CHAPTER III. Landscape and Geographical zoning
Theme 12. Natural-territorial complexes
§ 29. Natural-territorial complexes
1. Remember which includes natural components of complex nature.
2. What communication are natural components in the complex?
Elements and factors of natural-territorial complexes (PTC). From the previous geography course you already know that the components on the nature or other territory in difficult relationships and interactions. Because of a close combination of natural ingredients have natural systems.
The largest natural complex of the Earth is geographical cover, the resulting interaction of the upper layer lithosphere, the lower layer of the atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. Geographic cover heterogeneous, because the nature of the interaction is different for continents and oceans, the plains and mountains, the slopes and foothills, in river valleys and watersheds. Different this interaction in polar, temperate, tropical or equatorial latitudes. Therefore, within the geographic shell there are various largest relatively homogeneous parts - natural-territorial complexes (In water basins - natural aquaticcomplexes). PTC is formed as a result of long interaction on specific areas such natural componentsAs geological substratum and rocks, topography, climate, water, soil, microorganisms, vegetation and fauna. For PTC characteristic similarity of internal structure and main factorsdevelopment of PTC is solar radiation, the internal energy of the Earth and its energy rotation, and processes in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. These power factors influencing the development of the complex through the main geographical processes - heat exchange, volohoobmin, exchange of mineral and organic substances.
Due to the close relationship between PTC components are highly integrated, perfect, yet vulnerable formation. Violation or change at least one of the components immediately affect the other components via invisible at first sight relationships. As a result of complex modifies or disappear altogether, yielding a new PTC. It can be clearly illustrated by changes that occurred in the Polesie marshes in late twentieth Art. These waterproof PTC formed in rocks under high groundwater level water and release them to the surface by numerous sources. Above them, a kind to be created microclimate with high humidity, which supported the existing there flora and fauna. Bogs are covered with peat-swamp soils grown with dank grass, moss, the tree or shrub vegetation. This contributed to the spread of many species of amphibians, reptiles and insects, which in turn attracted a variety of birds. Was enough to destroy waterproof layer of wood, crossed his drainage channel, as decreased levels of groundwater, and thus changed the water regime of the complex. According microclimate became drier, vegetation and fauna have changed. In place of the former marshes were meadows with poor vegetation, covered with dry combustible peat bogs.
During formation of the surface of our country and some the same areas occurred and changed many PTC. After repeatedly alternated dry land and sea, geological structure and changed climatic conditions, disappeared and appeared some other plants and animals (see geochronological table). Modern ITC began to take shape after melting Glacier last only 10 - 12 thousand years ago. Their components and properties continue to change over time, sometimes - just in front and quite significantly. Near from natural factors of significant influence on PTC is human activity (Anthropogenic factors) that often leads to sharp changes in the complexes by short time. Man seeks to change the components of the PTC for their needs. But often ill-calculated intervention in natural processes leads to negative consequences.
Fig. Scheme of interaction and factors PTC
Parts of the geographical landscape. Smallest size is PTC landscapes (in German - landscape) - Something like "building blocks" were formed geographical cover the planet. Thus, landscape- A fairly homogeneous area of geographic origin of the shell, which has uniform geological base, a consistent relief, similar climate and water conditions close combination of soil and vegetation and wildlife. Components is part of the landscape areas, tracts and facies.
Facies - The simplest PTC, formed in the same element of relief, for example, on days ravine slope beams, top of the hill, along the river. Facies is the most homogeneous natural conditions. Interrelated group facies forms tract - PTC, which is formed within a relatively small landforms (ravine, beams, a separate hill, a small river bottoms Valley). Spatial is the combination of the same origin tracts, which formed on relatively large landforms, forms locality. Areas, for example, may be a large river floodplain, a flat area, Rocky Ridge or hilly highlands.
