Theme 11. Wildlife
§ 28. Wildlife
1. Remember that the laws subordinated spread of animals.
2. What measures are taken to protect animals?
Formation history. The wildlife of Ukraine is constantly changing throughout the history of Earth. Under the influence of geological, climatic and other factors, some species disappear, others appear. Significant changes in the fauna of Ukraine occurred after the ice age. Instead of a giant mammoth, woolly rhinos, cave bears and lions, caribou, spotted hyena came more adapted to new conditions bulls tours, bison, wild horse Tarpan, wild asses, Kulan, Saiga antelope, gazelle, wolverine, flying squirrels and many species survived to this day. Further changes to the environment gradually brought closer to the composition of fauna present.
With the development of human growth and its impact on of the animal world. Hunting, farming and the spread of agriculture, deforestation, plowing grasslands caused the destruction of some species others retreat to the east - in the desert Foot of Caucasus and Prykaspiyu. Thus, XVAnd art. disappeared from our land Kulan, the XVII art. - Tours and bison in the nineteenth century. - Wolverine and flying squirrels, which was known for some of Polesie, silverfish and Saiga antelope that live in forest-steppe and steppe.
Now fauna of Ukraine has more than 45 thousand species. Among them, more than 100 species of mammals, 300 species of birds, 20 species reptiles, 17 species of amphibians, 240 species of fish and more than 26 thousand species invertebrates.
The largest number of representatives of the fauna of Ukraine is insects (over 20 thousand species). Among them - flies, weevils, bumblebees, wasps, bees, chafer, silkworms, bark beetles, mosquitoes, butterflies and others. Many insects are useful: they zapylyuyut plants consume caterpillars, bark beetles, and other tlyu pests, promote the circulation of substances in soil. They are indispensable in biological methods of pest control. Some insects, especially flies, mosquitoes, midge, mosquitoes, carry pathogens of people and animals.
Distribution of animals. Different types of wildlife distributed unevenly across Ukraine. It is caused by differences in conditions life in its different parts. These include the particular climate, terrain, inland waters, soil, vegetation, and the presence of other representatives fauna. These factors interact with each other, ensuring the needs of animals in the shelter, food, protection from bad weather, predators and more. Certain types of distributed mainly where the best ensured their survival. These natural complexes in Ukraine forests steppes, mountainous areas, swamps, river floodplains, seas, deltas, estuaries, which are subject its species composition of fauna.
Many species of wild animals being spread by throughout Ukraine. Almost all major natural occurring complex of Ukraine mammals such as roe deer, wolf, fox, gray rabbit, marten, ferret normal, LEISURE forest mouse, Hedgehog, kutora water, bats. Pervasive and birds are jackdaw, rook, raven gray, forty, oriole, common cuckoo, finch, sparrow, swallow, spotted woodpecker, titmouse, owl. Among the popular reptiles - snake usual, lizard Warbler. For all regions of Ukraine are common amphibians such as the lake frog, toad and common green, night-heron and many species of invertebrates, including insects, molluscs and simplest.
У Forests Polesie, Western Ukraine and the Carpathians,In addition to the listed species are found wild boar, squirrel, badger, weasel, occasionally there are red deer, lynx, wild cat, recently met brown bear. World birds representing black cock, hazel grouse, wood grouse is sometimes, Stork black. With widespread amphibians tritons. Highlight Polissia forests is elk. They also distributed various kinds of water beetles, wetlands and floodplain - beaver, wild duck, heron, slukva, white stork and others. In Ukrainian Carpathians found affect only the area alpine burozubkaWith birds - Ural owl, crossbill, rarely - Golden eagle, and amphibians - Carpathian and Alpine tritons, salamander spotted.
Animals steppes adapted to life on open spaces in a fairly arid climate. There is a dominant rodents: gopher, marmot, jerboa, a wild rabbit. Also inhabited steppe ferret, mole-ligation, the stone marten, fox-Korsak, occasionally - muskrat. Among variety of birds - skylark, quail, bunting, partridge, once common bustard, STREPET, Crane steppe, steppe eagle, buzzard now found occasionally. Typical reptiles are steppe viper snake and zhovtocherevyy. Among insects characteristic of locusts, dross, kuzka and others.
Animal world forest combining forest species (roe deer, wild boar, squirrel, etc.). and many representatives of the steppe. There are inhabited hamster, mole-rat, gray vole, turtles, shrike and others.
Lowest animal is a mouse in Ukraine had burozubka weighing only 6 g
The largest flying birds in Ukraine bustard Redwood, whose weight can reach 16 kg, and neck black mass of 12 kg and long wings span up to 2,5 m! Bustardis found in the Black Sea steppes, and neck - in the Crimean mountains. Now it is rare birds, which is guarded.
