§ 14 Culture and Spiritual LIFE IN UKRAINE
1. Ideological and cultural life. Course on "convergence and merging of nations." Strengthening of Russification.
Inning Khrushchev characterized not only democratization and liberalization, but also tangible consistent ideological social and cultural life of Soviet people.
A striking manifestation of this was celebration in 1954 300 years Pereiaslav Council. To celebrate the anniversary has been published in the press approved by the Central Committee "Abstracts of the 300 anniversary of the reunification of Ukraine and Russia (1654-1954 biennium)" – This party document stressed that ця historical event "is ... a great event not only Ukrainian and Russian peoples, but also all peoples Soviet Union. " In "Abstracts" was officially formulated the concept of historical development of Ukraine and set its prospects. An important factor and key future development of the Ukrainian people was considered especially strong Union, mutual assistance and friendship with the "fraternal Russian people."
The next step in the theoretical convergence study, and eventually merge into one nation of the USSR became XXII Congress of the Communist Party, which adopted a new party program.
Among actively propagandized in the Program prospects of development of communist society and was the thesis of gradual and steady abrasion in the USSR national differences especially language. However, the program noted that this process will be long and will end it at the next stage of development national relations in the USSR, which characterized further "Rapprochement nations and the achievement of their full unity. "
Accelerator party on course convergence and merging of nations was the policy Russification which then became emergency activation.
Terms and Notions
Russification - A set of actions and activities of Russian Tsars, and later the Soviet Union's leadership in the fringes of national and non-Russian republics of the USSR, aimed at narrowing humiliation or vidsunennya secondary role in national languages, culture, history while the nomination for leader of the Russian language, culture and history. In 60-80's held the party and state leadership of the Soviet Union in form of active promotion and implementation of the idea of rapprochement and fusion of nations in the USSR in total disregard of the needs of developing nations and non-Russian nationalities Soviet national republics.
Its concrete manifestations are educational reform Khrushchev that conducted late 50's. In 1958 around school reform media launched an active debate on the principles and of her conduct.
Increased interest in Ukrainian aroused public, especially the language problem. The draft reform proposed to give parents of students the right to choose the language you will study at the school their children. Clearly, getting this opportunity, the vast Most parents in the future to help their children progress through stages official career, was elected in schools in large cities. typically Russian teaching.
Thus, although the school reform project and was, at first sight, quite democratically, but actually facilitated the process of Russification education system, resulting status of the Ukrainian cities of Ukraine secondariness acquired.
It was so obvious that even some high-level representatives of the then Ukrainian authorities had to say during the discussion of the reforms that the Ukrainian language should remain mandatory study in Russian language schools.
In December 1958 in the newspaper "Pravda" an article M. BaJean і Rylskyi"In the name of Man, in which authors have opposed actually optional teaching native language in schools in Ukraine. their initiative subsequently strongly supported by fees Kiev writers.
However, Nikita Khrushchev insisted that in Republican forHorses on the popular Education, adopted in April 1959, there were provisions fakultatyvnist Ukrainian languageat school. Promoters of this provision in schools of the republic was USSR Ministry of Education. It was from his pen came out order according to which the Russian language became compulsory for study, and the Ukrainian could explore at will. This latest "Valuev Circular" announced "a significant manifestation of internationalism.
However, such a language policy in subsequent years in the republic began steady reduction Ukrainian schools (in 1959-1965 he was their decreased by almost 2 thousand) and Conversely, increasing school Russian language teaching.
Such changes in the system Education posylyuvani Russification of Ukraine's population as a whole.
2. Science and Technology Revolution and Science in Ukraine
While the leading Western countries is far ahead of the USSR in terms of economic development, Nikita Khrushchev and his inner circle drew attention to the deployment of scientific and technical Revolution in the Soviet Union.
Scientists analyzing a dozen crucial areas of science and technology Progress came to sad conclusion that almost all of them, except one or two, the Soviet state concedes the West.
Therefore, this problem was considered in detail and in principle at the July (1955) CPSU Central Committee plenum, which, inter alia, stated that the Soviet Union is "At the dawn of a new scientific and technical and industrial revolution that far ahead in value to the industrial revolution, associated with the advent of steam and electricity ". Indeed, the contemporary Soviet economy only "Stood on the threshold" STC, while highly developed Western countries developed by its principles are already a decade.
After considering these Questions for the Central Committee plenum of the party leadership attitude to research markedly changed.
In particular, partaparat replenished by immigrants from the scientific community. Has spread to the direct and substantive communication party committees with scientists. Substantially increased the role of Academic Boards coordinating committees to identify specific areas of scientific research.
