§ 18 Living standards
1. Social Development Ukraine
The main source of growth and condition People's welfare is above the growth of national income. It noted that despite the serious economic development in Brezhnev to Gorbachev's period of "perestroika" in the republic this important indicator of living standards had strong tendency to increase.
Thus, from 1965 to 1985 national income in Ukraine increased 2,5 times and amounted to 96.6 billion rubles. Three-quarters This amount reported in available to workers, employees, collective farmers in the form of fund consumption. If you take into account the annual expenditure for the construction and operation of housing, schools, hospitals, cultural and educational institutions, sports facilities, businesses public service, he directly to satisfy material needs of the population accounts for 80% of national income.
It is logical that in the republic in this period, an increase of wages of workers and employees.
In particular, in the mid 60's was increased salaries of public education, health, trade, catering, housing and communal services. In 1972, salaries of doctors, teachers, childcare facilities, student scholarships were increased by 20-30%.
Total for 1965-1985 biennium average money wage almost doubled. An important indicator of growth and considerable prosperity population was also increasing the minimum wage to 40-50 rubles. in 1965 to 70 rubles. in 1977 and abolition of state taxes on it.
Certain positive changes in this regard occurred in agriculture. In particular, there has been increasing wages in collective farms, from July 1, 1966 all collective farms have shifted to guaranteed cash payment.
The average monthly salary in the 1965-1985 biennium in collective farms has increased 3 times and the pace of its growth has exceeded this figure in the industry. Due to the state and the economy in 1980 kolkhoz pension increased by 40%.
The state of material well-being of the people determined and consumption of public funds, provided that the development of national education, training workers, medical services, regular holiday pay, benefits, etc. permits.
Large allocations are allocated to maternal and child health, improving working conditions and life women are mothers, pensions, scholarships and vocational students. Total amount payments and benefits by public funds per capita consumption was also fairly large and has grown in the republic from 1968 to 1985 almost 5 times.
During the Brezhnev leadership used by the state taking action to improve living standards Republic. Tremendous success of these measures have had in the period kosyhinskyhreforms.
However, after their collapse and cease to 70th – first half of 80 years in Ukraine began a sharp falling production growth –leading factor affecting the quality of life of people.
As a result, significantly decreased and the rate of growth of national income. Such processes each year reduced the amount public final product that spryamovuvavsya for rising living standards.
Consequently, the state budget after failure of economic reforms during the peak of the economic crisis and stagnation mainly replenished by not developing their own products, and through overseas sales of such natural resources as oil and gas. At obtained from these trading operations "petrodollars"Zakupovuvalysya scarce industrial goods and foodstuffs.
2. Trade and everyday life
The same ambiguous and very contradictory developments were taking place in trade and consumer services population.
In the second half of the 60's – on early 70 years have been positive developments in trade.
Strengthened material base distribution network, resulting in significantly increased number of trade enterprises. Consumer cooperatives, such as solving problems, state agencies, provide assistance to enterprises, collective farms and state farms, with funds which built new shops, canteens, bakeries.
With the increase of wages and increased purchasing power.
Particularly active at this time ensured a growing demand for workers in cities and rural economic equipment and products of cultural and community use. In particular, the demand among Republic of used televisions, radios, refrigerators, washing machines that in the second half of 60's appeared in every second family.
Increasing the number of goods required emergence of new, more sophisticated and effective forms of trade. Therefore were convenience stores, department stores, Supermarkets with a wide inventory. Rural workers in this period were regularly served trade workers in places of work – on camp, farm, in the tractor brigade.
Along with trade and developing domestic services. Service life has become a major industry national economy. Very popular in the population were using created during this period home life, domestic industries, domestic firms services.
Among the first such enterprises in Soviet Union emerged Kiev firm "Dawn", which had a services renovation of apartments, child care and sick, teaching music and foreign languages, typewritten reprint and more. If the early 60's was such services 80-90 species, in the mid-70's, their number increased to 600 or more.
But the 70-80-ies in trade and consumer services of the republic began show negative trends.
Specifically, each year began to grow state retail prices for certain consumer goods. Value all kinds of goods in 1980 compared with average annual prices in 1970 increased by 3% in 1985 – 8%, and in particular food – respectively 4% and 12%.
