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Theme 25. ACTIVITY Bolsheviks in the cultural sector. (textbook)

Theme 25. ACTIVITY Bolsheviks in the cultural sector.

  1. Education Policy of the Soviet government. The attitude of the Bolsheviks to the cultural and educational organizations.
  2. Impact of Soviet Ukrainian government at the state of science
  3. Cultural and ideological influence of the Bolsheviks in art and religious life.
  • Basic terms and concepts of the theme

People's Commissariat of Education, "the only school of labor, workers' faculties, People's Commissariat of Agitation and Propaganda

  • Key dates

February 1919, January 1919, August, 1919, 1919-1920, 1920

  1. What was the activity of the Ukrainian Government in education?
  2. What was the activity of the Ukrainian government in the arts?
  3. What was the attitude of Ukrainian governments to religious life?

1. Education Policy of the Soviet government. The attitude of the Bolsheviks to the cultural and educational organizations.

  1. What was the policy of the Soviet government in education?
  2. What was the attitude to the Soviet cultural and educational activities of NGOs?
  3. Why?

After the Soviet authorities began the so-called socialist transformation in all spheres of Ukrainian society. Did not pass over they and culture. The regime was well aware that culture can become important factor in continued political struggle. The Soviet government  considered it appropriate to disseminate the achievements of human culture, but providing them with ideological coloring.

In 1919 a large part of Ukrainian lands were set Soviet power. Educational case led People's Commissariat of Education. Its main activity was focused on school transformation institutions of various types, including private schools and high schools in standardized state institution with a seven-year study - the one labor school, which was popular in Soviet Russia. Training in such school proclaimed in two stages: first - covering children aged from 8 to 13 years (four classes), second - from 14 to 17 years (three classes). Special emphasis was made on the nature of employment training and educational process, combined with productive labor training. After seven years children could continue studying in vocational schools and  colleges.

Let us turn to sources

With the declaration of the Provisional Workers 'and Peasants' Government of Ukraine "On the problem of Soviet power in education" January 26, 1919

... So how Enlightenment mass yavlyaetsya one of the first conditions osoznanyya эtymy masses svoyh klassovыh revolyutsyonnыh problems so Vremennoe a job-krestyanskoe government udelyt Most sereznoe organization and attention Barenblat vneshkolnoho education. Create edynoy Employment schools, opening wider access to University and of special education and krestyanskym working masses, the organization narodnыh unyversytetov - Here in suschestvennыh devilry pedahohycheskaya Programme Provisional Government. Gas. Proceedings of a job temporarily, krestyanskoho Government of Ukraine. - 1919. - 26 January.

Who is the author of a document? Can we trust him? What is the text  of the value of educating the masses? What are the major activities planned Soviets? How do they characterize her politics?

With resolution of USSR People's Commissariat of Education on High School ".1 February 1919

People's Commissariat of Education of Ukraine decided:

    1. All domestic life ... within the terms central and local government secondary schools of all types transferred to the authority of pedagogical councils, representatives from reloaded upper classes - the number of students 1 / 3 (part), teachers, 2 representatives from the lower servants ...
    2. Students granted full right to set different student organizations ...

    1. As directors, officers, Headmistress, and heads inspektrys kasuyutsya.
    2. Instead, set the post of chairman of pedagogical council, Comrade Chairman and Secretary ...

    1. In all educational institutions kasuyutsya transitional and final exams. ,
    2. Abolished as issuing certification.
    3. Instead of certification issued certificate course for a hearing, the school.
    4. Consumption Scoring system to assess knowledge and behavior of students is abolished ...
    5. The course considered the eighth grade to complete and release in the coming days by issuing certificates to students prosluhannya rate of school: Seventh grade in school year scrolling consider leaving.
    6. Abolished compulsory study of Latin ...
What are the basic steps required documents? Can we consider them  teaching? Why are they offered? To what do you think could bring them consistently implemented? Explain.

But a year later the position of the Secretariat of Education has changed. Given the financial difficulties of most Ukrainian families providing training and education of children, and a lot of homeless, educational leadership proposed to reorganize School First Degree, putting her in a children's home base, which child was not only under constant supervision but also becomes subject to influence the educational system based on communist ideology. School were replaced with second-degree vocational education, where  Teens involved in the real process of production and had produced  experts with the required state workers 'and peasants' occupations. Compared with 1917, the number of pupils in secondary schools increased from 1.7 to 2,25 million people. At the end of 1920 in Ukraine there were 21.9 thousand schools. Almost half of school education was Ukrainian.

Let us turn to sources

From the decree of the Central Executive Committee of all applications in institutions along with the Ukrainian language of Great (1920)

Throughout the Ukrainian SSR, in all civil and military institutions should apply equally to the Ukrainian language of Great. No preference velykoruskiy language is unacceptable. All institutions, both civilian and military, must accept the application and other cases as velykoruskiy and Ukrainian languages, and refusal or evasion from receiving wine for all prytyahatymutsya extent of the military-revolutionary laws.

