§ 20 Opposition Movement UKRAINE
1. Causes intensification of the opposition movement
Superficial and inconsistent in their content Hruschovska "thaw" brought Ukrainian conscious intellectuals great expectations and bitter disappointment. Promising young people experienced the taste of freedom, would not stop, and wanted a real democratization of society.
Since the mid 60's - in the 80's, with departure from government policy of liberalization in the republic strengthened blatant disregard the ruling communist party elite constitutional rights.
Natural consequences of these processes is the emergence human rights movement. His representatives, and participants are traditional opposition groups national culture and of independent-minded and brutally persecuted authorities.
Another new type of opposition movement was struggle by Freedom of Conscience, Freedom religion, which led, as a rule, representatives of the gap in 1946 Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (Church).
Thus, key areas opposition movement in Ukraine 60-80's were:
– independence-current, represented groups and illegal organizations;
– national-cultural, presented former sixties;
– Human Rights, whose members fought for human rights;
– religious-protective, that advocated for the rehabilitation of repressed Church.
Opposition Movement 1950-1980-ies
2. Forms of dissidents
Representatives of Ukrainian opposition movement in its struggle against the ruling regime used various form and methods of work.
Radically set dissidents are generally united in partisan groups and organizationstion. To communicate their ideas they created illegal publications – "Samizdat" in which the printed literary works, documents, journalistic articles.
The first time such "self-releasing" in Ukraine appeared in 1964, they spread little-known works "Sixties" Mr.V.Symonenko, L. Kostenko, I. Svitlychny, I. Dziuba and other representatives of the young Ukrainian intellectual elite. Most popular categories of contemporary underground publishing was typing Journals Ukrainian National Front "Freedom and Motherland" and "Ukrainian Journal", created Chernovol. The vast majority of them subsequently redistributed abroad Ukrainian publishers "Modern" (Munich, Germany) "Torch" (Baltimore, USA) et al.
Unlike the radicals, representatives national culture is oriented mainly violated the national problems in various scientific symposiums and conferences, behind while internationalist slogans.
To promote and disseminate patriotic ideas organized Shevchenko holidays, evenings memory Ukrainian Lesya, Ivan Franko created study groups and clubs of national history creative young people. Important role in preserving and reviving national traditions played festivals, travels to Ukraine famous amateur choirs "Echo" "Lark" et al.
Often practiced opposition silent meeting near monuments of prominent persons of Ukraine, organized rallies protests, demonstrations, picketing.
At the open protest turned Trial over dissidents funeral known leaders of the opposition movement.
Actively used such forms struggle, as sending written statements, petitions to higher authorities USSR and Ukraine, international organizations, governments of democratic countries.
One form of protest against the existing political regime, the refusal of certain representatives of the dissident movement Soviet citizenship, submitting requests for travel abroad.
Typically, these performances ended for the opposition camps or imprisonment, but under international pressure public some of them managed to break abroad. Some people, failing to withstand the power and ideological pressure punitive authorities tried to overcome border illegally, which also ends, usually arrest and prison.
But fighting continued in captivity. Even during the investigation some dissidents refused to testify, his appearances in court turned to the speech of protest and accusations against the current power.
In the camps of political prisoners held on the campaign silence, Absenteeism, resorted to hunger strikes, passed on documents and will post about camp life there and the existing order.
3. Repression against human rights
The tools and techniques to control dissidents was quite varied.
First tried just dissatisfied intimidating. This practiced special "Conversation" in KGB, organized various "campaigns" in the press. If these "preventive" measures do not help – used administrative sanctions including dismissal.
Final Act of the repressive measures were arrested and detained. Dissidents largely condemned by Anti-Soviet agitation and propaganda " with treatment of the articles of the Criminal Code was too broad.
When this fell within the qualification: discussion on prohibited themes dissidents (even family), storage and distributing banned literature "samizdat" and others. Often dissidents not condemned as a criminal and political offenders.
Incarceration was only one of terrible punishment of dissidents, their position after the conviction was difficult they served in prison, mostly in camps strengthened regime where most of the time spent in isolation cells. For the least blame them planted in punitive isolators. Attempts to appeal remained unanswered, and prisoners were punished severely.
