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Theme 22. UKRAINE IN THE SECOND HALF OF 1920 IN EARLY 1921. (textbook)


  1. The final establishment of Soviet power
  2. Rebel movements and the defeat of the Ukrainian liberation movement in Ukraine.
  3. Lessons and Consequences of states
  • Basic terms and concepts of the theme

The second winter hike UNR army, assault Perekopa

  • Key dates

August 1920, November 7, 1920, 25 November 1920, November 1921

  1. What models are state existed in Ukraine in 1917-1920 he was?
  2. What causes the fall of UCR, Hetman and directory?
  3. What ended with the defeat of Denikin's armies?
  4. What Otamanschina? As she vyplavala in the process of state in Ukraine?
  5. As the peasants belonged to the Austro-German troops, the White Guards, the Polish occupation regime, the Soviet government?

1. The final establishment of Soviet power

  1. What forces led by Mr. Wrangell?
  2. Why at the last stage of the war Petlura teamed up with the Whites?
  3. Why the Bolsheviks entered into an alliance with N. Makhno?
  4. How Perekopa assault took place?
  5. Why the Bolsheviks launched a terror in the Crimea?
  6. Could the Soviets leave Makhno forming in Soviet Ukraine? Why?

Soviet-Polish war and Ukraine. The defeat of Wrangel's troops and detachments Makhno (April 1920 - 1921)

The remains of defeated Denikin troops in the Crimea led General P. Wrangel, which appeared under more than 30 thousand Whites. Vostochny watching the developments in Soviet-Polish front. Once in June 1920, the Red Army moved in a counter attack in large-scale vtyahnulas fighting against the Poles and Petliurites, White Guards came from the Crimea and began to move on Donbass. But due to lack of offensive forces stalled vrangelevtsev late June on the line Kherson Nikopol-Berdyansk. But the Entente, which  supported Wrangel, retreating trying to ease the situation Polish troops in the West of Ukraine, led the Whites start new offensive. Then in mid-August, they threw in his last fight reserves. It was enthusiastically Aleksandrovsk, Sinelnikove, but on the approach to Ekaterinoslav Whites army stopped.

Baron Wrangell

Given the shortage of soldiers Vostochny decided to act together Petlura and in August 1920 began negotiations with the Government of the UPR. He had to consider the fact that half of his army were originally from Ukraine, and to recognize Ukraine's right to independently resolve their fate. It was essentially a new position of white movement in the Ukrainian issue that needs stipulated by the joint fight against Bolshevik regime. For the UNR had a contract with the Whites compensate for the lost autumn 1920 Polish allies who have negotiations with the Soviet leadership.

Find allies carried out not only Vostochny, but the Bolsheviks. In late September, they entered into an agreement with Makhno on joint action against Whites. The Soviet government promised N. Makhno everything he wanted: Hulyaypolskomu autonomy to the district, to allow propagation of anarchist ideas; release from Soviet prison arrested Makhno and the anarchists and provide the insurgents with weapons and ammunition and  others.

Let us turn to sources

Makhno newspaper "path to freedom" on the agreement between the rebels and the Soviets

Around the truce established some confusion, ambiguity, discrepancies suggest that the supposedly Makhno repent of his former actions found radvladu etc.

How can we understand the contents put into a peace agreement? Gums thing that no ideological contact and cooperation with radvladoyu or recognition it could not and can not be. We have always been and will be ideological implacable enemies of the Communist Party-Bolsheviks.

We will never recognize no power in this case can not recognize radvladu. So once again remind and reiterate that you should not fetter, maliciously or misunderstanding, military contacts, which is a consequence of the dangers  threatening revolution, with some transition, "merger" and recognition radvlady that could not be and never will.

Who owns the document? As he explains reached agreement? Or you think this view is compelling enough, and important agreement? Who was beneficial, why? Explain your opinion.

In these conditions, N. Makhno launch a campaign against Vostochny. In October vranhelivtsi caught in ticks in North Taurus, but they managed to large losses and move away to escape back to the Crimea, under the protection Turkish shaft. P. Wrangel army turned it into an impregnable line  Defense throughout Perekop isthmus. Soviet troops began to carefully prepare for the assault. With a vengeance  advantage in people, they decided to attack the Crimean strengthening in two fronts - wade through Sivash and Turkish shaft.