Significantly increased and budgetary spending on science. At the same time greatly increased the prestige and appraisal of work scientists. Scientists for the first time were able to travel in foreign travel, during which you can read the latest foreign scientific achievements.
Leading role in development of science in Ukraine Academy of Science has played its president from 1946 by 1962 was O. Palladin. and since 1962 Є.ПATON. Thanks to their talents and thoughtful leadership academy, a decade that passed since 1955, has become the most dynamic and effective in development of Ukrainian science.
Specifically, in 1957 within the USSR Academy of Sciences Computer Center was established, headed by young mathematician V. Glushkov. This new scientific branch investigated a number of important defense issues industry, working on computers for process control, developed the theory of high-speed computers. Here actively develop cybernetics, which so ruthlessly pursued during Josef Stalin. Computing Center 1962. was reorganized into the Institute of Cybernetics, USSR Academy of Sciences.
In 1953 created Paton Institute Electric was led by his son B. Paton. Under his management developed a number of new technologies of electric welding, which made the Soviet science at the leading position in the world in the field of welding equipment.
Great job Research spent nuclear Kharkiv Physical and Technical Institute on led І.Kurchatov. Subject scientific research of the Institute of Nuclear Physics were very high energies controlled thermonuclear reactions and others.
В Institute of Physics in 1960 created nuclear reactor. by through which conducted research study the atomic nucleus.
USSR developing effective recommendations for creation intercontinental missilesstudied the theory of structural strength plastics,that used in rocket technology. Ukrainian scientists have done a lot for Space development. They are directly involved in launching an artificial Sputnik in October, 1957 and the first flight into space man - Yuri Gagarin.
A significant contribution was Ukrainian scientists in the development of medicine. In the mid 50's led Amosov was initiated the development of new theoretical metoliv surgical treatment of heart diseases that once were implemented in practice.
The process of liberalization that latitude opened in the country during the tenure of Khrushchev, could not touch and humanities.
During this period the first time scientists have archival sources to investigate the Soviet era. Were established and subsequently printed and archival collections of content sources, began painstaking job creation and release of the first multi- "Ukrainian Soviet Encyclopedia. " Were based specialized magazines of humanities academics – "Ukrainian Historical Journal. "Soviet Law and Economics of Soviet Ukraine", "People art and ethnography.
Of course, party leaders, still carefully monitored to ensure that social scientists do not touch taboo topics and personalities, not criticized the activities of the Communist Party, and fought with the so-called «falmsyfikatoramy"," Ideological enemies " party.
Yet sometimes were not provided the party events. In particular, scientific conferences and cultural problems of the Ukrainian language (February 1963), attended by over 800 linguists actually turned to publicly condemn Language Policy CPSU and the Communist Party. Presenters and speakers from bitterness and pain of talking about humiliation native language in Ukraine, called for deliberately eliminate made on its path of obstacles and constraints.
3. Renewal Literature and Artsеtskoho Life
Russification policy pursued Soviet leadership under conditions of de-Stalinization and liberalization of public and social and political life, in turn, sparked protests and train to identityfrom the Ukrainian population.
As in the 20's, during this period again acutely the question of preserving the Ukrainian language and broadening its consumption. Ukrainian press began to print many letter writers, teachers, university lecturers, which included requirements to distribute their native language, fight for its culture, by all means to promote its beauty and sonority.
Among the first to protect the Ukrainian language writers have M. Rila, M. Bazhan, N. Rybak, S. Kryzhanivsky, M.Shumylo et al. Even the first secretary of the Communist Party Central Committee Ukraine П.Rustling started express the need and importance of preserving and fostering Ukrainian language.
Influence of "thaw" felt in the literary and artistic field. Spiritual portents revival was the publication in June of 1955, in "Literaturnaya newspaper " Article Dovzhenko "Art Painting and Modernity ". It has a prominent Ukrainian writer and film director, calling "to expand the creative boundaries of socialist realism", actually gave impetus to the artistic intelligentsia to free creative search.
The first to call the writers responded Dovzhenko That the new position of the "expanded interpretation of the method of socialist realism" were written but never published a poem at a time Executed immortality " and Mazepa V. Sosyuri. In the period of "thaw" was also created novel "Wild honey "L. Pervomaiskogo and "Whirlpool" G. Tutunik. The new colors shone work already famous artists Ukrainian poetic words – M. Preferred. Rylskyi. P. Tyczyn. By novel "Tronka Honchar was awarded Lenin Prize. From the pen М.Stelmakh out novels "Blood human – Vodice not "and" Bread and salt.