RNA 3 of the regulation of the Ukrainian language in schools and Soviet Institutions (1920)

Council of People's Commissars decrees:             

  1. Instruct the Commissariat urgently develop a plan general educational development and educational institutions at all levels and discharges  Ukrainian language teaching.
  2. Immediately obligatory study of the Ukrainian language in all training and educational institutions of the Ukrainian language teaching.
  3. Ask the responsibility of the State publishing house to take care of the publication, in agreement with the Commissariat, sufficient  number of books in Ukrainian, as well as art and Literature and other editions.
  4. Narkomprodovi Narkomzemu and its popular literature and propaganda issue mostly Ukrainian.
  5. Set executive committees have the responsibility of each provincial city of no less than a Ukrainian newspaper.
  6. Commissariat through its local authorities immediately arrange for all provincial and district towns for evening school teaching Ukrainian Soviet officials.
  7. Ask the responsibility of all Soviet institutions care about attracting employees who know the Ukrainian language and it can satisfy the population.
What is it about the document? Are these supposed documents transformation of the Ukrainian language is not a single state? Explain your opinion relying on the provision of historical sources? What do you think was the purpose of  these decisions?

Significant changes have occurred with the arrival of the Bolsheviks and in high school.

Let us turn to sources

RNA Ukraine Decree "On entry into high school"

High School Doors open to all wishing to obtain higher education.         
According to this:         

  1. During the introduction to high school may not require diplomas.
  2. Do not require anything to be identity, but identity and age.
  3. In all high schools adopted individuals regardless of gender, in 16 years.

President of People's Commissars of Ukraine Rakovski. People's Commissar of Education V. Zatonsky.

What are the main provisions of the document? On the changes in higher education he suggests? What should be do you think the impact of these changes for Ukrainian culture?

In March 1919, USSR People's Commissariat of Education began democratization of higher education. It mainly consisted of  elimination of institutional autonomy and fixing them commissioners. However, limited scientific credentials faculty councils  they began to form half of the students. Moreover, the Bolsheviks  took a course on the Elimination of universities as centers of bourgeois sentiment  in society. On the basis of university faculties started: institutions - industry education institutions of public education, which had to prepare teachers for schools. To prepare the working and peasant youth to higher education in 1920, workers' faculties were opened (Robfaky). Only in 1920 in Ukraine was opened in 1920 institutions, 48 about hundreds of colleges and courses pedagogical profile. At the end of 1920  Ukraine had 13 robfakiv, 38 universities, which trained over 57 thousand students and trainees, which is several times larger than pre-revolutionary number of students. This year it was released only 3 thousand professionals  with higher education.

Let us turn to sources

Decree of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR "On the abolition of tuition fees in schools. March 4, 1919

Fees for all types of schools canceled regardless of department, wherein they are.
For schools of all types, except the highest, this ordinance shall take effect on September 1, 1919
For high schools - from March 1919

What is it about the document? What opportunities and who provided such a policy of Soviet power in education?

Soviet power, like all public education, acting in Ukraine 1918-1921 he wanted to use in their own interest tremendous drive to mass culture. Ideological culture began with the creation in February 1919 People's Commissariat of agitation and propaganda in Ukrainian Soviet government. He began regular production of Soviet periodicals publications. Newspapers and magazines were published in Russian and Ukrainian languages. The total number of printed propaganda in 1920 production exceeded 18.5 million. The "bourgeois" newspaper closed.

The Bolsheviks sought to put the "Enlightenment" under control, converting them into an instrument of communist education. However rebuild  activities "gap" failed and the Bolsheviks in 1921 went to their destruction. During the Civil War the Bolsheviks created their own system cultural and educational institutions by the end of 1920 there were It is about 15 thousand were: clubs, people's houses, libraries and more. In July 1920 was approved by the provision of house-reading as a base Educational work item in the villages.

In 1920 was established Republican Committee to Combat illiteracy, headed by chairman AUCEC G. Petrovsky. Together with her People's Commissariat of Education received the right to engage in learning illiterate labor obligations on the basis of all literate citizens  rid of the military mobilization. Currently in Ukraine there were 7 thousand evening schools and clubs, which studied more than 200 thousand people between the ages of 8 to 50 years. The results were announced elimination of illiteracy demographic census of 1920 If a revolution among residents Ukraine literate there were 27,9%, the end of 1920 - 51,9%.

Thus, during the liberation struggle in Ukraine was carried out active process of national education system. The policy of different governments contributed to the development of this process, but each of them tried transform it in their ideological principles and its subordinate  own interests.

2. Impact of Soviet Ukrainian government at the state of science

  1. As the Soviets treated the development of science and scientists?
  2. What science evolved?
  3. Why?

Political instability, constant change of power and lack of funds not given opportunities to deploy full-scale activities of the Academy. In February 1919 with the establishment of Soviet power in Kiev, President Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Vernadsky and Secretary of the Academy A. Crimean  appealed to the National Commissioner of Education V. Zatonsky with the petition  allocation of space for the Academy and the provision of material and financial assistance. Order the new government is a large request largely been satisfied. Academy received one of the best houses on the street. Vladimir - Homestead Boarding Levashov Countess (now this building housed the Presidium of the National Academy of Sciences).

