Theme 15. The intensification of political, economic and social situation UKRAINIAN LANDS In July-October 1917
Populism, radicalism, the Congress of Peoples of Russia
July 1917, August 1917, August 1917
1. Changes in political attitudes of the population
Events beginning in July 1917 demonstrated Ukrainian society that the Central Council was not prepared to act decisively to deployment of the struggle for full independence of Ukraine. That the following demanded of it independentist who remained dissatisfied with a compromise Central Council and the Provisional Government.
Self refused to recognize the Universal II and began to prepare performance of Ukrainian armed military units stationed in Kiev, with to force the Central Council to proclaim the independence of Ukraine. This plan supported by around 5 thousand Ukrainian soldiers who joined in Second Ukrainian regiment them. Paul Polubotko.
On the night of 4 to 5 (of 17 to 18) in July 1917 without agreeing with their actions Central Council, which they acknowledged the supreme legislative authority in Ukraine, independentist opposed the Provisional Government. The rebels captured in Kiev military headquarters, command headquarters, the bank and put health near government offices and important sites.
Let us turn to sources
Action Plan 2-Ukrainian regiment them. P. Polubotko from 4 to July 5, 1917
We, the Ukrainian Cossacks, do not want to have freedom only on paper, or pivsvobody. By declaring and wagon (we do not recognize the Universal II) we begin the introduction of order in Ukraine. For this and all Russians renegade hampering the work of Ukrainian, cast off the fasts of force, not ignoring the Russian government. Recognizing the Central Council for their highest government, we are cast out traitors from Ukraine without her knowledge. When you prevail by force, then it is pidporyadkovuyemosya Central Council. She poryadkuvatyme in Kiev and throughout Ukraine, both in their own house.Who are the authors of the document? Under what circumstances it created? Who document addresses? Is the assessment contained in the document, the objective? Why? What is the difference of positions positions Self UCR?
General Secretariat immediately condemned the actions of rebels, and has written against them by the Central Council of faithful troops. This caused among rebels confusion, they began to hand over positions and leave Kyiv. Subsequently, Government troops surrounded the remnants of rebels and after a brief battle near Hrushky village near Kyiv disarmed them. Organizers armed speech imprisoned for a long time and kept under investigation, removing them from political on the eve of the fateful events in Ukraine.
After failing to Bolshevik coup in early July 1917 , in Petrograd, the Provisional Government took steps to consolidate his power. In the rear and front of the death penalty was introduced. The government began to collapse winning the February Democratic Revolution: censorship was introduced, increased control over the activities of some parties.
Of course, that such changes in the political life of Russia could not effect on its relations with Ukraine. At the end of July in Kiev was provocation by Russian military units that fired Ukrainian soldiers of the regiment them. Khmelnitskogo that were sent to front. During the incident Bogdanovka twenty were killed and many wounded. However, in the Russian press opened in separate libel figures of the Central Council. They were arbitrarily accused of secret relations with the ruling circles of Austria-Hungary and Germany.
Against this backdrop, the Provisional Government began to view their promises Central Council and the agreements that were signed with her before. Specifically, he categorically rejected the "Charter of the General Secretariat, developed Central Council and replaced it with "instructions for Interim General Secretariat of the Provisional Government of Ukraine.
Let us turn to sources
With the "Provisional instructions for the General Secretariat of the Provisional Government in Ukraine" dated August 4, 1917
1. ... The time to resolve cases of local governance Constituent
Assembly of Local Governance Ukraine highest body
Provisional Government is the General Secretary, who appoints
Provisional Government in the supply of the Central Council.
Thus, the General Secretariat of the instructions recognized by local only body of the Provisional Government and had it approved through submission of the Central Council. Commission of the General Secretariat spread is now only five Ukrainian provinces. He responsible for their actions before the UCR and pledged to work together it. In addition, the competence of the secretariat withdrawn Secretariat military, food, lawsuits, Railways, Post and Telegraph. The Provisional Government left the right in certain cases contact the authorities in Ukraine, bypassing the General Secretariat.
"Temporary Instruction for the General Secretariat evoked in Ukrainian society sharp backlash. Kiev "Labour Gazeta, August 6, characterized such actions, calling them "petty fraud.
In August, the address of the Central Council received hundreds of telegrams from all parts of Ukraine to the decisions and resolutions, where zasudzhuvalas policy Provisional Government. Community urged to get out of Ukrainian politicians under the custody of Russian authorities to denounce the Universal II and arbitrarily approve the General Secretariat.
However, most members of the Central Council did not feel confident to Interim Government and opposition have begun offering new and different options compromise. Finally, the Central Council adopted the "Instructions", though with individual reservations.
Leaders of the Central Council to justify his compromising position by that the Ukrainian people as if at that time was not ready for strong revolutionary struggle against the imperial policies of the Provisional Government, although not really ready for it were the heads of the Central Council. Evidence so was the failure of the Central Council within two weeks of August determine the composition of the General Secretariat, which would be acceptable for the Provisional Government. Symptomatic look of confusion and resignation of the chief of the General Secretariat that fond of political game and would not take responsibility for the development of inter-party struggle.
