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§ 54. Osoblyvostiheohrafichnoyi shell (textbook)

§ 54. Geographic Features Shell


1. Remember how wildlife interacts with non-living.

2. What are the effects of Earth's rotation around its axis and the Sun?


Concept The Geographic shell. All the shell of our planet - the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere - Get into one in another and interact. Atmospheric air penetrates into the water and rocks. water evaporates into the air and seeps into the Earth's crust. Small particles of species find themselves in the atmosphere and water. The organisms can not exist without air, water and soil. Thus their interaction all membrane forming the outer face of the Earth. This "geographic portrait" is a geographic shellCovering lower atmosphere, the upper part of the lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere all. The main components - components - geographical environments are the rocks and minerals, air, water, soils, plants and animals. Substances in geographical shell are immediately known in all states - solid, liquid and gaseous, living and inanimate.

Limits geographical boundaries like shell of the biosphere. The upper ozone layer is atmosphere (20-30 km) as the limit of possible spread of life. Lower spend on depth of 5 km. Thus, geographical cover 35 km thick, are very thin compared with the size of our planet. It is the most difficult arranged shell at the junction of other areas of the Earth. The most active role it plays man for which the shell was the geographical habitat.

Geographic shell form natural complexes. Every natural complex (PC) consists of the interconnected nature components: the rocks, air, water, soil, plants and animals. 

Regularities geographic shell. Geographic cover a number of inherent laws. Integrity - A geographical unity of the shell. It is caused by close interrelation of the components. This pattern of other words can be expressed as "everything connected to everything." Therefore, changing one component Change is inevitable and all other geographical shell as a whole.

Integrity provide circuitsubstances and energy that continuously occur in the geographical cover. You already know about the water cycle and biological, which are closely related to cycle power. No phenomenon, no process on earth can not do without energy. Sprouting from seed, and animal rights movements - all require energy. The main source of energy is the sun. Direction "powered" solar power on Earth can only green plants. Plants, as you know, inorganic create organic matter that can be called "canned Solar Energy. " They, as well as a dedicated oxygen plants, animals consume. In return animals give plants carbon dioxide. After the withering away of the remains of plants and animals decomposed by bacteria to inorganic substances, including other plants will create organic. The circle of life and energy transfer closes. Metabolism and energy occurs not only between plants and animals, and and between rocks, water, air masses and soils. Via circuit is the relationship and interaction of all Components of geographic shell.

Rhythmicity of Geographic Shell revealed in frequency over time of certain natural phenomena. Rhythms are of different duration: daily, seasonal, and others. Diurnal rhythm - The change of natural phenomena and processes with the change of day and night: for example temperature and air pressure, tides and ebb, photosynthesis in plant life animals. Seasonal rhythm manifested in the changing phenomena and processes seasons: a change of positive and negative temperatures on the contrary, loss and melting snow, the appearance of leaves and the abscission others.

Zonality - According changes of natural components and natural systems in the direction of the equator to the poles. It caused by the unequal amount of heat that comes unevenly on different latitude at the spherical shape of the Earth. Zoning, as you now know, is climate, vegetation, fauna, soils. Inherent zoning and the World Ocean: from the equator to the poles to change the properties of surface water (Temperature, salinity, transparency).

In mountains there other changes in regularity of nature - altitude explain. It - according changes of natural components with height: from bottom to top. It is caused by lower air temperature by 6 0C per 1000 From the height of changing the nature of such components as  soils, vegetation, fauna.

Diversity natural systems. Natural systems may be different sizes. Complex is the largest natural Geographic cover. Inside it produce less natural complexes - continents and oceans. Inside the continents and oceans emit more smaller natural systems  natural zone (Eg Mainland Africa be less complex Sahara Desert et al.). Natural area cover even less natural systems, etc. The natural  complexes are the smallest sizes hill River floodplain, ravine, etc..

Environmental problem. In the natural complex of all the components are not only in close relationship, but in balance. Changing one of them necessarily affect the other and lead to changes of whole complex. Imagine that slopes down to the forest. What happens? Birds fly away, that hnizdylysya the trees. Shall come or perish forest animals. Nedootrymaye atmosphere of oxygen, as result - increase of carbon dioxide. Surface water will be freely erode the surface slope. Root mass of loose rocks can get under and cause landslides. Landslides - a dangerous phenomenon that can endanger people's lives. So there are environmental problems - problems with breach in relations habitat of all living. Disturbing  message the last time on drying Amazon, melting ice caps on Kilimanjaro, catastrophic floods in rivers of the Ukrainian Carpathians  show that people often inadvertently break the links between natural components. It resulting in irreparable losses and sometimes dangerous consequences. To make such problems occur to study natural systems. Before you intervene in They must zavbachuvaty unwanted changes


Questions and Tasks

1. What geographic shell called? Where are its limits?

2. What are the connections between climate and surface waters, surface waters and terrain, climate and vegetation, vegetation and soils, vegetation and fauna.

3. What are the components of complex natural forms?

4. What distinguishes between natural systems in size?

5. What are the patterns inherent geographical shell?

6. What gives rise to environmental problems?

7. Predict the consequences of building dams on the river and a reservoir.