UAS was divided into three divisions. At the head of the department first stood D. Bagaley, S. Wilkens, A. Crimea. The object of his research department was spiritual life and culture of Ukrainian people. In the second section of the UAS institutions focused physics and mathematics and the natural profile. Third Division Wye had socio-economic profile of research.

The most productive work at this time those departments which were not associated with high material costs of the research work, particular historical philology, which was the subject of studies spiritual life and culture of Ukrainian people. In 1919-1920 he was the Academy of Sciences developed "Latest Ukrainian spelling rules. In addition, it was established academic publication of T. Shevchenko and Ivan Franko unfolded active preparation for the publication of dictionaries. Effectively worked at Wye commission to study the natural resources of Ukraine, which headed by V. Vernadsky.

However, while supporting scientists, the Soviet authorities began to some scientists political repression. In particular, academic arrested Efremova disenfranchised V. Kosynsky, individual scientists,  unwilling to give up his political views were forced to emigrate.

3. Cultural ideolohicheyy influence of the Bolsheviks in art and religious life

  1. What was the cultural and ideological influence on the development of Soviet art? Why?
  2. As the Bolsheviks were treated to a religious life? Why?

Bolshevik rise to power reflected in the theatrical field nationalization, renaming and closure of "ideological enemy" institutions. In August 1919, the government turned to the USSR state all the best theaters.

Let us turn to sources

Resolution Temporary worker-peasant Government of Ukraine on January 18, 1919 "On the transfer of all teatrov s kynematohrafov in maintenance of the department of Enlightenment "

  1. All theaters and kynematohrafы convey in maintenance of the department of Enlightenment.
  2. Entrust responsibilities to develop a Division of Enlightenment Instruction to local council at theaters and order zavedovanyya cinematography.
Do you think why the Soviets were required state cultural institutions? As it reflects the general trend of cultural transformation of Soviet power?

Spring 1919 Drama and opera "The Young Theatre in Kiev" have been combined in the first theater of the Ukrainian Soviet Republic named. Shevchenko.  One of the best performances of the combined group was Instsenizatsiya poem great poet "Gajdamaki" (author and director Les staging Kurbas). The stage of this theater rose such prominent Ukrainian artists as  A. Petrytsky artist, actors George H., V. Chistyakov, V. Vasylko, O. Vatulya,  AP Samoilenko, P. Valley, and others.

In January 1920, in the winery was founded in New Drama Theater. Franko, headed by George Ignat. Later he moved to this theater Kyiv has become one of the leading in Ukraine.

The Bolsheviks attached great importance monumental propaganda. That revolutionary idea in monumental propaganda found a way to drain and hearts, it is often linked to national traditions. In May 1919  Soviet government of Ukraine adopted the decree "On the demolition of squares and street monuments built for kings and king myrmidon.

Let us turn to sources

Decree of the USSR RNA May 7, 1919 "On the demolition of streets and squares, monuments, built by kings and king myrmidon"

  1. Pam'yachnyky, built for kings and royal sycophant, not  is no historical value, with no artistic side, communicate with squares and streets and partly transferred to the museum vault and partly  utilized.
  2. Ukrainian Committee of monuments of art and antiquities nakazuyetsya implement this decree.
Why did the Soviet government issued this document? How justified was the destruction of monuments? To what consequences this has lead?

Most were issued editions in Ukraine, K. Marx and monuments Shevchenko. Instead of highly monuments crowned party started  Massively opened monuments outstanding revolutionaries. The vast The majority of these buildings had no artistic value. They were required the new government as an ideological symbol.

In January 1919 when the People's Commissariat of Education was established SSR Ukrainian National Committee of cinema. He took under strict control of manufacturing and  rent movies kinoaparaturu, stocks of imported fabric.

The Bolsheviks unsympathetic to religion. Party members forbidden believe in God. People's Commissariat of agitation and propaganda, together with People's Commissariat of Education launched in the press and in schools  atheistic propaganda hawkish, treating religion as a way maintenance of the oppressed under the rule of the exploiters. To save  population from the influence of religion separated the Bolsheviks from the church States and school. Soviet authorities launched reprisals against the clergy that denied its legitimacy. At the same time, realizing that most population are believers, the government proclaimed the freedom of conscience.

  1. What are the trends of culture were the main policies in the Soviet power in Ukraine?
  2. What was the purpose of national culture policy of the Bolsheviks?
  3. What characterized the development of higher education and science in the early years of the USSR?
  4. What are the relations between the Soviets and the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences? Why? Which of her personalities you know?
  5. What areas of research were key in this period?
  6. What events were typical for the development of literature and art? What does the Ukrainian Soviet government decided in culture?
  7. How do you think has contributed to the activities of the Bolshevik Ukrainian culture, why? Explain your opinion.