Classification of landscapes. Geographic landscapes share into groups with specific characteristics. In particular, given the tectonic structure and relief areas within Ukraine are two classes of landscapes - plain and mountain. At the same time distinguish among lowland landscapes subclasses low-lying and vysochynnyhLandscapesAnd among the mountain - foothill, low mountain, by middle, High таmizhhirno-ulohovynnyh.
Plain landscapes merge into types: shyrokolystolisovi, mishanolisovi, Steppe і steppe. Among steppe landscapes still distinguish three subtypes: North, medium and pivdennostepovi. Mountain landscapes of the Ukrainian Carpathians and Crimea belong to mountain meadow-forest and are divided into several subtypes depending on the altitude poyasnosti. Individual types of landscapes is Southern coast of Crimea and also river floodplain, Lakes marshes.
Fig. Natural landscapes
Work with map
1. What types are distinguished in the class of flat terrain?
2. Where in Ukraine spread Tovtrylandscapes? What type of landscaping they belong?
3. What type subtype includes steppe landscape? Where formed pivdennostepovi flat terrain?
Impact commercial activity. Human activities cause changes PTC and their components. This leads to the existence not only Natural, but naturally-Anthropogenic. In such landscapes relatively little changed climate and geological basis, but significant changes were small landforms, soils, vegetation and fauna. Among natural and anthropogenic landscapes are distinguished agricultural, forestry, water management, industrial, landscapes settlements, recreation (recreation area associated with people).
Active human impact on natural landscapes territory of Ukraine started with the development of arable farming is in VІ – V millennium BC. e. Growing crops farming tribes led to the forming of the first agricultural landscapes in the forest-steppe right bank Ukraine. The establishment of Greek colonies on the Black Sea in VII - III. BC. BC gave beginning of a city landscape. To XVІ – ХVIII. people actively turned on agricultural forest landscapes. In western Ukraine, this process came mass distribution. Since XVAnd art. began intensive development of forest, and at the end of XVIII. - Plow first Scanned Ukrainian steppe. During the nineteenth century. an almost entirely agricultural landscapes ruled by changing natural. Increased their area and in still alive. In the Carpathians, Dnipro steppe and Donbass based mining operations were industrial landscapes.
Very great changes have taken place in landscapes Ukraine under the influence of human economic activity in the twentieth century. They related to subsequent agricultural, forestry and industrial development purposes, construction of drainage and irrigation systems, roads connections, creating reservoirs, urban planning and development areas rest.
So, now because of the large tional in Ukraine natural and anthropogeniclandscape has been significantly prevails over the natural. Not altered by human activity natural left almost no landscapes, and little change is less than 20% of country. Unfortunately, very small percentage of the territory of Ukraine belongs to Protected landscapes, where different components of protected nature.
Fig. Natural Landscape (Floodplain Forests Dnieper-Oril's'ke Reserve)
Fig. Natural and anthropogenic landscape (Manor, XVIII cent.)
Natural-territorial complexes (PTC) - a relatively homogeneous geographic shell parts, which are formed as a result prolonged interaction of nature in certain areas: geological structure, topography, climate, water, soil, microorganisms, vegetation and fauna.
Natural landscapes - the smallest size of PTC, which are the most uniform area of geographic shell. Components Landscape is an area tracts and facies.
Landscapes are divided into classes (lowland and mountain) and sub-categories (including low-lying plains are distinguished and vysochynni, among mountains - foothills lowland, Average and mizhhirno-ulohovynni) landscapes united into types: plain - in shyrokolystolisovi, mishanolisovi, Steppe and steppe (steppe among distinguish subtypes - North, mediumand pivdennostepovi) Mountain - depending on the altitude belts; certain types of landscapes is the southern coast, river flood plain, lakes, swamps.
Under the influence of human economic activity natural and man-shaped landscapes.
Questions and Tasks
1. What is called natural-territorial complexes?
2. Explain the relationship between factors and PTC components.
3. What is landscape? How is natural landscape of natural and anthropogenic?
4. How to classify landscapes?
5. As a man-shaped landscapes in our country?