However, in these conditions political prisoners continued struggle. A very common method of protest was a hunger strike. But to die from famine, political prisoner was not entitled. When he reached the critical state, its began to force feed.
Besides the usual prison, widely practiced sending opposition to the special psychiatric hospitals type.
There they were in the environment indeed mentally ill people, they, like other patients, had different medications that paralyze the will, suppressed psyche, intellect, memory, emotions.
If a prisoner in a camp or prison after serving a term of imprisonment hoped to reach freedom, in "psikhushka" dissidents could be "treated" at least until death. Among the victims of this terror were general Petro Grigorenko, mathematician Leonid Ivy, doctor Nikolai Plakhotnyuk and many others. Total number of dissidents who have become "patients" psyhlikaren unknown. According Plyushch, in 70 years in the USSR were about two thousand.
Thus, the power tried all possible means to isolate from society hazardous people themselves. But these methods have different methods of cilia 30's when the management countries carried out the mass killing of their opponents. Acting through the following ruling in 60 to 80 years of not dare.
In the irreconcilable struggle against the ruling regime of Ukrainian opposition movement raised in its ranks a cohort noble, loyal to the end of her native land and his people fighters, the true patriots Ukraine.
One of the first Ukrainian dissidents was from Lviv Michael Gorin. After graduating from Faculty of Philology Lviv National University, he worked as a teacher and already proved creative, critical thinking person. His patriotic views on situation of Ukraine and its people are often expressed on the pages of local periodicals.
Michael Gorin (1930р.н.) - Social activist and politician. Graduated from Lviv University (1954). In 1954-1961 - the teachers' work. In 1961-1965 - the scientific work in Lviv. In 1965 arrested in 1966 and sentenced to imprisonment for six years. After his release he worked at various jobs in. Published "Bulletin of the Helsinki group. In December 1981 he was arrested and sentenced to 10 years in prison camps in special regime. In 1987 - back to City participates in the publication of the Ukrainian Herald, in creating UHU, PSA. In 1990-1994 - Deputy of Ukraine, the chairman of the subcommittee of the Parliament of Ukraine on state sovereignty. In 1990-1992 - Vice-Chairman, Co-Chair NAO. In 1992-1995 - Chairman of the PSA. Since October 1995 - Honorary Chairman of the PSA.
During the repressions of 1965 M. Horyn was arrested at a closed court in Lviv in 1966 was sentenced to 6 years imprisonment in a labor camp. In his last word on trial he subjected to sharp criticism openly anti-Ukrainian, Russification policy of the ruling party which was held in Ukraine.
M. Horyn bravely endured terrible camps Mordovia, where wrote a series of papers, which revealed the colonial situation in Ukraine Soviet Union. Later this article was published in Ukrainian "Samizdat".
After serving their sentences in 1971 Michael Gorin, by discouraging authorities also had the opportunity to work for profession and therefore settled normal worker in. But his ideals he resigned and continued to struggle. In 1981 his second arrest for "Anti-Soviet agitation and propaganda" and next was sentenced to 10 years imprisonment and 5 years exile.
After a long awaited return Michael Gorin will put much effort and energy creating People's Movement Ukraine, Ukrainian Republican Party building an independent Ukraine, which both wanted.
Lev Lukyanenko. Confessions on death row (excerpt)
У May 1961 Lviv Regional Court sentenced me to death, Kandyba to 15 years Viruna to 11 years Lutskova, Liubovychi, Kipisha and Borovytskoho to 10 years imprisonment each.
Political platform Program on Science of the Boundary between two phases of our liberation struggle: to URSS all manifestations struggle going mainly under the banner of armed struggle. Even those groups that had no weapons, regarded it as the main tool of its tactics ...
In URSS written: "Methods to achieve our goal of peaceful, constitutional. Agitation and propaganda - these are ways of URSS.
Go to campaigning leaking not from hatred to arms, and with some understanding of the impossibility of it: with history - knowing that after the defeat of the people in the popular war and a wide mass movement occurs between the amount and length of disappointment in a generation. And every new grave war starts a new generation. So glorious generation Bandera has fulfilled its historic mission, and expect more from him nothing could. Problem of the intermediate stages of the figures, when the previous massive movement vydyhnuvsya and defeated, and a new mass movement is far and in is to fight against apathy and discouragement in their national capabilities, against disappointments and treatment failure as a sentence inexorable fate. Task is to prepare people for a new mass movement for national freedom. For such work need not skorostril with a bayonet, and inspired word of faith in victory of good over evil, freedom over slavery, the dependent, colonial peoples over Empire! ..