All these events show that the late summer of the previous revolutionary gains almost nothing left, and compromise with the Central Council Provisional Government became increasingly odnobokosti.
Weakening of the Central Council took place against the backdrop of increase social tensions, increasing destruction and arbitrary bureaucracy.
Central Council has done nothing for agrarian reform, from which it is waited for the Ukrainian peasantry. It could also use the revolutionary rise of soldiers - Ukrainian citizens were ready swear the new regime. A large number of Ukrainian military parts had a high discipline and national consciousness. But leaders Central Council of distrust in the military treated, presenting a thesis, revolutionary that people can protect itself alone, but regular maintenance Army lies heavy burden on his shoulders.
Thus, failures of the Central Council have led to what she started lose social support broad social strata of the Ukrainian population.
2. Changes in economic and social situation of the population
Economic and social situation of the population of the Ukrainian lands was hard. In fact, the authorities of the Central Council and the General Secretariat not spread outside Kyiv. Paralysis gripped the industrial production. Taxes not paid. The bourgeoisie has resorted to sabotage, stopping factories, throwing thousands out into the street workers. In early autumn in the Donbass mines did not work 200. Prices commodities of daily consumption continuously increased. Food supplies were little. Provisional Government, as stated by V. Vynnychenko "vyhribav all he could to Ukraine and so limited his food policy. "Ghost hunger approaching the town and village workers.
This led to the aggravation of social conflicts. Strikes workers actually never stopped, moving from one branch production to another. Sometimes they were accompanied by the establishment of working control now, exile administration, full disorganization of the producers of the process. In July-October 1917, in Ukraine 188 strikes took place.
Farmers too were tired of war, economic dislocation, annoyed by the actions of fugitives from the army, suffered from a shortage of arable land and prices of manufactured goods. Some of them resort to desperate alcohol, seeking oblivion in it and play. In all villages multiplied in an enormous homemade vodka factory that produced "hooch." Hundreds of thousands of pounds of expensive bread without regret processed on alcohol drinks. Cases landlord estates pogroms and violence against their owners. Landlords with their families fleeing the city.
Let us turn to sources
From the information in the Main Directorate of Agricultural Affairs militia movement in Katerinoslav province. October 9, 1917
In Katerynoslav district in Klein's estate, the peasants samopravno seize land. Peasants seized in the village Marivka zemlevlasnytsi Shishkino ground. In Alexander County between peasants and congregation vidrubnykamy s.Semenivky because of the seizure of land exacerbated relations. Group Anarchists and communists lead increased agitation against the Provisional Government and bourgeoisie.What is it about the document? What processes in the countryside it reflects?
Spread anarchy in the army. Troops armed with machine guns goals, rifles, sometimes with guns left front. As he wrote Mr. Vinnichenko: "Tortured and angry with their slaughter suffering in hell, they are terrible dark force went to the country, scored all railways, adding more disorder and is often poured his rage on innocent and despair?.. En route army burned the city, robbing people. The most difficult situation was areas that directly adjoined to the front. This Volhynia and Podolia. In Kiev prepared for self-defense against an avalanche of refugees. All attempts up the military spirit, to convince the soldiers of the need to continue war were in vain. In the army spread Bolshevik propaganda. Military Committee, one by one endorsed resolutions which demanded of the Provisional Government to stop the war.
Political and economic crisis led to increased among workers popularity maximalist slogans of the Bolsheviks. The number of Bolsheviks in Ukraine has increased rapidly (from 2 million people in February to 33 thousand - in the middle July 1917) After the July 6 event and congress RSDLP (b) headed training of armed insurrection to seize power. At this congress Bolshevik organizations were represented workers Kyiv, Kharkiv, Donbass. Social tensions grew.
3.Zahostrennya conflict, the Central Council of the Provisional Government of Russia
Increase social and economic crisis in the Russian Empire accompanied by the further polarization of socio-political movement. His left wing was represented by radical-revolutionary forces who sought develop a revolutionary process further.
Radicalism (From Lat.radix- Root) - political and ideological trend, which advocates the need
decisive action and deep fundamental changes in political and
Radical - Strong, fundamentally.
The right wing represented dominant populations, which Increasing tried to stabilize the crisis of Provisional Government. One with its representatives, General L. Kornilov began to prepare a revolt that then called "kornilovskym.
August 26 (September 7) L. Cornelius attempted to seize power, giving orders to troops capture Petrograd. Commanders South-Western and Romanian fronts received task set control over the Ukrainian provinces. From the Provisional Government of L. Cornelius required to give him all power in the state.
Ukrainian policy is well understood that the victory kornilovskoho plot mean total collapse of their hopes for autonomy. Therefore, despite the contradictions that existed between certain political parties, they united their efforts against the rebels. In cities started to Revolutionary Committee, the Salvation Revolution and other agencies that coordinated the fight against kornilovschyny.
