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§ 27. Slavic peoples struggle for their own state (textbook)


XIX - EARLY XX Art.REVOLUTION In Iran, Turkey, China, Mexico

§ 27.Slavic peoples struggle for their own state

1. The emergence of independent states in the Balkans

Last QuarterXIX - Top XX Art. were fateful for Slavic peoples of Southeastern Europe.

At that timeturned a new phase of the national Rescuetion struggle of oppressed peoples of Eastern andSouth Eastern Europe against the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, the Ottoman and Russianpean empires. Was the most successful fight againstOttoman domination. This was dueweakness of the Ottoman Empire and interestlarge states in the distribution of her possessions. Basis for a seriescuckoo new phase of rebellion against Ottoman rule, which broke out in 1875, in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In April 1876 it has captured Bulgaria. One ofits leaders was Hristo Botev. The rebels fought bravely, but the forces weretoo rough.

Suppressing the insurgency, the Turkish army is not sparedno children or women or old. Destroyed the whole village. Atrocity Turkish outrage around the world. Summer1876 Serbia and Montenegro declared war on Turkey.

Commander-in-chiefRussian troops BA Skobelev  Bulgarian troops entered the city


With patriotic exaltationSlavic peoples of Russia decided to use for their consolidation ofBalkans. In April 1877 Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire; summer1877 Russian army forsuvala Danube, captured much of Bulgaria.Major battles unfolded in the fortress of Plevna and Shypkynskomu pass.

Battle Shypkinskomu pass


In January 1878 the Russian armycrossed the Balkan mountains and swiftly moved to Istanbul. Successful military operationsalso deployed in the Caucasus: Russian army captured fortresses Bayazet,Ardahan, Kars.

In the war on Russia's side were Serbia, Montenegro, Romania.

In the way of Russian plans wereother great powers, particularly Austria-Hungary and England, who demanded the terminationhostilities. Russia, facing the threat of major war, concluded withOttoman Empire in the town of San Stefano previous peace.

According to the San Stefansky peaceformed Bulgarian state. MontenegroSerbia, Romania obtained full independenceing and territorial acquisition.Russia reached the South Bessarabia, Kara region and a large indemnity.

Unilateral strengthening the positionRussia in the Balkans has raised the ire of other large states. In the summer of 1878 inBerlin convened an international congress, which was revised conditionsSan Stefansky contract.

According to Berlin only treatiseNorth Bulgaria gained statehood, the other part of it remained in stockOttoman Empire. Serbia and Montenegro, part of the lost territories weregained in concave place. Bosnia and Herzegovina occupied Austria-Hungary, Englandinvaded Cyprus.

Serbia in 1882 was proclaimed a kingdoma dynasty Obrenovychiv which focused on Austria.

Romania alsowas proclaimed a kingdom. Both states were agricultural, they kept great feudal remnants.

Most backward in economic andpolitical aspects of the region was among Montenegro, where he kept evenpatriarchal remnants.

War and the Berlin Congressdecided Balkan problems. Significant areas inhabited by Slavs, remained underauthorities of the Ottoman Empire, Austria-Hungary and Russia, which later reduced to at-new acute international crises.

2. Bulgaria

The newly formed Bulgarian statebecame a constitutional monarchy with the most democratic constitution at that time. Onascended the throne Prince Ferdinand of Coburg German dynasty. Was eliminatedlandlordism and feudal remnants. Dominance inindustry took the German and Austrian capital. Subsequently heldunification of North and Central Bulgaria. In 1908 the country was declaredkingdom.

У 1900-1910 pp. Bulgaria experienced an economic boom. Valueof output has tripled. The number of large companies increased from283 to 537.

3. Serbia

Basis of economy of Serbia was agriculture,which employed 80% of the population. Industry was poorly developed and theMoreover, controlled Austrian capital.

Milan-ObrenovychFirst King of Serbia (1882-1889)


At the beginning of the century в country existed proavstriyskyy oppressive regime of KingAlexander Obrenovycha. The validity of the constitution was suspended, parliamentdispersed. Began review liberallaws on political parties, political freedom etc.. All this, andKing married to a woman of dubious reputation has led to the coup carried out bypatriots officers in May 1903

See I got Petar (1903-1921 pp.) Dynasty of Karaheorhiyevychiv, who led the country inmost important period of history of Serbia, ie during the Balkan wars,World War I, the formation of Yugoslavia.

