Theme 25. ACTIVITY Bolsheviks in the cultural sector.
People's Commissariat of Education, "the only school of labor, workers' faculties, People's Commissariat of Agitation and Propaganda
February 1919, January 1919, August, 1919, 1919-1920, 1920
1. Education Policy of the Soviet government. The attitude of the Bolsheviks to the cultural and educational organizations.
After the Soviet authorities began the so-called socialist transformation in all spheres of Ukrainian society. Did not pass over they and culture. The regime was well aware that culture can become important factor in continued political struggle. The Soviet government considered it appropriate to disseminate the achievements of human culture, but providing them with ideological coloring.
In 1919 a large part of Ukrainian lands were set Soviet power. Educational case led People's Commissariat of Education. Its main activity was focused on school transformation institutions of various types, including private schools and high schools in standardized state institution with a seven-year study - the one labor school, which was popular in Soviet Russia. Training in such school proclaimed in two stages: first - covering children aged from 8 to 13 years (four classes), second - from 14 to 17 years (three classes). Special emphasis was made on the nature of employment training and educational process, combined with productive labor training. After seven years children could continue studying in vocational schools and colleges.
Let us turn to sources
With the declaration of the Provisional Workers 'and Peasants' Government of Ukraine "On the problem of Soviet power in education" January 26, 1919
... So how Enlightenment mass yavlyaetsya one of the first conditions osoznanyya эtymy masses svoyh klassovыh revolyutsyonnыh problems so Vremennoe a job-krestyanskoe government udelyt Most sereznoe organization and attention Barenblat vneshkolnoho education. Create edynoy Employment schools, opening wider access to University and of special education and krestyanskym working masses, the organization narodnыh unyversytetov - Here in suschestvennыh devilry pedahohycheskaya Programme Provisional Government. Gas. Proceedings of a job temporarily, krestyanskoho Government of Ukraine. - 1919. - 26 January.Who is the author of a document? Can we trust him? What is the text of the value of educating the masses? What are the major activities planned Soviets? How do they characterize her politics?
With resolution of USSR People's Commissariat of Education on High School ".1 February 1919
People's Commissariat of Education of Ukraine decided:
But a year later the position of the Secretariat of Education has changed. Given the financial difficulties of most Ukrainian families providing training and education of children, and a lot of homeless, educational leadership proposed to reorganize School First Degree, putting her in a children's home base, which child was not only under constant supervision but also becomes subject to influence the educational system based on communist ideology. School were replaced with second-degree vocational education, where Teens involved in the real process of production and had produced experts with the required state workers 'and peasants' occupations. Compared with 1917, the number of pupils in secondary schools increased from 1.7 to 2,25 million people. At the end of 1920 in Ukraine there were 21.9 thousand schools. Almost half of school education was Ukrainian.
Let us turn to sources
From the decree of the Central Executive Committee of all applications in institutions along with the Ukrainian language of Great (1920)
Throughout the Ukrainian SSR, in all civil and military institutions should apply equally to the Ukrainian language of Great. No preference velykoruskiy language is unacceptable. All institutions, both civilian and military, must accept the application and other cases as velykoruskiy and Ukrainian languages, and refusal or evasion from receiving wine for all prytyahatymutsya extent of the military-revolutionary laws.
RNA 3 of the regulation of the Ukrainian language in schools and Soviet Institutions (1920)
Council of People's Commissars decrees:
Significant changes have occurred with the arrival of the Bolsheviks and in high school.
Let us turn to sources
RNA Ukraine Decree "On entry into high school"
High School Doors open to all wishing to obtain higher education.
President of People's Commissars of Ukraine Rakovski. People's Commissar of Education V. Zatonsky.What are the main provisions of the document? On the changes in higher education he suggests? What should be do you think the impact of these changes for Ukrainian culture?
In March 1919, USSR People's Commissariat of Education began democratization of higher education. It mainly consisted of elimination of institutional autonomy and fixing them commissioners. However, limited scientific credentials faculty councils they began to form half of the students. Moreover, the Bolsheviks took a course on the Elimination of universities as centers of bourgeois sentiment in society. On the basis of university faculties started: institutions - industry education institutions of public education, which had to prepare teachers for schools. To prepare the working and peasant youth to higher education in 1920, workers' faculties were opened (Robfaky). Only in 1920 in Ukraine was opened in 1920 institutions, 48 about hundreds of colleges and courses pedagogical profile. At the end of 1920 Ukraine had 13 robfakiv, 38 universities, which trained over 57 thousand students and trainees, which is several times larger than pre-revolutionary number of students. This year it was released only 3 thousand professionals with higher education.
Let us turn to sources
Decree of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR "On the abolition of tuition fees in schools. March 4, 1919
Fees for all types of schools canceled regardless of department, wherein they are.
Soviet power, like all public education, acting in Ukraine 1918-1921 he wanted to use in their own interest tremendous drive to mass culture. Ideological culture began with the creation in February 1919 People's Commissariat of agitation and propaganda in Ukrainian Soviet government. He began regular production of Soviet periodicals publications. Newspapers and magazines were published in Russian and Ukrainian languages. The total number of printed propaganda in 1920 production exceeded 18.5 million. The "bourgeois" newspaper closed.