One of community groups of enthusiasts is rebuilding Ukrainian Helsinki. It occurred in 1976 as the Ukrainian Helsinki group facilitate the agreements, has suffered severe repression and 1988 revived as the Ukrainian Helsinki. Group members have always dreamed of independence of Ukraine as a optimum high National welfare and spiritual revival and prosperity nation but the specific circumstances that they had act can not be ignored, and that they felt necessary primarily to protect violate civil rights and linguistic and cultural problems of Ukraine.
Inquiries to document
1. What steps liberation movement is secretes L. Lukyanenko? What he explains the transition to new forms of struggle?
2. As Л.Lukyanenko characterizes activity UGG?
3. As he defines the purpose of UGG?
Many of the prominent representatives dissident movement has not lived up to those events for which you fought and are expected all my life.
In particular, the brutal repressive system destroyed Kiev talented writer, translator, an active participant human rights movement Valeriy Marchenko.
In 70 years, after University of Kiev, Valery worked in the newspaper Literary Ukraine, teacher, admired translations had a tendency to research activities. For his whole objective, but sharply critical articles about the decline of national culture Ukraine it in 1973, despite ill health, received a long sentence.
Vidbuvshy punishment, V. Marchenko returned to his native Kyiv. where again plunged into the literary and human rights activities, actively published abroad. As a result, in 1983 he already terminally ill, was again arrested and sentenced to 15 years confinement, where a live and did not return.
Victims of the Soviet totalitarian system was also a gifted poet, literary critic and literary criticism Donetsk Vasyl Stus.
Like many other "sixties," he after higher education worked as a teacher. Later he studied in Stus graduate Institute of Literature USSR. After participating in the famous protest rally, September 4, 1965 in Cinema "Ukraine" was released from Peel Institute and got close supervision spetsorhaniv.
Opinions attention to plight of native Ukraine, its freedom-loving people find permanent implementation of the poems, articles, letters of Vasyl Stus. Later they were trained by Soviet law enforcement agencies as "Slanderous flames of Soviet reality. " In 1972, V. Stus was arrested and sentenced to ten years of special treatment camps and five years of exile.
In 1975 V. Stus sent from the camp statement, "I accuse" in which – noted that during a raid in 1972 KGB seized from him almost all the works written за last 15 years. During the imprisonment of Vasyl Stus administration of the camp in 1976 destroyed about 600 of his poems, created for years of camp life. But the poet did not lose his patience and tireless continued to write poems. All were imbued with optimism and faith in a better future.
V. Stus courageously withstood rigorous test Mordovia and Permian camps, torture cell, the heavy exile in Magadan region and end in 1979 back to freedom.
However, in 1980 for participating in activity Ukrainian Helsinki Group on charges "Anti-Soviet agitation and propaganda" V. Stus was again arrested and bound.
In defense of Vasyl Stus was known Academician of the Soviet human rights activist Andrei Sakharov who, protesting against inhuman sentence, wrote: "The sentence Stus – shame the Soviet repressive system. Stus – poet. Is a country where already died or suffered repression and persecution of many poets, needs a new victim. new shame? "
V. Stus died in 1985 during imprisonment.
Also M. Horyn, V. Marchenko, V. Stus the same long shlih camps and links, uncompromising and continuous struggle with the Soviet system were other prominent representatives of the dissident Movement: L. Lukyanenko, V. Chornovil, MA Rudenko, and Svitlychny St. Cloud ...
Information Lvov regional committee КП First secretary of the Central Committee of Ukraine КПUkraine MVPodgorny to intensify nationalist movement and measures to strengthen advocacy among Labor Lviv region (16 November 1961)
In July - August public safety area was exposed anti-Soviet nationalist organization, called the Ukrainian National Committee. Members of this organizations that worked in factories PO Box 125, instrumental, Machine-building, Lviv railway, and in some collective Nesterovs, NovoyarychivskohoMr. Bug and contiguous set a task to work on a broad recruitment of new members of illegal organizations, extracted weapons, equipment for printing leaflets and tried to create an illegal printing house for release Nationalist newspaper workers' word. " In the event of war participants organizations were willing to go undercover, for which prepared appropriate base, bunkers and weapons. To date, 11 arrested members of this group, they seized 13 barrels of weapons, cartridges, printing font for printing illegal, program and other organizational records.
