Migration - from Latin - resettlement. External migration - that of population movements from one country to another with the change of place of residence permanently or for an extended period. In external migration distinguish emigration (exit from the country to another) and immigration (entry of citizens of another state). The number of population affected by external migration: immigration, in particular, contribute to the mechanical increase in population. Difference between the number of immigrants and immigrant called net migration. It can be positive (in the case of the predominance of arriving people), and negative if the number left the country more than the number who came to her.
External migration has always occurred. They played a great role in human development, particularly in the formation of the national structure of populations in many countries (U.S., Canada, Australia, South America, etc.). Causes of external migrations can be economic, political, religious, family and household, environmental, natural (associated with natural phenomena - earthquakes, droughts, etc.). Economic factors are most important in the world of migration processes. Under the economic factors distinguish labor migration (job search) and the brain drain (search-paid intellectual work by scientists and people of creative professions).
important issues related to international migration is the problem of refugees. More than 20 million people have become in recent years forced migrants - refugees, due to international and inter-regional conflicts, civil wars, natural disasters, famine and poverty. Each country, one way or another, is faced with problems of migration, implementing migration policies. Depending on the demographics and demands of their economies, national governments to encourage or restrict the influx of foreigners.