§ 9. Systematic Research in Ukraine
1. Think of previous geography course that of the famous Ukrainian scientists, geographers explored the continents and oceans of our planet.
2. Name Ukrainian scientists who studied the territory of Ukraine.
Research in XVIII - XIX Art. Beginnings a systematic geographical study of Ukraine is XVIIIArt. Need production and trade demanded a geographic descriptions and maps. They were carried out in various parts of Ukraine Polish, Austrian and Russian researchers who studied these areas in order to identify natural resources for guide governments in their countries. most channel went on expeditions little explored steppe of Ukraine, which was annexed by Russia.
У XIXArt. geographical research conducted scientists who worked in universities - Kyiv, Lviv, Kharkiv, Odessa. There geography began to teach students.
Considerable role in the study area played a scientific societies. In 1873 -1876 he was in Kiev existed Southwest Branch of the Russian Geographical Society. His work took an active part not only naturalist, but also prominent figures of Ukrainian science and culture: historian Michael Drahomanov composer Mykola Lysenko, writer Panas Mirny, author of the words of the hymn of Ukraine Pavlo Chubynsky et al. Company collected and published materials about nature, agriculture, industry of Ukraine, Ukrainian art and everyday life people. For this, the Russian government has recognized his work unreliable. Activity South West Division was discontinued, and its vice-president Paul Chubinskogo deported from Ukraine. Now Ukrainian Geographical Societybrings together hundreds of geographers Ukraine.
End Nineteenth century. was constituted in Lviv Shevchenko Scientific Society, which operated natural section. Her work involved scientists, geographers Ukraine and those living outside the country. Now this activity Society in Ukraine restored.
Fig. Paul Chubynsky
Underground Exploration Wealth
У XVIIIArt. Gregory Kapustin discovered deposits of coal in the Donbass, and Vasily Zuev - put iron ore in Krivorozhskom pool. Ivan Kirillov has made a number of maps of Ukraine, included in the atlas of the Russian Empire and made a description of the area Ukraine (in Russia).
The contribution of Ukrainian in study of the world
Ukrainian scientists and explorers took part in the study of various world regions. Basil Grigorovich-Barsky in XVIIIArt. made a trip to the country Western Europe and the Middle East and made detailed descriptions of his travels. Yuri Lysyansky was one of the leaders circumnavigation in 1803 - 1806 рр. Egor Kovalevsky in the middle Nineteenth century. researched and traveled throughout East Africa China. Nikolai Miklukho-Maklaiin the years 1870 -1876 made 10 trips to Australia and islands of Oceania, where he studied indigenous peoples.
Research in ХХ - XXI Art. At the end of XIX - Top XXArt. falls formation of the Ukrainian geography. It is concerned primarily with the names of S. Rudnytsky, P. Tutkovsky, and V. Kubiiovych.
Stephen Rudnytsky (1877 - 1937) believe Ukrainian founder of modern geography. He taught geography in higher schools Lviv and Kharkov (Ukraine) Vienna(Austria) and Prague (Czech Republic). S. Rudnitsky made a significant contribution to the physical geography, political geography and cartography. The scientist described the first comprehensive territory of Ukraine. Proceedings of the map created by him, published in different languages. In many works of S. Rudnitsky justified need for an independent Ukrainian state. Many did scientist for geography education in schools: made first wall map of Ukraine issued a series of textbooks. Life is an outstanding scientist ended tragically: he was persecuted by the Soviet government, sent in northern camps, where he died in 1937
Paul Tutkovsky (1858 - 1930) - one of the initiators of the Academy Sciences of Ukraine. He has worked in the fields of geology and explored the nature Volyn Polesie, skirts, Dnieper. P. Tutkovsky is the author of a number of science works on physical geography and local history of Ukraine. Scientific was founded in ZhytomyrVolyn museum in Kiev - Geological Museum.
Outstanding geographer and cartographer Vladimir Kubiyovych(1900 - 1985) carried out their scientific work mostly outside Ukraine (In Poland, Germany and France). He is the author of such works as "Atlas of Ukraine and adjacent lands, "Geography of Ukraine and adjacent lands, which came out in 1930, many years head Scientific Society. Shevchenko in Europe, was the editor of a multivolume "Encyclopedia of Ukrainian, which wrote an article about the nature, population and economy of Ukraine.
In the first half of the twentieth century. worked outstanding scientists whose activities were related to geographic research. Scientist Vladimir Vernadsky(1863 -1945) is the founder of scientific field of geochemistry and the teachings of biosphere. He was the first president of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Weatherman Boris Sreznevsky (1857 - 1934) was one of the organizers Meteorological Service of Ukraine. George Wysocki (1865 -1940) - hruntoznavets and scientist in the field of forestry.
Of middle XXArt. in Ukraine, the division of geography specific industries. In the field of geomorphology (relyefoznavstva) conducted research Volodymyr Bondarchuk, Biogeography and Ecology - Peter Pogrebnyak.
In our a geographical study conducted by scientists at National Institute of Geography Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Faculty of Geography University. Ukrainian scientists since 1996 conducting research in Antarctica science Academician Vladimir Vernadsky Station.
The first geography textbooks for school children, written in Ukrainian, created Stephen Rudnitsky (Brief Geography of Ukraine ", 1910) and Sofia Rusova ("Primary Geography", 1911).
Fig. Stephen Rudnytsky
Fig. Paul Tutkovsky
Fig. Vladimir Kubiyovych
Fig. Vladimir Vernadsky
Fig. Boris Sreznevsky
Ukrainian Geographical Society was founded in 1873 as South West Branch of the Russian Geographic Society.
Founder Ukrainian geography is Stephen Rudnitsky, its problems related to Paul Tutkovsky activities and Vladimir Kubiiovych.
Known Ukrainian geographers - George Wysocki, B. Sreznevs'kyj, Volodymyr Bondarchuk et al.
Questions and Tasks
1. What linked the launch systematic geographical studies Ukraine?
2. When there were Ukrainian Geographic Society?
3. Who of Ukrainian scientists made a significant contribution to the national geography?
4. What conduct research Ukrainian geographers in our time?
5. Using additional sources of information, prepare a message on the activities of Ukrainian scientist and geographer.
1. Great Illustrated Encyclopedia of Ukraine. - K.: Maxaon, 2007.
2. Yemchenko OP biographers blue planet: Studies of large Travelers: For among. and art. HQ. age. - Kyiv: Veselka, 1984.
3. Shablya OI Academician Stepan Rudnytsky - founder of Ukrainian geography. - Lions - Munich: ed.-ed. Department of Lviv State. Univ, 1993.