In full voice said about young writers В.Symonenko L. Kostenko, Mykola Rudenko. D. Pavlychko Vinhranovsky M., Y. Mushketyk, V. Shevchuk, Ivan Drach et al.
Among them was particularly noticeable figure Basil Dr.. Country boy from Poltava even during Training Faculty Journalism Kiev University showed talent in high civic poetry. She was penetrate his first poetry collection "Silence and Thunder" which was published in 1962 After the premature death of the poet in 1963 have his The book – "Wine of roses." "Force of gravity," Bank of expectations, filled true filial love for the motherland.
At that time there were flashes of bright, unique talent Lina Kostenko. Her first collection "Rays land " (1958) "Sails" (1959) "Journey of the heart" (1961) demonstrated the talent of the young poet to think philosophically and realities express original ideas, giving them a wonderful poetic form.
In the wake of fighting Stalinism and totalitarianism in Ukraine during the 60's and formed zhurtovuyetsya generation young Writers and artists – so-called "Sixties" (Members of the movement for renewal of Soviet society 60 years).
This young generation Ukrainian intellectuals protested against the hypocrisy, pomposity, ideology in the image of reality, suffocating atmosphere in society, struggled for the revival of native languages and culture, the rise of national identity and human dignity.
One of the first cells "Sixties" has become club Creative Youth in Kiev, which arose under the auspices of the Komsomol City Committee in 1960 His head Les Tanyuk, and the most active participants of the meeting was John Drach, M. Vinhranovsky, Svitlychny, Alla Caucasian et al. Work Club initially focused on the promotion of Ukrainian folk traditions and of various art groups. Then members of the club began looking for mass graves of victims of Stalinist repression.
Over time, movement "Sixties" began to gain national expressive tone. His members organized evenings memory Taras Shevchenko, Ivan Franko, Lesya Ukrainian, Kurbas. Officials called this meeting "Nationalist synagogue.
A similar direction was established in 1962 club "Snowdrop" in Lviv. It included Michael and Bohdan Horyn, and Irina Igor Kalynets, Michael CBS et al. Unlike Kiev, which gave advantage of a cultural sphere, youth have tried most lvovyane politicize their activitiestouching hazardous while national problems.
Limited processes de-Stalinization, inconsistent and incomplete democracy led to a new strengthening the fight against all forms of dissent.
According to the new political reality was developed new legal frameworkThat the expanded capabilities of authorities in conducting political repression. Party and state authorities began candid prosecutions, "the Sixties" in press, liberated them from work, forbidden to print their artistic and scientific work.
Death Dr. V. December 13, 1963 further exacerbated this struggle. Unpublished poetry and the poet's diary, speeches Ivan Dziuba. C Sverstiuk I. Svitlychny on honoring his memory continuously distributed in the manuscript. Harassment, which Mr.V.Symonenko suffered in the last period of his life, his sudden and mysterious death actually made him and his followers national martyrs surrounded by a halo of victimhood.
Hope Svetlichnaya. How zihnemosya not, do not bend / lift /
Apartments ... John Svitlychny and Ally Horska in Kiev were rallying centers nationally conscious creative powers. It was a creative youth club ... He played extremely important not only в life of the Sixties. This club laid the foundation, which survived в current time: live strength 60's and now in advanced areas of social and political life in Ukraine. Club made what could not be creative unions, joined by youth interests, one some section could rally liberal and technocrats, physicists and lyrics, artists and poets, Students і teachers. I still remember the art exhibitions Hanna Dog-Shostak and Anatolia PetrytskyEvenings, devoted Ivan Franko, Lesya Ukrainian, Lesevi Kurbas, rapidly-elevated poetical dialogues. I vcharuvalasya Alla Horska heroism ...
Not save Allin invitation Shevchenko last night: it consisted of harmonics on each page - the quote or title, the last two near arose inscription "In the family Freestyle, new ... "
Questions for document
Using document, define the main directions of the Ukrainian "Sixties."
5. Music art, painting, theater, architecture
The process of liberalization ii touched artistic life of the republic. Especially characteristic in this regard was the decision of the CPSU Central Committee, which has rejected previous frankly tendentious accusations of Opera В.Muradeli "The Great Friendship" and Ukrainian composers K. Dankevych Bogdan Khmelnitsky and Zhukovskyy "sincerely".
In a specially adopted resolution on this matter, in particular, noted that the deficiencies that occurred in the work of these artists not were "great ideological anomalies. They deserved this too severe sentence had been received in time "zhdanovschyny».
