§ 35. Geography by outside economic relations of Ukraine
1. Which sectors of national economy of Ukraine manufacturing export products?
2. What industry and production in Ukraine require raw materials and fuel imported from abroad?
3. In which countries and regions of the world seeks modern Ukrainian labor migration?
During the Soviet economy of Ukraine was involved in the system international economicrelations. However, external ties of Ukrainian enterprises and distributed organizations, mainlymore, former socialist countries and some countries, developingARE. Since the early 90's XX Art. Ukraine came into the world economy as a full participant. The circle of externalforeign economic partners, diversifications form relationships with them.
FOREIGN TRADE PRODUCTS. Foreign trade Ukraine carries products from more than 160 countries. Foreign trade turnover in 2004 he has reached maximum level - 60 billion dollars., The export of goods has vyperedzhav their importation. Trade surplus promotes the growth of international reserves state, it is formed under while trade with most countries, foreign trade partners. Ontions, they write in trade with developed countries such as Austria Great Britain, France, Germany, Japan, Ukraine is passive balance. Most noticeable lag in exports from imports of commodity exchange Turkmenistan and Russia - The main providerWe in Ukraine energy.
In the international division of labor Ukraine stands out above all raw, capital- materialomistkymy and industries (mining Industry areslovist, agriculture and industry, developing at their base) but because its structure Export imperfect - 4 / 5 it is wetwine products and primary products processing.
Fig. External economic ties
Table. Foreign Trade goods with main partners of Ukraine,
у million dollars. U.S.
The basis of exports are ferrous metals and articles thereof (rolling, pipe), which accounted for 40% of foreign exchange earnings from exports ofand chemical induction related industries (Nitrogen fertilizers, inorganic chemistry) mineral products (iron and manganese ore, concentrates, coal, cement and building materials salt, etc..) agricultural and food products (Sugar products it grain, oil, meat, milk and milk products and etc.).. Export machinery, equipment and vehicles is about 17% its general volume.
Fig. Cars KRAZ exporting to many countries
Basis of import revenue of mineral products (over 37%), primarily fuel (natural gas, coal, oil and oil products distillation), machinery, equipment and vehicles. In Ukraine imported as chemicals, pharmaceutical, food and light industry, woodworking and pulp and paper industries.
Fig. Part of the paper is imported from abroad
Foreign trade partners of Ukraine is the country's different regions and parts of the world. Almost a third of all exports and imports half Ukraine accounted for the former USSR, especially Russia, which is the main partner in the exterior trade. Followed by Turkmenistan, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Moldova. Other Europe most export-import transactions carried out with Germany Italy, Poland and Hungary, among other regions of the world - Turkey, China and the U.S..
FOREIGN TRADE SERVICES. Trade in services occupies a prominent place in the international Ukraine's trade: у 2004 by their exports amounted to 5.3 billion dollars. and import - 2,1 billion dollars. The largest proportion among the services provided to Ukraine by another countries accounted for transport services (freight marine transit through its territory oil, natural gas, other cargo and passengers), communication services, differenttheir business, professional and technical services.
Credit and financial RELATIONS. Ukraine as a state with transition youdied of an economic system require substantial financial protects theing economic reforms. To this end, the country cooperates with international currency and credit and financial organizations - the Internationalhe IMF, World Bank, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. In addition, it receivedports loans and credits from central economic and commercial banksbut developed countries - Germany, USA, Italy, France, Japan et al. In result formed the external state debt of Ukraine loanframes, so the important task of government is its skillful service.
In the system of international financial relations were veryke value for country has import and export of capital. Ukraine stands mostly importer of capital, because its ability to invest their in the economies of other countries is extremely limited.