Petar And Karaheorhiyevych


Dostupyvshys to power, the new kingbegan protectionist policies that contributed to the formation of their own industry and the national bourgeoisie, butforeign policy - focus on Russia ..

New course caused tensions with Austria -Hungary. In 1906, the two countries began "Customs War"which ended in victory for Serbia and conclusion exactlytake-trade agreement. In 1908, Serbia and Austria-Hungary wereon brink of war over the annexation of Austria-Hungary Bosnia and Herzegovina. Only that if Russia could not provide helpforced Serbia to refrain from the deployment of combat.

Bosnian crisis has accelerated an alliance in 1912 betweenSerbia, Bulgaria, Greece and Montenegro against Turkey.


4. Montenegro

This independent Balkan stateswas absolute monarhiya. Prince reigned there Peter II Njegos (1860-1918). Montenegro believesve most backwardEuropean countries where patriarchal relations still remained. Small Industrywas in the hands of Italian and Austrian capital. State budget formedbased on Russian subsidies.

Peter II Njegos


At the beginning of the century through candiddissatisfaction with tribal (tribal) to know the prince was forced to seek reform.

End of 1905 was convened by the National Assembly, which adoptedconstitution according to which Montenegro was defined hereditary monarchy. Allpower concentrated in the hands of Prince. The Federal Assembly became the advisory body. In 1908Montenegro rescinded by the Berlin treaty articles on the supervision of Austria-Hungaryon the Montenegrin Adriatic coast. Montenegro was the most reliableally Serbia. In 1910 Montenegro declared a kingdom.

5. Macedonia

its territory, inhabited by Slavs,was the only one that is completely dependent on Turkey. The population of Macedonia had noexpress national consciousness {by language and culture is close toBulgarians, but had now begun to realize their identity and assumeMacedonians themselves).

A characteristic feature of the early life of Macedonia XX Art. in mass emigration.

Most of the population werefarmers, but the whole land belonged to the Turkish landowners.

In 1893 it wasthis internal Macedonian revolutionaryWell organization(VMRO), which advocated autonomy within Turkey.The charter of the organization, adopted in 1896 p.,proclaimtherefore had a principle: "Macedonia - Macedonian for";defined goal of struggle: the insurrection to achieve autonomy within a hypotheticalBalkan federation. Later VMRO was called Internal Macedonian -odnynskoyu revolutionary organization (in the sea).

In January 1903 probolharskyi figuresInitiated training in the seatant revolt which would attractworld public attention to this region and thusinternationalize the conflict in the Balkans.

In June 1903 the rebels capturedKrushevo pm and declared a republic. Turkish troops crushed the autumnuprising. However, it attracted public attention to the problems of EuropeMacedonia.

In 1908 in a split in the sea.Some members supported molodoturetsku revolution, hoping thatTurkey will provide autonomy for Macedonia. others have formed clubs, which focusedin Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece.


Coming in Austro-Hungary, the level of economicdevelopment of Slovenian lands were the most developed among the Slaviclands. In the political aspect Slovenian landwere fractured, deprived of political autonomy and exposeertedonimechennyu. Everywhere created Austrian schools and clubs. Under threatvery survival of the Slovene nation.

Early XX Art. Slovenes became a defender of church identity. Another was established in 1894Catholic National Party (from 1905 - Slovenian People's Party).

7. Croatia

After the reorganization of AustriaEmpire earth, inhabited by Croats, was redistributed between Austria and Hungary.

In 1868, with the Croat-Hungarianagreement, Croatia and Slovenia won political autonomy (in the land of Croats inof the Austrian crown is not spread). The Serbs who lived on

 this territory,used the culture at-church autonomy. In 1905 formed Croat-Serbiancoalition, which has become the leading political force in the fight for unionSlavic lands and expansion of autonomous rights. Was an influential forceCroatian People's Peasant Party, founded in 1903 brothers Radic. Itadvocated the unification of South Slavic peoples under the auspices of Croatia andagrarian reform. National harassment of Croats were so strong thatIn 1912 the government was forced to dissolve parliament land.

8. Czech Republic

Czech Republic was the most developed part of the Austro-Hungarianmonarchy. its industry produced 90% to general productionmetallurgy and machinery, 50% tissue.