Data coming from party committees, and public safety, suggest that some former members OUN Underground actively preparing to go undercover and deployment of open struggle in the event of military conflict between the USSR and the USA.
... On the night of 23 to 24 August in the village. Synyevydne-Superior SkoleMr. behalf of the nationalist organization, called "Free Ukraine" was rozkleyeno five leaflets with anti-Soviet content. The authors write postcards:
Fathers and mothers, brothers and sisters, prepare to open struggle with the Communists, hold on weapons will soon be war! Kill that makes robbers communists! "
Inquiries to document
1. Using the document describe the situation in Western Ukraine during the "thaw".
2. What activities mentioned methods used in the document group? Compare them methods work on Science and determine which ones were most effective in the 60's.
4. Speeches by opposition forces Ukraine's sovereignty. Formation of the Ukrainian Helsinki Group (UHG)
In 60 to 80 years of separate groups intellectuals were statements, protests, aimed at protecting human Rights and its freedoms, the preservation of cultural heritage of the past, providing real sovereignty of Ukraine.
Soviet regime sorry effort to stop the activities opposition. In 1964, in Odessa Oblast "Competent authorities" (so called public safety) exposed "Democratic Union of Socialists, which raised the question of sovereignty of Ukraine.
On Mykolayiv in 1969 was stopped trying to create an organization "The struggle for social justice. That same year, в Lugansk were arrested and sentenced to long terms of imprisonment organizers "Party struggle for the realization of Lenin's ideas. "
These and other organization set out to achieve democracy, save Ukrainian people from political, economic and spiritual disaster.
The slogan of the restoration of Ukrainian advanced state and the Ukrainian National Front (UNF), formed end of 1964 at Western. Initiated its were a Dmitry Kvytsko, Zinovy Krasivsky, Michael Cantor and Miroslav Melen. In their organization they tried to involve mainly the representatives of peasantry.
UNF put forward the concept of restructuring Ukrainian society on democratic principles. Agricultural program UNF included the existence of different forms of ownership.
The organization tried to campaign population in Ukraine's withdrawal from the USSR and formation of an independent state. For this purpose, organized publication typewritten journals "Will and Motherland "and" Ukrainian Herald. Total Out has 16 rooms. Activists UNF also distributed back issues of the OUN-UPA.
To highlight the challenges development of Ukrainian culture, UNF has sent delegates to the congress HHSH KIIRS and revisions to the national newspapers "Memorandum of the Ukrainian National Front. The authors of this document called on authorities to protect the Ukrainian language of oppression, return of the repressed Ukrainian from places of exile, rehabilitate victims of Stalinist terror.
Real opportunities for convergence Ukraine in the European region of the post Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, Held summer 1975 Helsinki.
The Soviet leaders signed the Final Meetings Act. Protecting human rights cooperation in the humanitarian and other areas up the bulk of the provisions of this document. There were opportunities establishing contacts between the Council of Europe and the USSR.
However, the position of party and state leadership of the Soviet Union was inconsistent. It is not going fulfill its obligations. Domestic legislation з Human Rights did not meet international standards.
Moreover, after meeting in Helsinki USSR intensified repression against dissidents. Any Western criticism countries of the position of the central leadership of the Union republics, including Ukraine, was seen as interference in internal affairs of the USSR.
Particular emphasis on the protection of human rights and sovereignty of Ukraine paid the Ukrainian Helsinki Group (UHG) formed in November 1976
It includes renowned author Mykola Rudenko (Team Leader), science fiction Oles Berdnikov, renowned human rights activist and former political prisoners Lev Lukyanenko, John Kandyba, Oksana Mieszko et al.
Subsequently, members of the UHG joined Major General, retired, of Ukrainian descent Petro Grigorenko, which representing the organization in Moscow. Total stock in Ukrainian Helsinki group was 10 people.
