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§ 37. Black Sea (textbook)

Theme 19. Natural complexes of the seas that washed Ukraine


§ 37. Black sea


1.     Remember to basin Ocean is the Black Sea.

2.     Which seas (or okrayinnyh internal) include the Black Sea?


Geographical location and coastline. The Black Sea washes with Ukraine south. It covers an area of over 420 thousand km2. Zatysnute sea between the mountains of Asia Minor - In the south of the East and the Crimean Mountains - the north, between the Balkans - in the west and the Caucasus - in the east. Narrow straits Bosporus і Dardanelles and small Marmara sea Black Sea combined with the Mediterranean and The Kerch Strait- From Sea of Azov. Between the Black and Azov seas wedged largest peninsula - CrimeanThat Perekopsky isthmus joins the mainland.

Black Sea coastline within Ukraine of 1540 km. The coast is flat, only on the Crimean peninsula along the coast extending Owing to the Crimean Mountains. In the northwest shores of the sea flat and the mouth Dniester to the Dnieper estuary - steep. This piece almost no bays (except small Odessa), While many lakes, estuaries, separated from the sea pour. Further East Cape Sarich coastline quite cut: in the dry bay resort - Karkinitsky, Kalamitska, Dnipro estuaryIn the sea are the Tarhankut peninsula and alluvial sand Spit-Islands - Tendrivska і Dzharylgach. On south of the Crimean peninsula very close to the sea suitable slopes of mountains, coast is high and steep. This region is inconvenient for coastal shipping. And only in some places there is a small bay-bay - harbor for ships (Sevastopol, Balaclava). This section of the picturesque Black Sea coast of Crimea Mediterranean landscapes create the best conditions for rest. In the east of the Crimean Peninsula in the bank can Feodosia bay.


Title says

Origin of name Black Sea completely understood. Black, dark it was called and Iranian tribes who lived on Coast back in the third millennium BC. BC, and the Arabs and Greeks, and Slavs. Were extended other names: in ancient Greece - Pontos AkseynosA sea of inhospitable (Compared with its Aegean and it was cold turbulent), later when the ship became more sophisticated and reliable - Pontus EvksinskyySea hospitable, In Rome - Rumske (Ie Rome) in Russia - Ruske.


Title says

Names originate bays: Karkinitsky - Of names of the Scythian Cercinitis (Value unknown words); Kalamitska - Of Greek kalamosreed or from the ancient port Kalos LimaWonderful Afternoon. Peninsula Title Tarkhankut comes of Mongolian Tarkhanreleased from duty and angleend end settlement.


Records Ukraine

The biggest bay which washes banks of Ukraine are Karkinitsky length 118 km and a width of 80 km. The largest island, which belongs Ukraine - Dzharylgach length 40 km, is located in the Gulf.


Fig. Black and Azov Seas


Fig. Black Sea off the coast Crimea


Fig. Balaklava bay


Geological structure and relief of the bottom. Black Sea basin in form resembles a cup with maximum depth in the central and southern (Maximum depth - 2 245 m). Significant depth and near the southern coast. Sea basin is located in skydoviy depression, lowering the floor and is being until now. Instead, the northern part of the sea (between the Danube and the Crimean Peninsula) occupied shelf. Ukraine has the largest area among shelf all Black Sea States.

The existence of the Black Sea dates back to the collapse Ocean Tethys into separate pools (30 - 40 million years ago). In its place arose different configuration of the sea, until about 500 thousand years ago is not pool, similar in basic features of the modern Black and Azov Seas. But he had no connection with the Mediterranean and was unleavened. Later this communication occurred and again vtrachavsya. Approximately 9 - 7 thousand years ago the Black Sea finally spoluchylosya of the Mediterranean, it again became salty and came modern outlines.


Records Ukraine

In Black Sea contains 6 times more water than the Caspian Sea, Lake and in 16 times more than in the Baltic, though the area of all three reservoirs are almost identical.


Amazing Ukraine

Wandering rocks

There version that the wandering rocks Stsyla and Haribda, described in Homer's "Odyssey", it rocks Adalary(Twin Rocks). They are Gurzufsky Bay 200 m from shore at a distance of 49 m from one another. If you approach them from the sea, it seems that the distance between them decreasing with distance from the rocks, it seems that they diverge. Nearby passing strong currents, underwater many stone blocks.


Climate. Much of the Black Sea located in subtropical latitudes, which affects the formation of its climate. in summer it is hot and dry and mild, wet winter. Average temperatures July Ukrainian coast is 24 ° C in January, about 1 ° C. Summer coast breeze blowing, which freshens the air and makes the weather is hot and comfortable. In winter there are often foggy, sometimes hrymlyat thunderstorms. Number precipitation varies from 300 mm east to 800 mm (Pivdennokrymske coast).


