§ 60. ШPoles solving environmental problems
1. Remember that ways can be prevented air and water pollution.
2. On what types of protected areas you learned by studying the continents?
Environmental problems associated with resource depletion and environmental pollution, require resolution. People who have them caused, is now forced to seek out the "deaf environmental angle. For overcome environmental problems there are many specific ways that suggest science and technology.
WASTE - In income.As coal, oil, natural gas and ores ever runs out, now experts suggest? landfill and waste. Waste may be more "Deposits" of raw materials. Thus, Mexicoon one of the mines in the waste was "buried" 80 tons of copper. Already Hundreds of thousands of tons of scarce metals extracted from the once castaway dumps. In concentrated piles excellent raw materials and production schebinky, cement, ceramics and other building needs. With garbage learned receive fuel gas and fertilizer.
One can cite many examples where the use of waste provides income. It saved millions of tons of minerals. So can be solved simultaneously to preserve mineral resources and cleaning from pollution.
NET Powerhouse. Electricity is now the basis of the economy. It is essential not only for To burn the light worked TV, refrigerator, washing machine and other home appliances. Now the bread baked and molten metal in furnaces, water is Electropumps, go electric - that is, Electricity is everywhere. Get it from clean sources resolved the problem of depletion of fuel resources, and air pollution TES.
Clean energy is our distant planet - the Sun. It free gives people something they with great difficulty searching for and produce the dark bowels of the planet. Sun sends energy to the Earth in 20 thousand times more than we get from fuel resources. And now we use only 1 / 5000 its share. Experimental plants that use solar power, working in several countries. However, near the time when solar power, become familiar, as the current heat. They are no pipes, smoking and contaminate tons of air emissions, no piles of mountains that fill up the earth too much weight of slag and ash.
Scientists are carefully studying and to our own planet. They argue that the depth of 50 km almost everywhere is hot groundwater. Their heat a thousand times greater than all the energy and fuel resources. This is another real possibility of replacing in the near future fuel resources are running out.
Is it in such calculations, albeit rough, not lies real way to solve problems? Make it - Science and yours.
SAVE RESOURCES. Great benefit in maintaining mineral, forest and water resources can give their economical use. This is instructive comparison. Each urban resident in Ukraine spends an average of 350 liters per day water. Meanwhile, in other European countries in household water use nearly tripled less - 120 liters. With regard to water economically important, for example, disable water when clean your teeth or when namylyuyeshsya in the shower.
Economical use of water in households and industry has become the norm, because excessive water intake leads to a shallowing of the rivers and withering and lakes.
ENVIRONMENTAL Territory. For preserving and restoring the natural environment to create different continents protected areas. This - nature reserves, national natural parks, reserves, natural monuments. Their total area is small and is only 3% of the land.
Nature reserves - A territory where protect and study the typical natural complexes. It prohibited any economic activity. Special value among the reserves are bio, which have international status and is the only worldwide network of observation as the environment.
National parks - A territory where the protection of natural systems combined with the use of their rest and recreation for people. Many national parks created in North AmericaEspecially in U.S., Africa and Australia. Large national parks Ukraine - A Carpathian and Shatsky.
ZAKAZNIK - Is usually a small area (areas of the valley or coast, forests, lake), where protection of natural systems combined with limited economic activities if it is not detrimental to health facilities. In some countries create reservesThat share same value as reserves. Nature sanctuaries - A separate unique natural formation (rock fanciful forms, rock outcrops rocks eternal trees, etc.) that need protection.
Number of protected areas worldwide increases.
International cooperation on Environmental problems. Protection of the environment - a problem global. Polluted air and water ignore national borders. For example, poisonous gases that plants emit into the air Great Britain, Belgium and Germany, prevailing winds are directed to the north and east and settle in Norway, Sweden, countries Eastern Europe. In the pollution Rhine brought its share of 5 countries, Danube – 8.
So, Mr.Parish need of our common home - the Earth requires joint efforts of people all countries, all continents. This is called international cooperation. Together scientists are developing objectives and measures to protect the environment worldwide. There are international agreements between countries on the rational use of natural resources (eg catching fish, whales, fishing), restricting emissions to the atmosphere mutual notification of the adverse environmental situation.
The largest international organization that develops various programs on wildlife is UNESCO - Organization United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. It brings together over 190 countries. She designed and executed such important environmental programs as "Man and Biosphere," The study of the oceans "and others.
The issues of protection and rational use care of natural resources The World Conservation Union (VSOP). This organization, whose activities are supported by 83 countries, publishes Red Book, where a single list recorded rare and such that endangered species, plants and animals. Now my red book have the majority of countries, including Ukraine. One of the largest world environmental organizations are World Wildlife Fund (VFDP). Actively working Greenpeace ("Green World") - international NGO that fights for the conservation environment.
Protection of our common home - Earth requires joint efforts of people of all countries, all continents. From each state of nature depends with us. So respect thereto should become a rule for everyone.
At the UN Conference, held in Kyoto (Japan), its members signed the document - the protocol, which was about restrictions and reduce emissions into the atmosphere. According to protocol, all developed countries should be within 2008-2012 to reduce by at least 5% compared with 1990 emissions of gases that cause global warming.
1. What are the solutions problem of depletion of mineral resources?
2. What are conservation areas or objects are in your community?
3. Why to solve environmental problems need international cooperation?
4. Names of international organizations, that concerned environmental issues.
1. Antoine de Saint Exupery. Earth people. The Little Prince. - Lviv: High school., 1981.
2. John Sawchuk. International Organizations. - K.: HQ. World, 2007.
3. Environment: Poznavatelnaya эntsykl. - Moscow: Kristina and K, 1994.