent into exile or convicted, their castles destroyed. Under threat of death penalty was banned duel - fight among the gentry. Richelieu ordered to execute even the principal Butvilya, but admired his courage and bravery. To fulfill its making on the local Cardinal reorganized the management system and made it dependent from the king. The province appointed intendant- Royal officials are fully responsible for the receipt of taxes and state affairs in the provinces.
In the economic policy of Richelieu was concerned about the development of trade, facilitated the establishment of trade Companies (over the years of his rule was established in 1922 following the company). Sam Richelieu was a key member of the trade campaign, "New France", which made French colonization of Canada. For Richelieu France began to create their colonial empire, keep the rivalry and struggle against England and Holland by Capture new territories.
In foreign politics first minister did his best to raise the prestige of France in Europe cases. His main enemy in Europe, he believed Spain, as supported her enemies - the German Protestant princes, Holland, Denmark, Sweden. In 1635 he invaded France in Thirty Years War. Зavdyaky Cardinal diplomatic skill France has made weakening the influence of Spain in Europe.
For the its policy of Richelieu much needed funds. Taxes increased in several times that in the late 30 - early 40's he was led to numerous peasant performances.
Great attention Cardinal has provided development of science and culture, but demanded that artists support its policies. For Richelieu in France in 1631 began printing the first newspaper. The cardinal himself wrote her article and the newspaper glorified its successes policy.
Richelieu died in 1642 R., and next year the king died. Absolutism in the country during the presidency Louis XIII has been significantly increased, but it reached its apogee during the reign "Sun King" - Louis XIV.
Documents. Facts. Comments
1. Excerpt from "Comments of French Kingdom ", made in 1561 Ambassador of the Venetian Republic Michele Suriano
"The number of people in France are very great, because it has more than 140 cities ... One has only to Paris as saying, 4 to 5 hundred thousand inhabitants. According to their position and dignity of every people can belong to one of three states, and originated from three Kingdom ranks: the first rank - the clergy, the second - the nobility, the third has individual titles, and since it consists of people of different status and occupations it can be called as people in general.
Clergy kryye a large number Third Estate, and many foreigners, or for services rendered to the King or by royal favor enjoyed royal benefitsiyamy but nobility is the largest part of the clergy.
The nobility called those who use privilege of not paying taxes and required to carry only personal military service. The structure consists of nobility and princes, and barons.
The third condition consists of people pen, which is also called the people a long robe, merchants, craftsmen, peasants and plebeians. That mantle of the people who has a president or adviser or a similar title becomes a noble and privileged because of its position and regarded as throughout his life.
Merchants, which in our days, believe lords monetary wealth, strongly vleschuyut and fall upon them, but by any benefits and dignity they do not use, so that any trade activity is considered unseemly for the nobility. They thus belong to Third Estate: pay taxes the same as the Base and peasants, and situation of recent hardest because they are equally oppressed and King, and nobles.
1.Which criteria document author appreciates the greatness of the state?
2.What social strata separated in a document? How are they characterized?
2. Excerpt from the "Political Testament" Richelieu
"I say that the nobility should be seen as One of the main nerves of the state, which may contribute to its preservation and strengthening.
Although nobles deserve to with they behave well when they behave well, but want to be with them severe if they neglect the fact to which obliges their origin. I have in all hardness saying that those behind the prowess of ancestors, trying to avoid that to serve the crown and sword life constantly and firmly, as required by laws State deserve to be deprived of his brilliance and forced origin bear part of the troubles people.
Since the honor for them must be expensive for life, it is rather punish deprivation before last ...
If you do not forget to save aristocracy in the true virtues of its predecessors, yet it does not need anything do to save him possession of donated land or worry possible acquisition of new.
1.What place in state comprised Richelieu nobility?
2.What, in you think caused such a position Richelieu?
1.Point examples that confirm the formation of absolute monarchy in the first half XVI century. in France.
2.What were causes and consequences of the Italian wars?
3.Tell the formation of capitalist relations in France in the XVI-XVII centuries.
4.What was position of the gentry and bourgeoisie?
5.Tell spread of Reformation ideas.
6.What were causes of civil wars? What was the occasion for them?
7.What events in history of France was called the "Massacre of St. Bartholomew? What were the consequences?
8. Tell us about the civil war in France.
9. Estimate of King Henry IV.
10. Make a table "The basic policies of Cardinal Richelieu," the scheme:
11.For whose interests acted Richelieu? Point facts that confirm your position.
12.Make History portrait of Cardinal Richelieu.
Note the dates:
1562-1594 biennium - Civic (religious) war in France.
August 24 1572 - Massacre of St. Bartholomew.
1598 - Edict of Nantes.
1629 - "Edict of mercy."