A similar decision taken and the CC Communist Party of Ukraine, which also were reviewed unfair assessment of creativity number of Ukrainian composers. But it simultaneously emphasized need to continue to lead a decisive struggle against numerary "Innovation", victim impacts "reactionary bourgeois art".
Despite such "party recommendations, creation of Composers of Ukraine, both the official and informal orientation becomes more fruitful and multifaceted. At this time Ukrainian musical art is enriched by new works S. Ludkevych, A.Kos-Anatolsky, brothers MaiborodaA.Shtogarenko. Immense popularity in Ukraine used the composers-songwriter A. Bilash, A.Filippenko, I.Shamo. Creative innovation marked by avant-garde music L. Grabowski, V. Silvestrov, V.Zagoruyeva.
In the visual arts as felt creative innovation and change. With museums, exhibitions, galleries were removed many canvases and sculptures dedicated to the "leader of all peoples" Josef Stalin.
Artists of Ukraine began to search for new forms Creativity, however, within the established limits of socialist realism.
In fine the art of working a whole galaxy of talented artists. This is primarily M. God, M.Deregus, V.Kasian, K. Trokhymenko.
The new creative achievements shine in this creative time fine artist T. Yablonska. Back in the 50's it gained recognition and prestige for its excellent canvases "Spring" "Morning," "Bread" et al. In 60 years of T. Yablonsky has demonstrated a new style a synthetic image in which bright proslidzhuvalasya old grading Ukrainian folk art. Together with В.Zaretsky T. Yablonsky became a founder Folk directlythe Ukrainian fine arts, who, despite the very large difficulties developed in the coming years.
Feeling the spirit of the "thaw", new ideas have enriched the creative activity and sculptors. To celebrate 150 years birthday of Taras Shevchenko in Moscow were built Monument Great Kobzar (Authors – М.Hrysyuk, Y.Sinkevych, A.Fuzhenko). That same year, was opened in Lviv Ivan Franko monument (Authors – Borisenko, D.Krvavych, E.Misko et al.). Original works of easel sculpture created М.Ryabinina and V.Skolozdra(Alex Dovbush), G.Petrashevych ("My child") and other artists.
At this time there is a growing interest in the theater. Despite reduction total number of theaters in the country (with 80 in the 50's to 60 in the mid 60's), number of theater audience noticeably increased.
Little could anyone leave indifferent brilliant game real masters of their profession – А.Buchma В.Dobrovolsky, Y.Lavrov, I. Uzhviy, Y.Shumsky. Skillful followers creative traditions Kurbasa L. in this period were directors: G. George, M Krushelnytsky, W. Woodrow Wilson et al.
A significant step forward has made Ukrainian architecture. In the early 50's were built a number of interesting buildings, among them – Building Technology in Vorosilovgrad (Now Lugansk) Drama in Ternopil, Theatre "Kyiv" in the capital of Ukraine. House of Culture in New Kakhovka.
Continued up the central highway Kyiv – Хreschatyka, destroyed during German Nazi occupation. Serious attention is paid to overcoming impractical the use of architectural heritage, decorative frills manifestations of formalism in the architectural design. Since the second half of the 50's the main focus of Soviet architecture was standard design.
Installation Shevchenko Prize. In order to encourage creative work of Ukrainian artists since 1962 Shevchenko was set annual premium, which awarded for high achievements in literature, journalism, arts and architecture.
Questions and Tasks
1. What do you know about the "language problem" in schools in Ukraine Khrushchev era?
2. Which of the scientists, who have declared themselves in times of "Thaw", you can call?
3. Which of the talented young writers who have declared themselves during the "thaw", you can call?
4. Organization which became the first movement of cells "Sixties."
5. What are the prospects Development nations in the USSR sets new CPSU Program adopted at the XXII Party Congress?
6. What is the "Russification"? What policy was aimed Russification?
7. Who are "Sixties"?
8. Identify the chronological sequence of events:
- Top educational reforms of Khrushchev;
- Celebration 300 years Pereiaslav Council;
- Installation Shevchenko Prize;
- Establishment of the Club creative young people in Kiev.
9. What changed the end of the education reform 50-х years in teaching Ukrainian language schools Ukraine?
10. What branches of science with attention paid to primary the leadership of the state late 50's – in the early 60's years?
11. As processes marked by liberalization of the PA literature in Ukraine?
12. What ideas professed representatives of the movement "the Sixties"?
13. Why do you think the development of the USSR scientific and technological revolution is much behind the leading Western countries?
14. In your opinion, what was the result of Russification policies in Soviet Ukraine?
15. Why, in your opinion, authorities have begun proceedings "Sixties? "