Being industrially powerful, 10 millionCzechs, who lived on their land, remained politically no rights. So here turnedmass movement that was supported by nearly all Czech political parties(National, mladocheskoyu, national - social, agricultural, etc.) bytwofold transformation of the monarchy in the triune. In the late nineteenth century. was achieved substantialachievements: in 1880 established equality of German and Czech language in Czechlands, in 1882 the Prague University was redistributed into two - a German andCzech, and in 1897 finally equalized the rights of Czech and German. Exceptthat operated network of cultural, educational and military-sports facilities.

9. Slovakia

Slovakiawas the most backward part of the empire Habsburnitskyi. It was part of Hungarian kingdom. On it went to only19% of total Hungarian industry. In agriculture, the landlords dominated possession, that mostlybelonged to Hungarians. Slovak farmers suffered from the same bezzemellya. This resulted inmass migration of people, mainly the U.S. and Canada.

The people of Slovakia was deprivedall political rights. The only influential political organization - SlovakNational Party was forced to abandon even his slogans of autonomypart of Hungarian kingdom.

10. Bosnia and Herzegovina

Occupied in 1878by Austria-Hungary, Bosnia and Herzegovina 1908 to formally retain the Turkish jurisdiction.The occupation was and positive aspects: Bosnia andHerzegovina was dragged into the sphere commodity-moneyrelations. It began to develop industry.

To strengthen its position inenslaved lands, the Austrian government had acted on the principle of "divide andConquer. "Of the three groupspopulation - Croats, Muslims, Serbs - Austrians provide benefits and privileges of all kinds first. This policy has ledmass movement of the Orthodox (Serb) and Muslims (Bosniaks) in church and schoolautonomy.

The Austrian government was forcedconcessions in 1905 and satisfied the demands of the Orthodox, and 1909 - the Muslims.

In 1908 the Austro-Hungarian monarchy has stepped forward to annexationBosnia and Herzegovina. In 1909 Turkey for a low price recognized this act. In Bosnia and Herzegovinaintroduced a constitution.

11.Formation of the Balkan Union

Early XX Art. - Balkans faced interests, redistributed into twomilitary-political blocs. The main souPernikin this region were, on the one hand, Russia, on the other - Austria-Hungaryand Germany. Russia wanted to create a union of Balkan states, seeing in itkey to the success of the struggle for hegemony in the Balkans. Contemporary internationalsituation contributed to Russia's plans. After the 1908 revolution molodoturetskoyi p. And especially after the defeat of Turkey in the war against Italyfor possession of Libya (1911-1912 pp.) Russia and the ruling circles of the Balkan States considered the situation, thearisen favorable for the distribution of European Ottoman possessions.However, the situation was compounded by mutual contradictions among Balkanstates. On the eve of war against Turkey among Balkan Statesheld lengthy diplomatic negotiations on a political-militaryUnion. Back in April 1911 the Serbian governmentBulgaria proposed to conclude sharing agreement in the spheres of influenceMacedonia. This proposal was not successful, since Bulgaria claimed the entireMacedonia.

In October, negotiations resumed, andFebruary 29, 1912, signed the Serbian-Bulgarian agreement on friendship and alliancehaving secret annex. Contractconfirmed the mutual guarantors oftion independence and territorialintegrity of Serbia and Bulgaria, providing assistance in the event of foreign aggression orwar against Turkey. In a secret annex fitted divisioncontemporary Turkish possessions. Serbia to Macedonia and away partNorthern Albania with access to the Adriatic Sea. Bulgaria has reached moreof Macedonia and Thrace. The fate of the north-eastern part of Macedonia hadsolve the Russian Tsar.

Bulgarian-Serbianmilitary-political alliance was supplementednenyy agreement with Greeceand Montenegro. Bulgarian-Greek talksconducted with the participation of England and culminated in the signing May 1912 contract. But the borders of Macedoniabeen determined.

In the autumn of 1912Balkan union ended. I just need to find a pretext for war.


12. First Balkanwar

In the summer of 1912 in Albaniarevolt broke out, his brutally crushed the Turkish army. This accelerateddeclaration of war against Turkey.

Operationsbegan in October 1912 began the Bulgarian armynula successful offensive in Eastern Thrace and in the direction ofIstanbul (Constantinople). Turkish troops withdraw topre-position Chatalzha 40 miles from Constantinople.

