Coal Industry includes mining and processing coal. Brown coal is used as a fuel and as raw material for chemical industry in producing countries, and higher-quality coal is exported. Cost of coal depends mainly on the method of its production. Thus, the open-mined (open pit) method and imported into Western Europe, the South African coal is much cheaper than produced in the local coal mine.
Nearly a third of world coal production is attributable to China, followed by USA, Russia, India and Australia. The main exporters of coal are Australia, South Africa, Russia, Poland. Coal is transported mainly by sea and rail.
nuclear industry is an industry, mining and enriching uranium ore used in nuclear power engineering, medicine, scientific research, as well as raw materials for making nuclear weapons. Most of the world's reserves of uranium ore concentrate in the United States, Namibia, Australia, Russia. Accordingly, these countries occupy a leading position in the world of mining and production of uranium concentrates (purged of impurities useful mineral). Serious problem is the storage and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Only some countries (USA, Russia) have appropriate opportunities for recycling and for a fee provide services to other states.