The Bolsheviks sought to put the "Enlightenment" under control, converting them into an instrument of communist education. However rebuild activities "gap" failed and the Bolsheviks in 1921 went to their destruction. During the Civil War the Bolsheviks created their own system cultural and educational institutions by the end of 1920 there were It is about 15 thousand were: clubs, people's houses, libraries and more. In July 1920 was approved by the provision of house-reading as a base Educational work item in the villages.
In 1920 was established Republican Committee to Combat illiteracy, headed by chairman AUCEC G. Petrovsky. Together with her People's Commissariat of Education received the right to engage in learning illiterate labor obligations on the basis of all literate citizens rid of the military mobilization. Currently in Ukraine there were 7 thousand evening schools and clubs, which studied more than 200 thousand people between the ages of 8 to 50 years. The results were announced elimination of illiteracy demographic census of 1920 If a revolution among residents Ukraine literate there were 27,9%, the end of 1920 - 51,9%.
Thus, during the liberation struggle in Ukraine was carried out active process of national education system. The policy of different governments contributed to the development of this process, but each of them tried transform it in their ideological principles and its subordinate own interests.
2. Impact of Soviet Ukrainian government at the state of science
Political instability, constant change of power and lack of funds not given opportunities to deploy full-scale activities of the Academy. In February 1919 with the establishment of Soviet power in Kiev, President Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Vernadsky and Secretary of the Academy A. Crimean appealed to the National Commissioner of Education V. Zatonsky with the petition allocation of space for the Academy and the provision of material and financial assistance. Order the new government is a large request largely been satisfied. Academy received one of the best houses on the street. Vladimir - Homestead Boarding Levashov Countess (now this building housed the Presidium of the National Academy of Sciences).
UAS was divided into three divisions. At the head of the department first stood D. Bagaley, S. Wilkens, A. Crimea. The object of his research department was spiritual life and culture of Ukrainian people. In the second section of the UAS institutions focused physics and mathematics and the natural profile. Third Division Wye had socio-economic profile of research.
The most productive work at this time those departments which were not associated with high material costs of the research work, particular historical philology, which was the subject of studies spiritual life and culture of Ukrainian people. In 1919-1920 he was the Academy of Sciences developed "Latest Ukrainian spelling rules. In addition, it was established academic publication of T. Shevchenko and Ivan Franko unfolded active preparation for the publication of dictionaries. Effectively worked at Wye commission to study the natural resources of Ukraine, which headed by V. Vernadsky.
However, while supporting scientists, the Soviet authorities began to some scientists political repression. In particular, academic arrested Efremova disenfranchised V. Kosynsky, individual scientists, unwilling to give up his political views were forced to emigrate.
3. Cultural ideolohicheyy influence of the Bolsheviks in art and religious life
Bolshevik rise to power reflected in the theatrical field nationalization, renaming and closure of "ideological enemy" institutions. In August 1919, the government turned to the USSR state all the best theaters.
Let us turn to sources
Resolution Temporary worker-peasant Government of Ukraine on January 18, 1919 "On the transfer of all teatrov s kynematohrafov in maintenance of the department of Enlightenment "
Spring 1919 Drama and opera "The Young Theatre in Kiev" have been combined in the first theater of the Ukrainian Soviet Republic named. Shevchenko. One of the best performances of the combined group was Instsenizatsiya poem great poet "Gajdamaki" (author and director Les staging Kurbas). The stage of this theater rose such prominent Ukrainian artists as A. Petrytsky artist, actors George H., V. Chistyakov, V. Vasylko, O. Vatulya, AP Samoilenko, P. Valley, and others.
In January 1920, in the winery was founded in New Drama Theater. Franko, headed by George Ignat. Later he moved to this theater Kyiv has become one of the leading in Ukraine.
The Bolsheviks attached great importance monumental propaganda. That revolutionary idea in monumental propaganda found a way to drain and hearts, it is often linked to national traditions. In May 1919 Soviet government of Ukraine adopted the decree "On the demolition of squares and street monuments built for kings and king myrmidon.
Let us turn to sources
Decree of the USSR RNA May 7, 1919 "On the demolition of streets and squares, monuments, built by kings and king myrmidon"
Most were issued editions in Ukraine, K. Marx and monuments Shevchenko. Instead of highly monuments crowned party started Massively opened monuments outstanding revolutionaries. The vast The majority of these buildings had no artistic value. They were required the new government as an ideological symbol.
In January 1919 when the People's Commissariat of Education was established SSR Ukrainian National Committee of cinema. He took under strict control of manufacturing and rent movies kinoaparaturu, stocks of imported fabric.
The Bolsheviks unsympathetic to religion. Party members forbidden believe in God. People's Commissariat of agitation and propaganda, together with People's Commissariat of Education launched in the press and in schools atheistic propaganda hawkish, treating religion as a way maintenance of the oppressed under the rule of the exploiters. To save population from the influence of religion separated the Bolsheviks from the church States and school. Soviet authorities launched reprisals against the clergy that denied its legitimacy. At the same time, realizing that most population are believers, the government proclaimed the freedom of conscience.