Bulgarian troops to attack Turkish positions

The Serbian army came to Skopje(The largest city of Macedonia) and Albania got through to the Adriatic Sea. Italarmed Austria-Hungary, which concentrated its forces on the border with Serbia.

Greece invaded Salonika. ArmyMontenegro fortress surrounded Skadar (Shkodra).

In November, Turkey was invited 19I2 truce. BulgarianKing Ferdinand has rejected this proposal. Bulgarian forces began storming fortificationsChatalzha, but failed. This forced the parties to the negotiating table in London. InThey attended by representatives of large states that actually decide and Balkanquestion.

While discussing its diplomats inTurkey in January 1913 there was a coup new Turkish government, spurred by Germany and Austria-Hungaryadopted decisionstion to continue the war. But in March 1913 the Turkishtroops were defeated. Bulgarians conquered the fortress of Adrianople.

Turkey once again invited the truce, which was concluded inApril 1913

During the negotiations brokeheated debate between Bulgaria, on the one hand, and Serbia and Greece - on the other.The reason this is the distributionterritories in Macedonia. Right gone so far that the Bulgarian kingFerdinand agreed to Negotiatingthe establishment of Bulgarian-Turkish alliance

Finally, in May 1913 the partiessigned London peace treaty byTurkey which gave way to his possessionwe are on the west line of kings of Media - Enos and some islands in the Aegean Sea.The distribution of reclaimed areas was to take place later.

13. The second war Vatikanska

After the conclusion of the peace in LondonContract disagreements between Bulgaria, Serbia and Greece became the exclusiveacute. Germany and Austria-Hungary have made significant efforts to strengthen ці contradiction. Their mainto a collapse of the pro-Russian Balkan union. In the end, so it happened. InMay 1913 concluded a secret Serbian-Greek alliance againstBulgaria. Serbia and Greece have agreed among themselves about the division of Macedonia.

In June 1913, the Bulgarian army attacked its former allies. Second Balkan War began. Serbian army stopped the Bulgariansand went on the offensive. Greek army also conducted successful military operations in the Aegean Macedonia.War declared Bulgaria and Montenegro. The Bulgarians were forced to leave the old border. So to invaded Bulgaria, Romania, whichclaimed to Southern Dobrudja, as well as Turkey, which invaded againEastern Thrace to Adrianople.

The Bulgarian government has invited the world thatwas signed in August YIO inBucharest. According to the agreement of the western and central parts Macedonia went to Serbia, Southern (Aegean) - Greece, Dobruja -to Romania and Eastern Thrace - Turkey. In the remainder of Bulgariaof Macedonia (Pyrynska).

As a result of the Balkan wars has changed dramatically hundrednovysche the Balkan Peninsula. Turkeygetting rid of all their European possessions, has lost importance as aEuropean state. Thorns and the population of Serbia and Montenegro increased almosttwice. Peredilyly Macedonia into three parts. A new State of Albania (1912 p.), Serbia denied opportunities that have Go to the Adriatic Sea. In Turkey, Bulgaria suffered most.It pushed her to the union with Germany. TimSerbia got the time dependent on the Entente that immediately worsenits relations with Austria-Hungary.


Thus, the Balkan war is not decidedburning problems. The atmosphere of hatred and lost hope for an occasion to newdiplomatic intrigue that turned the Balkans to "powder magazine"Europe, which erupted in 1914

Questions and Tasks

1. As developed in the national liberation struggle of peoples PatisseriePeninsula that were under the rule of the Ottoman Empire?

2.       Findspecificity of the Austro-Hungarian policy in the Balkans.

3.       When it was formedPatisserie Union?

4.               What are the causes of the firstPatisserie war?

5.               What caused the secondPatisserie war?

6.              What territorial changesoccurred in the Balkans after the Balkan wars?

7.              Why not Balkan WarBalkans solve the problem?

8.              What role was playedgreat powers during the conflict in the Balkans?

9.              What are common anddistinctive features in the development of the peoples of South-Eastern and Central Europeend XIX - early XX cm.

Note the date!

1877-1878pp.      - Russo-Turkish War. Liberation Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro,Romania Greece from the Ottoman authorities.

October 1912 -

May 1913 r    - First Patisserie war.


August 1913    - Second Patisserie war.