У Mountainous Crimea as many live forest species - red deer, roe deer, wild pig, brock et al. However, in the Crimean fauna there are many endemics and Mediterranean species. In particular, large birds - black neck and a rash of white, reptiles - Crimean gecko and leopard snake, insects - Crimean mantis, East Trichiinae.
Extremely diverse fauna Azov-Black Sea coastWhere combined coastal strip and estuaries of the steppe areas, sand spits, floodplain meadows and boggy delta large rivers. Especially there are many birds: gulls, cormorants, martins, pochards, wild, wild ducks, herons, Wagtail, bittern, snipe, sandpiper. In Danube, Dniester and Dniproarrange their nests mute swan, cormorant, gray goose.
Fresh and marine Reservoirs marked diverse species composition of fish. Rivers, lakes and ponds are inhabited Ukraine pike, crucian carp, tench, perch, catfish. In mountain rivers Carpathians trout, and in Shatskikh lakes - Acne. Valuable industrial fish common in reservoirs: pike, bream, carp, cleaning water dissolved tolstolobik and grass carp. In Black Sea live three dolphins, the fish common mackerel, horse mackerel, sardine, mullet, a few Black Sea salmon, herring, sea horse. Among the molluscs are mussels, oysters, scallops, among crustaceans - shrimp, crabs. For Azov Seacharacteristic Kerch herring puzanok, flounder, whitebait, calf.
The biggest river fish in the world are European catfish, may reach a length of 5 m and weight - 400 kg! In Ukraine on the Dniester catch 320-kilogram predator.
Fig. Rash white
Fig. Black Vulture
Animal resources. Animals play a critical role in naturaland. They take participate in soil formation, plant reproduction, destroying plant pests, distilled water. Animals are also very important in life. Domesticated species make them valuable food - meat, eggs, milk, honey, raw material for particular industries (wool, leather) used as Tyaglova force. However, a person continues to use the resources of wildlife, hunting of animals and birds or vylovlyuyuchy freshwater and marine fish. In some Seasons in Ukraine allowed the hunting of wild ducks, hares, wild boar, fox, roe et al.
In order to enrich and nature for their own needs people carry out artificial acclimatization - Breeding imported from other regions of species in areas where they not previously known for some. In Ukraine Fur farm raised such domesticated furry animals like mink American, blue fox, nutria, silver-black fox, raccoon dog, rabbit. In our natural living conditions: the flood rivers - the muskrat (which is home to North America), in the Crimean mountains - mouflon (brought from the Mediterranean).
Protection and restoration of animal world. Unfortunately, impact of human economic activities often damages the wild nature, causing extinction of many animal species, the quantitative reduction populations and reduced their distribution areas. Sometimes residence wild animals are reduced to a few spots in deaf secluded place, such as distributing Black Stork in Polissia forests.
The catastrophic consequences of excessive business people were forced to find ways to correct situation. Ukraine hosts measures to protect and restore wild world. One is reaklimatyzatsiya – artificial return in a locality typeThat previously there existentported. Thus, in Ukraine re-imported from Belarus bison. Now they live in Polissia tail and the Carpathians. Only in the Volyn region of their flock of more than 500 individuals.
In 1993, Ukraine passed the Law on Animal World, in which one of the main requirements for the protection and rational use of animals is to preserve the natural conditions of their existence. Over 400 species animals are listed in the Red Book of Ukraine. Among them: Long-eared hedgehog, bats, ferret, bison, wild cat, lynx, ferret steppe, the mole-ligation, shrew, steppe eagle, golden eagle, White-tailed, gray crane, black stork, peregrine, zmiyeyid, eagle, mountain newt, etc.. Unfortunately, the list of rare and endangered animals were constantly replenished. Among them were even wolves. They are in our country has more than 2 thousand individuals and over 10 years they can be all destroyed. Wolves listed in the International Red Book, but not brought to Red Book of Ukraine. In many animal species are limited or hunting completely prohibited. Many animals protected in national parks, preserves, zoological parks.
Remember that a variety of animals, birds, insects - Is an integral part of our existence. Let's respect and preserve this wealth!
Fig. Animals in the Red Forest book
The biggest animal in Ukraine is the European bison (Bison European), which reaches 2 m height and weighs 000 kg to 1! This animal is very strong: if the hero raging forest, it is easy to fell trees thickness of 20 cm, vykorchovuyuchy with their roots, if not alarm, he is calm and peaceful.
The wildlife of Ukraine is represented by forest, prairie, marsh and water views.
Under the influence of human economic activity depleted fauna, many species disappear or become rare, because they need protection.
Questions and Tasks
1. What are the factors influencing the animal world?
2. What are the main species, common in woods Ukraine.
3. What are animals characteristic of the steppe area of Ukraine?
4. How to change the fauna of Ukraine under the influence of human activities?
5. Name of rare animals were entered into Red Book of Ukraine.
6 *. Name the wild animals, which are popular in your area. Which of them have become rare in recent years?