September 8 (27 August), a committee has been created in Kyiv. He orders of the rebels were arrested supporters, closed Black Hundred newspaper Kievlyanin. The Committee sent towards kornilovskym troops that went to Kyiv, its outreach to soldiers deployed among outreach, and they ultimately refused to follow orders officers rebels.
Kharkiv to fight kornilovschynoyu created a revolutionary Committee, which declared that no order in the local garrison will not be executed without coordination with it. However, the committee formed special military unit, who spoke against the station Kupyansk Troops of General A. Kaledina, L. Kornilov henchman. Similarly unfolding struggle against kornilovskoho insurgency in Luhansk Gorlovka, Odessa, Sevastopol, Katerynoslav and other cities of Ukraine.
Thus, the threat of counter-revolutionary rebellion led to rapid growing political activity of Ukrainian population. It acted united front for the preservation of revolutionary democratic gains.
Devastation kornilovschyny added commitment to political parties. Special activity differed Bolsheviks. His influence in the councils and in the army they used to form groups of Red. In spring they had to Ukraine by 15 thousand soldiers and Red Guards, using populist slogans began to be serious competition for Central Council.
Populism (From Lat. рopulus- People) - attempts by some political parties or movements to gain political authority unrealizable promises, flirting with people. Populist slogans have always focused on grassroots support, dissatisfied with the current situation.
This prompted criticism of the UCR deploy actions of the Provisional Government, was not originally in explicitly, through counsel nationwide peasant deputies went to the Central Council. In early September, during the second session of this body, MPs demanded that the Provisional Government distribution of power in the General Secretariat of all ethnic Ukrainian territory, calling the Central Council of "expression of interest and will of the Ukrainian democracy. "
As the opportunity for direct criticism of the Provisional Government of the Central Council began preparations for use in Petrograd "Democratic meeting, which was to stabilize the internal situation in Russia and to raise power of authority. Central Council has launched the preparation of the order its delegates to this meeting. Discussions took place in the message heated debate. It strongly criticized the Ukrainian government Social Democrats Porsh M. and M. Tkachenko. They proved false principles formation of the Provisional Government, proposed re-elect its composition, demanded that the central government exercise full autonomy of Ukraine.
14 (27) September "Democratic Conference" began its work in Petrograd, with the aim to raise the authority of the Provisional Government, blown up in the fight against kornilovschyny. But instead, she demonstrated a lack of unity among Russian democrats with question of power. The meeting decided to form a permanent body authority - the Transitional Council of the Russian Republic (preparliaments), which planned to allocate to the these problems.
The Central Council decided to use the platform "Democratic Conference" requirements for the promulgation of Ukraine, which it previously did not dare: "The transfer of all land of the monastery and church lands land management committees, the introduction of state control and edge over production and distribution, taxation of large capital and property and the confiscation of war profits in favor of some edges and the whole country; appointment decisive steps to making peace; convocation of the Constituent Assembly at the appointed time and without delay ".
However, among the requirements of the Central Council and remained traditional, with which it is performed in earlier times: "The transfer of full power in Ukraine in the hands of the Ukrainian Central Rada, the General Secretariat; purpose of all nations the right to is not limited self-determination, calling on every nation and land, in order to achieve national boundary sovereign Constituent Assembly, and others.
At the meeting the delegation of the Central Council took the left position, which was essentially close to the Bolsheviks. Because of this, constantly pressured the Bureau Ukrainian office, limiting his appearances while delegates Commenting on remarks speakers and more. This attitude to the Bureau passed on to Ukrainian and other Russian delegates. They arranged Central Council representatives present obstruction, interrupting their cries, slam on the table, demonstrative exit from the hall meetings.
In addition, in the Russian press has been rolled frank anti-Ukrainian company. Petrohrad newspaper "Living Word" published article with "sensational" report, that within the Central Council is like a dozen officers of the Austrian and German of staff to help Ukrainian "samovyznachytys.
Thus, after the "Democratic Conference" Central Council finally lost hope not only to obtain autonomy from the Provisional Government, but from future National Constituent Assembly.
Complications of the political situation has pushed the Central Council for more decisive action in the fight for national interests of Ukraine. On her initiative in Kiev, 21-28 August (8-15) in September 1917, a congress of nations Russia. Central Leadership Council took the initiative to become coordinating center for people who wanted to autonomy and federal restructuring of Russia. At the congress delegates arrived in 1993, representing Ukrainian, Belarusians, Moldovans, Poles, Jews, Crimean Tatars, Bashkir, Georgians, the Caucasian highlanders, Lithuanians, Estonians, Latvians, Don Cossacks, and others. Representatives of the Russian nation Congress was not. This testified to the fact that the Russian ruling elite remain in positions of centralization and domination over Russification other peoples of Russia. The main ruling Congress on the federal Russian state system, "stated that Russia is centralized state should be transformed into a federation.
UCR late September announced to extend its jurisdiction whole territory of Dnieper Ukraine and to all spheres of life. This decision caused a new wave of discontent from Russia. The relationship between UCR and Provisional Government continued to escalate.