Go Red Army crossed Sivash. From paintings of M. Samokish

Sturm Perekopa began November 7, 1920 and lasted five days. Command of the Red Army not spared the people. One of the first vranhelevski guns were thrown Makhno's men, on their bodies went to storm Red parts, some of them have lost 85% of personnel composition. After all, the price of great sacrifices (the bodies were filled up ditch depth of up to ten meters), Soviet troops invaded the Crimea, where Vostochny stop them could not. November 13 Whites dislodged from  Simferopol, later the Red Army invaded Feodosia, Sevastopol, Kerch and other cities. November 17 was the Soviet Crimea completely.

During the recent battles Vostochny managed to evacuate about 150 thousand Whites and refugees to Turkey. But about 300 thousand soldiers and  civilians who are not experienced by a transgression against the Bolshevik authorities have refused to leave home. They believe the statement Revviyskrady which was promised to all who do not drag the Red Army full amnesty.

But the Bolsheviks, by setting its power in the Crimea, once deployed preparation for large-scale repression. Local authorities, under the guise population registration for the issuance of new documents and software refugee work, started taxing people. After some time the penal authorities having on hand with the given lists of registered place of residence, began routine arrests and mass executions. Among those shot overwhelming majority were not professional soldiers, and mobilized to the white Army youth who had higher or secondary education. Service in the White Army social origin and education level were often the main reason  for the death sentence. Exact numbers of red terror in the Crimea No, but based on the analysis of relevant sources, it is obvious that followed by the tens of thousands of people.

Having grasped the Crimea, the Soviet leadership is not going to carry out their promises that they generously gave Makhno Perekopa before the assault. Moreover, the Bolshevik leadership instructed the commander of the South Front of M. Frunze, to develop a military operation to destroy Makhno groups.

M. Frunze

Three days after the establishment of Soviet power in Crimea M. Frunze summoned to his headquarters commanders Makhno teams who participated in  fights with vranhelivtsyamy and ordered their arrest. Soon they were shot.


November 25 Red Army launched a massive operation to eliminate  Makhno militias. The Soviets took part in them in the ring Evpatoria region, but could not destroy. Makhno broke through the front and fights broke from the Crimea. However, already being on the mainland Ukraine under Tomakivka rebels faced with a big red connectivity. Makhno fought to the death, knowing that a pardon will not. Early  fights they had 3,5 thousand and 1,5 thousand cavalrymen tachanok with machine guns and finished it with several hundred riders and 25 Tachanka.

Simultaneously M. Frunze ordered to surround Gulyaypole where concentrated main rebel forces led by N. Makhno. But Makhno's men, having beautiful cavalry formation, burst through the circle and connected  the remnants of the Crimean group. A month Makhno's men again become  formidable force. The Soviet government thrown against them many troops, but completely break Makhno, who owned the perfect tactic guerrilla war, was not easy. This struggle existed for almost a year  and only in September 1921 N. Makhno with a small group of his assistants left the Ukraine and went in exile.

Thus, the defeat vranhelivtsiv Makhno and throughout Ukraine is left forces that would resist Soviet power.

M. Frunze tank, captured in vranhelivtsiv

2. Rebel movements and the defeat of the Ukrainian liberation movement.

  1. How would you characterized the socio-political situation of Ukraine in the early 20 st century?
  2. Explain.
  3. What occupied the position of power?
  4. What political forces opposed to it?
  5. When and why began the second winter in the course of the UNR army? Why he was defeated?

Socio-economic crisis that engulfed the republic in the early 20's years was a serious threat to the Bolsheviks. The authorities made an attempt solve the food issue by prodrozkladky. Requisition bread in farmers carried out involving troops. But it was a risky way as the Red Army consisted of 77% of farmers. In addition, this policy questioned all previous achievements of the Communists.

In response to the violent tactics of the state, peasants again come from the scabbard. In Ukraine launched an active partisan  struggle of peasants, dissatisfied with the Soviets. In early 1921 in part of the rebel groups there were about 40 thousand people. In February of the same in Ukraine there were 118 revolts. Rebel movement were Areas covered skirts, Kyiv, Poltava and Katerinoslavshchina. Against  "War Communism" and by the workers. The enterprises of Kharkov Kyiv, Odessa and other cities erupted in strikes, with both economic slogans were political - Anti-Bolshevik orientation. In the South, and Left Bank of the rebels were under anarcho-communist slogans, encouraging the population to support the council, but without the Communists. In the rest Ukrainian territory struggle unfolding in nationalist flags.