January                                                       July

Fig. Temperature


Properties of water masses. Off the coast of Black Sea, Ukraine has a relatively small depth and is well warmed up. Temperature of water surface in summer rises to 27 ° C, and winter is -0.5 ... 8 ° C. Deeper 150 m the temperature is constant (9 ° C). In some severe winters north-western part of the sea freezes.

Black Sea water salinity varies: about banks it is up to 10 ‰, in the central part of - 18 ‰. That is twice lower than average water salinity of the oceans. This is tributary the Black Sea plenty of fresh river water. Interestingly, the name of the Black Sea has nothing to do with the color of his water, there is blue-green tint. Water fairly clear (More transparent than in the Atlantic Ocean or the Baltic Sea).


January                                                     July 

Fig. Salinity


The characteristic feature that distinguishes the Black Sea from other seas, is the presence of hydrogen sulfide in the water layer. It begins with a depth of approximately 200 m and covers 87% of the volume of the sea. Hydrogen sulfide layer is not suitable for living organisms, so significant depths are only bacteria. Advent of hydrogen sulfide scientists explain a number of chemical transformations involving sulfur bacteria under the influence carbon dioxide, which is in the water. Significant role in this plays no vertical circulation of water in deep layers. The top distillate, saturated oxygen can not penetrate the lower layers of the sea, which is thicker and heavier. Under significant concentration of hydrogen sulfide exposure gray-green slime is black.


Fig. Anaerobic water


The movement of water. Water masses of the Black Sea moved to form a flow. Main Black Sea flow moves anticlockwise parallel to the shoreline as the closed cycle. Bosphorus from the Black Sea of Marmara flowing fresh surface waters and the Black Sea deep-directed reverse flow of salt water.

The sea surface mainly calm. Waves arise in windy weather and can reach 15 c. Black Sea had long been the glory of stormy and dangerous, but strong storms are infrequently, mainly in winter. The flow and ebb of the almost imperceptible.

World Organic and natural resources. In the Black Sea numbered 260 algae species, most of them - in the north-western shallow part. Wildlife is concentrated in the upper layers. Its species composition relative small - about 2 thousand species (about 5 times less than in the Mediterranean Sea). Industrial value should catch herring, anchovy, gobies, flounder, scad, mackerel, mullet, sturgeon. Encounter three kinds of dolphins - the usual, bottlenose dolphin and pyhtun. Among the molluscs are mussels, oysters, scallops; of crustaceans - shrimp, crabs. On the coasts of many nests birds.


Fig. Afalina Black Sea


In the Black Sea shelf explored commercial reserves Oil and natural gas. In seawater dissolved iron, silver, copper, salt and other substances. Therapeutic importance of Black Sea mud estuaries. Beaches along the coast is a great place.


Records Ukraine

The largest marine mammal that lives near the coast of Ukraine - dolphin bottlenose dolphin, whose body length is about 3 m and weight - 220 kg.


Health sea. Ecological situation in the Black Sea is primarily determined by river flow, which flow into it, and the emissions of pollutants that enter the water at the shipwreck and mining. Most pollutants from wastewater bring Danube, Dniester, Dnieper. As a result, is of blooms in water northwestern part of the sea. Pollute the sea and industrial enterprises and ports, recreational facilities areas, located on its banks, domestic drains cities. Kerch Strait waters and coast of the peninsula of the same were contaminated by oil products fall 2007 during a crash tanker vessels. As a result of massive fish kill, killed more than 30 thousand birds. Fuel oil that accumulated on the bottom, formed spots that make these areas unsuitable to live organisms. This requires use of a number of measures for wastewater treatment and Protection of Black Sea pollution.

Wildlife Black Sea and its shores protected in a specially constructed for this purpose Black Sea Nature Reserve. First of all are protected by many species of waterfowl that winter or resting during the flight. Marine ecosystems are protected also natural reserves of the Danube, Karadag andCape Martyan.


Fig. Pollution



The Black Sea washes the south of Ukraine in the range 1.5 km. our country has the largest area of the Black Sea shelf.

Over the Black Sea, except its northwestern part, formed a subtropical climate.

Black Sea water salinity is low (10 - 18 ‰), at depth 200 m formed layer of hydrogen sulfide, which is not suitable for living organisms.


Questions and tasks.

1. Describe the geographical location of the Black Sea.

2. Using a physical map of Ukraine, name objects of the Black Sea coastline.

3. Describe the properties of water masses Black Sea.

4. Why the species composition of the organic world of the Black relatively few sea?