The most effectivewe are FDI in Ukrainian economy, ie vkladaning foreign companies, enterprises, banks, etc. capitalLiv in cash or in the form of commodities in specific industries, costion for their participation highly profitable joint ventures and organizations working on profit. Among the biggest investors Ukraineyiny - U.S. Cyprus, Germany, Great Britain, Netherlands, Russia, Switzerland, Austria. The most attractive sectors of Ukrainian economyperformance indicators to foreign kapitalovkladnykivare trade, food processing industrylovist, Italy and Denmark, the financial activity. However, foreign direct investment in Ukraine so far minor: at general need of a few dozen billion dollars. the economy of the landus now put 8,3 billion dollars. Foreign investment. Potenciestheir foreign partners discourages economic and social instability in the country, lack of sustained investment legislation, coruptsiya among government officials and others.
INTERNATIONAL Cooperating PRODUCTION AND SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL COOPERATION. With the participation of foreign capital in Ukraine created joint enterprise characterized by different values of charter fund number of employees, account of others.
Quite advanced and promising form of the externaltion of enterprises of our country is cooperating production that widespread mostly in engineering. Interstate of cotion - a establish closer links between enterprises of different countries together produce certain products. These large computer-subunits, as the Southern Machine Plant in Dnipropetrovsk (Issue launch vehicles), Zaporizhzhya plant engines "Motor-Sich" or Kyiv Aviation Plant. A. Antonova, have numerous produc-nychi relationships with partners from the former USSR, especially Russian enterprises. Between them adjusted kooperuvantion and scientific and technical sphere.
In general, Ukraine has great prospects of development of various forms International Science and Technology Cooperation: preparation of Zarabizhnyh experts in higher education institutions to participate in joint U.S., Russia and Norway programa Marine Launch (start spacecraft from the ocean at the Ukrainian launch vehicles "Zenith").
INTERNATIONAL TOURISM AND LABOR MOVEMENT. The citizens Ukraine abroad for leisure or earnings as entry into its nationals of other countries for this purpose, accompanied interstate monetary and financial flows, so interstate movement of tourists and workers also belongs to externalforeign economic ties. Every year the Ukrainian resorts rest homes, tourist centers, children's camps, and owners of private take hundreds of homes thousands holidaymakers from the former USSR, especially Russia and Belarus. Most of them attract Black-Azov Sea coastrezhzhya, especially the southern coast of Crimea, and Carpathians. Through low Service inflow of foreign tourists in Ukraine from outside the former USSR is extremely low. Mostly publiczens of these countries make business trips to Ukraine. In return growing number of Ukrainian citizens staying in the countries Mediterranean (Turkey, Cyprus, Egypt, Montenegro, Spain, France,ence, Italy), The countries of Central Europe and America.
Recently, Ukraine has become a major supplier of labor in Russia post-socialist countries of Central Europe (Poland, Checation), Cost developed countries in South and West Europe (ItaliaLeah, Spain Portugal, Greece, Germany, Great Britain et al.). As migrant workers many people fall in Ukraine Israel U.S., Canada, Argentina, Australia et al. According to official data for outside the country earnings are more than 5 million Ukrainian: many illegally and without a guaranteed job.
Massive labor migration from Ukraine is presently extremely bolisand his controversial phenomenon. On the one hand, it is somewhat solves the problem of unemployment in Ukraine brings revenues to the country. On the other - migrant workers abroad often nive-icy fate of people, puts at risk their health and even life.
From Ukraine moves bodied population, much of which you aresokokvalifikovanymy specialists. Radically change this situation may development of domestic economy, boost household incomes.
The international Ukraine division of labor is allocated, first, raw, capital-materialomistkymy and industries because of its export structure is imperfect.
Basis of export are ferrous metals and articles thereof, aboutinduction of chemical and related industries Industry, Mineral products, Agricultural and food products
The basis of imports of mineral productsFirst of all fuel, Machinery, equipment and vehicles Pharmaceutical products, food and light, Wood and pulp and paper industries.
Interstate movement of labor has become a significant form of external Ukraine's relations at the present stage of development.
Questions and Tasks
1. What indicators of foreign trade is characterized by Ukraine?
2. Using Figure 20, describe the commodity structure of externalknowledges trade Ukraine.
3. Which countries are the main foreign trade partners of Ukraine? Why?
4. What are other forms of external economic relations. What is their value for of the country?