However, during the years of revolution and civil war group formed lumpen elements of towns and villages that have been to lower political instability and armed struggle against any government, has become their form of existence. Further open confrontation in Ukraine, more acquired nature mutual.  After signing the Riga Peace forces UNR, who find themselves in Poland, by order of J. Pilsudski were interned in special camps. But Ukrainian soldiers do not fall into despair, they secretly Polish authorities created groups of volunteers who made Resistance Army. They hoped to attach to it, all anti-Soviet forces in Ukraine.

In October 1921 Rebel army leadership developed the plan help Partisan movement in Ukraine. It came to my mind the idea of Second Winter campaign, which was a strategic objective of raising popular uprising and overthrow the Bolshevik regime in Ukraine.

The second winter campaign started in November 1921 Pens Insurgent Army crossed the Polish-Ukrainian border and walked with fought on the Bolshevik tylah. But the expected result of this action is not given. Ukrainian peasants were tired of the endless struggle different political regimes and was unable to organized long struggle. Rebel army itself is inferior to Soviet the number of troops, weapons and equipment. End November rebel troops were defeated by the Bolsheviks in Zhytomyr and only a small group led by Yu Tyutyunykom lucky break on Poland. Ukrainian soldiers tried to organize new raids in Ukraine, but after a protest of the Soviet government leadership Polish ordered the insurgents to minimize such actions.

General Yu Tyutyunnik

Thus, the national liberation movement in Ukraine ended in defeat. Most of the Ukrainian lands was established Soviet power. Battles in Ukraine, which lasted almost without interruption from mid-1914  was finally stopped.

3. Lessons and Consequences of states

  1. What political forces struggled for power in Ukraine in 1917-1921?
  2. How they treated the solution of the Ukrainian question?
  3. What public education operating in the Ukrainian lands during this period?
  4. What were their social support program and socio-economic and political transformation?
  5. What are the reasons for the defeat of Ukrainian national liberation movement?

Fighting for Ukraine's independence was a logical extension national-democratic revolution, the purpose, which was the formation of independent and democratic Ukraine to build a just socio-economic order.

At positions gradually gaining national independence was Ukrainian Central Council, reciting viddzerkalyuvalosya its universals.  However, the inability of the Central Council to master the situation and achieve required level of state and economic development, fighting Ukrainian Bolsheviks, Soviet Russia, Increasing threat transformation of Ukraine to the German Governor-general, and in fact to colony, has pushed for consolidation and enhancement of non-socialist forces, whose leader was an honorary chieftain Free Cossacks General P. Skoropadskyi.

He and his supporters kept the idea of

The main pillar of the Hetman regime were the landowners, the bourgeoisie and old bureaucracy, largely Russified, they primarily interested in stability and the norm of life and national ideas are especially  not cared. The German defeat in the war has deprived the Ukrainian State supports. One-sided orientation to the propertied classes, the need to satisfy appetites  Austro-German invaders led to the following socio-economic policy Hetman's government, which led not to the consolidation of society, and to deepening the split in society and the formation of the opposition, which is quite quickly moved into action. So there and acted Directory UNR that imagine an independence-political force.

However, the opposition bloc, united in the Directory consisted of political groups that had different interests, priorities and orientation. In part this is what explains these significant shortcomings Directory, unclear as software installations, contradictory and short-sighted domestic policy. In addition, the lack of clear terms of the Agricultural reform and a weak administrative apparatus for its implementation strengthen social tension and insecurity. Not promoted consolidation of society and the arrests and indiscriminate closure formed by Hetman institutions ban use of Russian and deprivation virtually the entire intelligentsia of political rights. These ill-considered steps Directory support deprived peasants and minority aid qualified staff. Its power substantially weakened and no explicit state model. In this role, then claimed three significantly different forms of social organization, parliamentary republic, Republic councils and military dictatorship. Over the years, Singapore somehow approbated each model, but by realities, leading tendency was to strengthen the right-wing drift of the process and nation toward military dictatorship, which places gradually turned into Otamanschina. It crashed within the Directory.

