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Oil and gas (compendium)

oil and gas industry - components of the fuel industry in the world. The petroleum industry includes production, transportation and refining. The distribution of world oil production presents the pie chart. The main suppliers of oil to world markets are in developing countries. Over 40% of oil production and 50% of exports go to countries of OPEC - the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, bringing together 12 countries in Asia, Africa and South America. OPEC was created in 1960 to conduct a coherent policy on the oil market in the interests of the participating countries. A significant portion of oil production and exports have also to countries that do not belong to OPEC (Russia, Norway, UK). The main consumers of oil are developed nations, as well as China and India. They are concentrated powerful refineries. Therefore, the main oil traffic flows are directed from the Middle East to Western Europe, Japan, China and North America. In some developing countries have established their own refining capacity (in the Persian Gulf, Venezuela) and it increases the part of the finished oil products in their exports.

gas industry provides the production, transportation, storage and processing of natural gas. Transportation of gas within the continents are mainly pipelines (80%), and over long distances (eg from the Middle East to Japan) gas transported in liquefied form by special courts. Such a mode of transportation leads to a noticeable rise in the cost of gas, so much of it is consumed in the countries that produce natural gas.

main exporters of natural gas are Russia, Canada, Norway, Algeria, Indonesia, Turkmenistan. The main importers are the countries most countries in Europe, USA and Japan.