Significantly grown meat, poultry, oil sugar, confectionery, vegetables, clothing, linen, tobacco, bicycles, motorcycles. Normally problem was the product deficitA result of which began occur long lines at stores.
Terms and Notions
Deficit - Lack of something, the goods that is not enough.
All this has caused slower growth in real incomes, which in the 1975-1985 biennium were 10% lower nizhu previous decade.
One of the important indicators of growth welfare is housing.
The main means of solving this traditionally difficult problems for Ukraine in the period was the transfer housing on industrial basis.
However, the first newly built residential arrays were marked with original architectural forms were quite primitive and homogeneous. It is recognized and leadership. Residential construction made significant public investment that has allowed provide in 1974 70% of households separate apartments.
The subject of special note architects and builders was the capital of Ukraine – Kyiv. With their most creative work city of the republic has become one of the most beautiful cities in the world. Organically combining a charming nature and original architecture, Kyiv received his in fact, unique face. In the city there were whole blocks of multistory houses were built new subway lines are broken, beautiful parks and squares. It was at this time born in Kiev Rusanivka, Otradnyy Syrets, end of Bereznyaky, Borschagovki, Forest and other residential areas.
Similar neighborhoods built in the Kharkiv Dnipropetrovsk, Vinnytsia. Lviv. In this period appeared on the map of Ukraine new city - Svitlovodsk Novovolynsk, Ukrainian, Dnieper, Vilnogirsk and others.
In 60-80-ies in the republic began develop cooperative housing construction. With the increase of material security and increasing the number of people wishing to improve their housing conditions own expense. However, in prices observed in the case of more spontaneity and imperfection.
Along with rapid development urban construction are the same processes occur in the countryside, to a large extent why contributed state. In particular, State Bank provided cash loans rural developers.
To expand the building in the country was significantly strengthened the material base mizhkolhospnyh construction companies created in the mid 50's. Before them there was a problem –Villages in turn arranged modern village. They are usually created on new, blank spaces or by reconstruction of old villages.
Since 1965 practice in Ukraine a pilot-demonstration villages. Despite the ideological character this practice, experience of building experimental demonstration villages showed that are convenient for life and of rural building complexes occurred when they organically combined the best folk tradition with the achievements of modern architecture. In 1966-1970 biennium there were 15 such settlements, the next Five of their number has almost doubled.
Since 1970 priority rural development area was proclaimed reconstruction old villages. At the All-Union review-competition 1970 the best construction and landscaping such settlements among 25 other villages in the number of winners named with. Morintsy of Cherkasy where known, was born Taras Shevchenko. It was a good step in the Soviet propaganda managers.
However, in another period of living construction, as in all other industries, began a perceived low production growth.
If the 1966-1970 biennium their housing conditions improved almost 9 million, in the 1980-1985 biennium only 7,7 million housing problem, as still remained sharp, the state had the necessary resources for its successful solution. In addition, the current practice of distribution of apartments in lack of democracy, effective social control did not satisfy workers.
Many of the complaints raised and low quality built public housing.
In rural construction, such as used many unsuccessful standard, slurred projects residential, economic, cultural and residential buildings. In some areas of Ukraine leadership unreasonably zahoplyuvalosya buildings villages multistoried building that greatly complicated the peasants of private households.
Falling profitability and collective state-farm production, shortage of building materials, their high cost caused the slowdown in construction, rural workers were forced build housing by hand.
In rural areas, a thousand housing residents was reduced twice less than in cities, the share of rural points, provided natural gas was less than 7%, water supply residents use only 14,6% of villages of the republic.
4. State health care
Quite ambiguous situation and in health care population.
At first glance, the state did a lot of to health care workers was, as saying the Soviet leaders, at a level corresponding to world standards.
This allocated significant funds invested in building new clinics, hospitals, health centers, homes rest.
Constant attention is paid to prepare qualified medical personnel and their improvement. Thus, in Ukraine 60-70-ies operated 15 medical universities and dozens of secondary special medical schools.
Through their activities in 1960-1975 biennium number of doctors and nurses increased by more than 1,5 times, and to provide for every 300 inhabitants of the republic and one doctor three nurses. Party and government leaders proudly reported that such high index has not reached any of highly countries world.