A disruption contributed and personal opposition leaders lack of unanimity on the priorities and political  orientation. Thus, if Mr. Vinnichenko and his supporters defended "Soviet platform, supported the alliance with Bolshevik Russia against Entente and priority social issues, then, Petliura with his cronies inclined to rapprochement with the Entente, and the primary task of strengthening the independence of the country considered by strengthening the army and  its administration. In addition to these factors, her further collapse of the significant role played by lack of financial support and armament, insufficient funding, poor sanitary condition (Autumnal fever epidemic in 1919 reduced the personal army of 3 / 4).

A series of diplomatic steps (of the Act and the reunification of the UPR West Ukrainian National Republic (ZUNR) into a single unified state, attempts to establish contacts with the Entente, signed in April 1920 military and political convention between the governments of Poland and UPR) Directory attempted to withdraw the state from political isolation, to find a means strengthening their diplomatic, financial and military positions. But these steps were unsuccessful. Act of reunification was largely formal, Ukraine existed between the two major differences, and led to the conclusion that Petliura agreement with the Polish Government, in accordance with which he refused to western regions (one month before this, to November 1919, Galician General Tarnavsky for further struggle with Poland turned their militias under Command white). Finally, to negotiate with the Entente directory and not  failed because Western politicians bet on recovery The one and indivisible, and therefore in support of the Voluntary Army. Proved ineffective and the union with Poland, as during the Soviet-Polish War does not restore power to the UPR in Ukrainian lands.

Rejected the idea of

Thus, the struggle for independence in a brutal internal intestine wars, bloody civil war between the Ukrainian, ended in defeat in the struggle with external forces. However, this struggle  was of great historical significance.

Let us turn to sources

Ukrainian historian N.Polonska Vasilenko-historic era of struggle for liberation (1917, 1921).

This fight has captured only four years (1917-1921), but these years vyoraly deep line between the previous and following years. They lifted  national consciousness of the people, strengthened unity, the desire statehood, the desire to have "in his house and his righteousness will. Very much  blood shed Ukrainian people, hundreds of thousands of victims of its best sons he offered to make the dream of freedom. Surrounded by enemies he had support, had an accomplice in this titanic struggle. But the last has not been possible. The struggle for the liberation of Ukraine has made in history not only Ukraine but also in European history new: it is - a large women's participation in the regular army. Women were going to fight conventional soldiers, nurses, liaison with men transferred cold and hunger, long passages, against the night sky, wounds, disease. Death threatened them at every turn. But these are not frightened of women. Many of them pidneslosya to the rank of petty officers and wrote his name in list of heroes. This women shows how great the people's business was the Liberation War.

What does the opinion of the historian was the struggle for liberation day? How  Vasilenko sees N.Polonska-a major cause of failure in Ukrainian  fight for independence? Do you agree with her point of view? Why? That according to a new document introduced by the struggle for liberation of Ukraine  European history?

  1. How and when turned Wrangel army offensive?
  2. When and how vranhelivtsiv troops were defeated?
  3. As there was terror against the population of Crimea?
  4. Under what circumstances Ukrainian troops finally stopped the fight?
  5. How were finally broken formation Makhno?
  6. What are the government formation process took place in Ukraine during 1917-1921 years?
  7. What is their historical significance?
  8. Have Petliura other opportunities to continue the struggle for Ukraine's independence? Explain.
  9. What were you think the main reason the defeat of national liberation struggle of Ukrainian people?
  10. Why White Guards were unable to establish power in Ukraine, despite the initial advantage in military power?
  11. Do you think why the Bolsheviks managed to obtain military victory during the civil war, despite the lack of weapons, military experience, food, etc.?
  12. Can you distinguish between the concept of national liberation war Ukrainian people and the civil war in Ukraine? Give them their own definition.
  13. Make a political portrait Petliura, given recent events period of national liberation. Do you think that he did significant contribution to the struggle for national statehood in Ukraine Of 1917-1921? Explain your opinion.
  14. Do you think that after the signing of the Riga peace Ukrainian soldiers have not stopped the fight?
  15. What are the lessons and consequences of states of 1917-1921?