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§ 48. Bogs. Artificial ponds (textbook)

§ 48. Bogs. Artificial ponds


1. What, in your opinion is different from the bog lake?

2. Did you see the reservoir or pond? As someone who uses them?


Formation swamps. Swamp - Is excessively wet land surface. Water is not flowing, and stagnates. The bog grow hygrophilous plants. It formed peat - napivrozkladenyh thickness of tailings plants.

Bogs arise when zarostanni lakes. First, settle on the lake sand, clay, silt brought by rivers and streams. Nahromadzhuyuchys at the bottom, they gradually fill the lake basin. Milli Lake and its dimensions are reduced. Aground grow cane, reed mace, sedge. Subsequently, the plants spread to almost all of the lake. When they die, their remains deposited on the bottom. Over time, they piled up, compressed and converted into peat. So in place of the lake there is the mire (Fig.). Another way of formation of marshes - wetlands land with shallow groundwater occurrence.

Bogs cover about 5% of the land. They are distributed almost everywhere.  More muddied the dry Northern Hemisphere. The largest wetlands in areas with excessive moistening and permafrost, which serves as a waterproof layer. Many swamp forests in temperate and equatorial zones. The largest swamp located Western Siberia.

Types swamps.By the nature of power sharing at the top of the swamp and lowland.

Horse marsh get moisture from the top - with rainfall. Usually they are the top - on elevated areas (watersheds), so they called a horse. In these marshes grow moss, cotton grass, cranberry. Moss grows faster in the central part marsh than at the edges. Therefore, it is convex form.

Lowland bogs moisturisers mostly below - groundwater, and through surface flow. They are positioned in the reduction or relief in place of former lakes. Their surface concave or flat. Groundwater relatively rich in mineral salts, so such swamps grows more diverse vegetation: moss, sedge, bulrush, horsetail. There are even trees: birch and alder. Lowland bogs are widespread in In Ukraine still alive.

Using swamps.Since ancient times, marshes were considered a symbol of evil and in direct and figurative meanings. Occupying a large area, they hinder the use of land in agriculture. However, the nature of them big favor. Bogs accumulate moisture and the maintain water levels in lakes, ponds and wells. Bogs - complex natural laboratory, natural filters. From the marshes of muddy water from a liquid clean and gives the creeks and rivers. Bogs reduce drought in the contiguous area. They are a unique haven for wetland plants and animals. There are growing berries and medicinal plants, live animals valuable fur - beaver, muskrat, nutria, hundreds of nesting birds. In the marshes formed a valuable benefit resources - peat, which has many uses. First, it is used as fuel. By chemical processing of peat produced fertilizers, dyes, cellulose and even medicines.

Long when people tried to drain the swamp. However, this often leads to negative consequences: declining groundwater level, there are dust storms, disappearing marsh plants and animals, no longer formed peat. Therefore, drainage of wetlands and their use of agricultural crops in the cult is not always justified.

Artificial rivers and reservoirs.Rivers and lakes are located on the Earth unevenly, in a not always friendly use areas. Therefore people from ancient times create artificial water bodies - canals, reservoirs, ponds.

Channels - Artificial river -  people were able to create before our era. In ancient Egypt and China were building them for irrigation of fields. Channels called man-made rivers, because it creates a track man. She makes it so to river water flowed in the direction you want to be. There are channels Irrigation, directed in arid areas. Water, which they deliver, water the fields. In areas where surface water and many waterlogged, build drainagechannels. To create a new, more convenient ways to create water Shipchannels connecting the several rivers or lakes. Great importance Ship channels, reducing the sea route. Yes Suez Canal length 160 km connecting the Mediterranean with the Red and helps to reduce the path from Europe to Asia 10 thousand km in comparison with the way around Africa. Same Panamanian channel connecting the Atlantic and Pacific oceans that separate the narrow strip land between North and South America. In Ukraine, some built channels. One of the longest is Pivnichnokrymskyy. From the reservoir it Kakhovskoe  is Dnipro water for 400 miles until the Crimean peninsula. Water channel mostly goes to irrigation.

Fig. Suez channel


Reservoirs - A large artificial water bodies created for the collection and storage of water. They are usually pose of rivers. This river valley dam partitions. Before dam water is piled up, fill a large area of land and forms reservoir. During reservoir filling the rivers take excess water and then water evenly throughout the year are spent on the needs of the population and industry, irrigation fields. The largest reservoir in the world - Bratsk - 500 km in length and depth 100 мcreated on the Angara River in Russia. The largest reservoir in Ukraine - Kremenchug - Length 150 km depth 28 m plants on the Dnieper.

Creation reservoirs is of great importance for the regulation of river flow and Prejudice floods. They help to get hydro electricity. The banks are reservoirs beautiful places. However, the reservoir and carry a negative impact on nature and people's living conditions. They flood a large area agricultural land, increase the groundwater level, leading to swamp lands. Therefore, before creating the reservoir should carefully explore the possible consequences. In Ukraine, a number of reservoirs in the river turned Dnieper. There they are on the Dniester River and other rivers.

Betting - A little Reservoir (length not more than 1,5 km). They create in the stream channel, beams, or specially excavated cavity. Water from them goes to irrigate fields and gardens. In fish breeding ponds and waterfowl. Created ponds and in parks and recreation areas for the glory of the landscape.


Questions and Tasks

1. How the swamp formed? In which areas of the globe they spreading?

2. How to share a swamp in character and power plants?

3. What good are wetlands? Should I drain them everywhere?

4. What are artificial reservoirs created man? Which ones are in your community?

5. What channel is different from the river? As people are feeds?

6. On which river reservoir was created in Ukraine?

7. Why bog called the "sun room"? What sun there "naskladalo?