§ 59. Pollution
1. Think about which environmental problems discussed the study of lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere.
2. What ecological problems have arisen in some continents and oceans?
Because the commercial activity in the natural environment does not accumulate inherent substance. These include solid waste (Garbage) and chemical compounds that lead to environmental contamination. Contaminated area may be small, usually around industrial enterprise or locality. If the contamination covers the entire planet and detected in any part of the Earth even at a considerable distance from the source pollution, they say global pollution.
PROBLEM Air pollution. The main sources of air pollution are industrial enterprises (factories, factories, power plants) and transportation. Burning fuel or producing products, they emit dust, soot and various chemicals. Polluted air is a threat to all life. It irritate the eyes, nose and throat man, causes poisoning kills plants. Polluted air covering large areas and hindrance comes in different countries, depending on wind direction. The consequences air pollution are global problems such as warming climate, loss of acid rain and the formation of ozone holes.
About Global Warming Climatenow often referred to in newspapers and TV news. Caused it increase of carbon dioxide and dust in the atmosphere. Polluted air prevent heat radiation from Earth back into space. Heat piled up and caused violations of the usual climatic conditions. Increase temperature on the Earth even at 1 0С, lead to melting of ice in the Arctic and Antarctica. Soon the global sea level rise. As a result of raising water level in it even at 1 m will be flooded densely populated coastal Lowland continents, and millions of people - the loss of their habitats. Through warming frequent natural disasters: hurricanes, tornadoes, downpours, floods.
In polluted air, a new type of atmospheric rain - acid rain. They arise from the combination of atmospheric moisture chemicals emitted from the pipes of factories and power station. Acid rain caused by disease, withering forests, poisoning of water lakes and ponds, resulting in them dying fish. For this reason, for example, last 50 years has disappeared from many trout lakes Norway і Sweden.
Gases that fall air, ozone depleting Stratosphereand. As a result there ozone hole. Most of them are found on Antarctica. Reducing the concentration ozone leads to increase in harmful for all living ultraviolet radiation, which comes to Earth.
To prevent pollution and ecological problems related with this, you must install treatment facilities to industry, which would have reduced emissions of chemical substances.
PROBLEM Water pollution. The main sources of pollution water are industrial enterprises that discharged into rivers and reservoirs of untreated sewage. Contaminated water also washed from the fields of mineral fertilizers and chemicals. These included domestic waste. Polluted water is unfit for drinking, bathing and watering plants. Danger is contaminated many rivers and lakes on different continents. "Dyke" called Europe River Rhine and Danube. These include and are Dnipro.
Polluted water of the river are in the seas and oceans. There is added, and oil pollution as a result of pipelines and tankers it is transported. Oil produces oil on the water film that prevents the flow of oxygen and therefore dangerous to all living things. Currently, a significant part of surface covered with oceans of oil spills and turned into lifeless desert. Heavily polluted North і Baltic Sea, Mexico and Persian Gulf.
The main events pollution of water Sewage treatment is received in the reservoir. It is important to introduce modern technologies in the industrial closed production.
PROBLEM soil contamination. Almost all the pollutants that first hit the air, then find themselves in the soil. In addition, soil polluted and excessive entry of these pesticides and mineral fertilizers. Self-cleaning ground is very slow, so poisonous chemicals substances accumulate there. They absorb plants, use of which is diseases of humans and animals. To prevent contamination of soil, mineral fertilizer required to very carefully, in a reasonable amount of research.
Problem of radioactive contamination. Pollution areas with radioactive materials can occurresult of the accident at the nuclear power power. Radioactive substances causing external and internal human exposure that is extremely life threatening disease. As a result of accident Chernobylin Ukraine radiation in 1986 contaminated area were many areas.
Area Ecological disaster. Areas with catastrophic pollution of the environment called Districts ecological disaster. Such, for example, is a southern parts of Africa, too many dirty emissions power plant and industrial enterprises. In Eurasia ecological disaster areas are Aral sea and Persian GulfIn Ukraine - 30-kilomerova zone around Chernobyl is part of the Donetsk and Lugansk regions.
Fig. Global environmental problems
Questions and Tasks
1. What are the main sources pollution.
2. What are the environmental problems resulting from air pollution?
3. What is the danger pollution of seas and oceans of oil?
4. Why dangerous radioactive pollution?
5. It is said that residents of Donetsk or Lugano can see for yourself what they breathe. How do you understand such a statement? What environmental problems, it means?
1. Identify the main types of pollution environment in the locality.
2. Check the source of their revenues.
3. Write your opinion on the nature of its terrain. What changes do you think it harmful? Name plants and animals that you brought to the Red Book of Ukraine.