But these statistics reflect only the outer side of the national medicine.
In the years of stagnation due to lower living standards, poor working conditions and Life, the spread of alcoholism, Commissariat of the health care problem of people decided extremely poor.
Funds are allocated on demand Health is no longer enough to ensure that health facilities provide latest equipment and drugs.
Acute and personnel remained a problem. Because the overwhelming majority of qualified health workers was not on highest level.
The official denied medicine Folk and alternative therapies patients, creating artificial obstacles in the way of medical innovators.
Long before the tragic events in Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the republic was exacerbated environmental situation.
The reason for this was thoughtless technocratism, Predominance of narrow interests. Disregarding the interests of the people, powerful, technically equipped ministry departments, industrial associations carried sanctioned "from above" large-scale construction, irrigation, chemical and other works. Typically, they are not based on deep scientific calculations and analysis of possible consequences.
Through such barbaric treatment Nature mercilessly destroyed Ukrainian fertile land. Unreasonable irrigation measures chemicalization without proper feasibility studies and practical experience caused violations of the Dnieper water balance, pollution environment, pesticides, nitrogen fertilizers.
5. Demographic problems
Insufficient socio-economic and ecological situation and caused a noticeable demographic changes in population Ukraine.
In particular, the 60-80-ies markedly slow pace of its growth. Surge caused by urbanization and its migration have led to outflow of young people from the village, which has always been main source of reproduction of human resources.
Fertility in rural areas far decreased, and already in 1979 average rural family size equal to city index – 3 persons per family.
In turn, reduction in cities birth was associated зpoor social and domestic factors: high employment women in social production (nine out of ten working women), low the level child welfare, difficult living conditions, a gradual increasing children's orphanage and more.
Logical consequence of this was reducing population growth in Ukraine 60-80-years 4 times. Deceleration birth was accompanied by a gradual increase in mortality population, which Ukraine ranked third among the Soviet republics.
6. The moral decay of society
One major negative impact processes occurring in the Soviet Union, particularly in the USSR in the 60-70-ies, was the moral decay of society.
Unable to provide real raising the living standards of people, Leonid Brezhnev and his inner circle discovered important opportunity for each to provide a "sweet life" on their own, popyrayuchy applicable laws.
In these conditions the most confident and feel comfortable, especially members of the administrative and bureaucratic Staff who have been subject to all aspects of life in Soviet society.
They still used a different privileges and services of special stores, hospitals, shops, farms reach of common people. Representatives party-state apparatus were actually outside the law and beyond criticism. It is clear that such immunity created favorable conditions for prosperity of corruption and covetousness, theft and adulation at all levels.
Unprecedented scale in this time become theft in the business. Even the term arose – "Nesuny" (Ie those who bore something of work to home). If ordinary "nesun" satisfied with only a dozen rubles illegally obtained, the corrupt elite counted their "profits" the millions.
All these terrible heavily on production and distribution of goods, destroying the economic structure, and so hardly zhyvotily.
Fighting corruption and shadow economy actually stopped. Occasionally, however, there were loud trials "Plunderers of national property". It was even restored the death penalty by "Embezzlement of socialist property especially dangerous amounts. But these "exemplary demonstration" measures only simulate protection of the law and generated legal nihilism, immorality and dishonor.
Questions and Tasks
1. As changing of average wages in the USSR 60 to 80 years?
2. As of 60 to 80 years in developing housing Ukraine?
3. What are the demographic changes in the population of Ukraine occurred in 60 to 80 years?
4. Please explain the term "deficit".
5. What are the formal parameters used by Soviet propaganda to witness a high level of development of national health Health?
6. What are the negative trends in trade and consumer services appeared in 70-80-ies?
7. What measures the government sought to overcome the housing problem?
8. What are the main factors affecting the quality of life Ukraine's population in the 60's and 80's.
9. Describe the basic directions of social policy States in the 60's and 80's.
10. What are the causes environmental degradation, Ukraine 60-80's.
11. What are the pros and cons, in your opinion, had social policy in the USSR in the 60-80's?
12. What are ways to overcome social problems in the USSR You could offer?
13. What, in your opinion, was the result of indifferent attitude Soviet leadership to environmental problems?