Grigorenko Grigorenko (1907-1987) – Major-General, originally from Ukraine. Members fighting on the lake Halhin-Chief, World War II. Since 1945 - Teacher of the Military Academy. Frunze in Moscow. In 1961 he criticized Stalinism. In 1963 created the Union fight for the revival of Leninism, by which in 1964 deprived of rank and awards. In 1964-1965 and 1969-1974 repressed (involuntary treatment of mental healthy rights, arrests). Founding member of the Helsinki group. In 1977, deprived citizenship of the USSR, went to the USA. Represented Helsinki movement abroad.
UGG created as open public organization. Group put task legal way pursue from law enforcement authorities on human rights.
In Helsinki Group Policy statements stated: "Free Ukraine guarantees the rights of all peoples inhabiting Ukraine: Russians and Poles, Jews and Tatars, Romanians and Hungarians. We too well known that such a bond colonial existence, why declare that people who inhabit our home, we provide the broadest political, economic and social rights. "
The human rights movement in Ukraine attracted attention of governments and legislators in various countries. In November, 1976 in Washington established Helsinki Committee guarantees to Ukraine to consisting of representatives of major foreign human rights organizations.
In his Addressing the countries - participants of the Belgrade meeting summer 1977 Ukrainian Helsinki group stressed that Ukraine, entered into the USSR lost its sovereignty, its statehood. "We deeply respect the culture, spirituality, and ideals of the Russian people, but why Moscow should decide for us international forums ... these or other problems, obligations? "
All the people mentioned in the application, must be a union of democratic states "free factor independent creative spirit. " Only then will remove those deformations that distort the relationship between nations sow discord and suspicion. The people must be master of their land, their traditions, their will to build a better life – Action all for everyone.
Therefore, UGG stated that "The most radical requirement of the Ukrainian nation for ourselves and for the brotherhood of peoples – full sovereignty creative expressions in all areas of spiritual and economic life. Nothing in the world can stop the implementation of this idea in tangible form of historical reality. "
Achievement Ukraine's sovereignty, according to the authors of the document was only possible when solving of general objectives: establishing true freedom of speech, freedom expression, freedom of entry and exit from their country, free distribution their ideas and experience the ideas of others, a free creative, artistic, scientific associations and others. It was proposed release all political prisoners and eliminate relevant articles in the Criminal Codes Union republics and the USSR, to ensure free exchange of information, eliminate censorship. Been proposed to condemn at the level of United Nations the very idea of killing and war.
Despite the fact that Ukrainian Helsinki group acted legally and within the Soviet Constitution and USSR signed international agreements, it became the object of persecution and Political repression.
Of the 37 members of the group who worked there in the 1977-1985 biennium, 23 were convicted and sent to camps and exile, deprived of six Soviet citizenship. Three members – V. Stus, A. Quiet, Y. Litvin – died in the camps.
5. Religious dissidence inherent. Fighting for legalization of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (Church)
Selected areas of the dissident movement in Ukraine was a struggle for freedom of conscience and religion.
The Soviet constitution, adopted in various times, did not deny this rights. But in practice, leadership take various measures against religious cults. For this purpose, conducted restrictions church publications, an active atheist work with children practice "implementation of" agents provocateurs and the environment clergy, without any explanation of worship were closed.
In the worst situation, in comparison with other denominations, were Greek Catholics in Ukraine. Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church because of constant harassment and repressive measures of power the people was called "Church in the catacombs" (Because it acted illegally).
But even the prosecution could not completely eliminate it. In 60 to 80 years of secret rites to the faithful in the West Ukraine conducted more than 300 Greek Catholic priests. Notwithstanding unrelenting control of authorities, Church spromahalasya have even illegal printing houses and monasteries.
Authorities brutally treated in representatives of religious sectarianism. Pa Top 1968 prisoners from 230 participants in the Ukrainian opposition movement through religious injured 84 people. In August 1980 of 90 Ukrainian political prisoners in 1978 were directly related to the struggle for freedom conscience.
One of the main tasks of religious Opposition considered rehabilitation and legalization of UGC, and Protestant churches struggle for freedom of conscience and free exercise of religious rites, the return selected by the state churches, the release of prisoners for their religious beliefs, rehabilitation executed ministers.
In 1982 initiative known political prisoner Joseph Tereli created Committee protection of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church that set a goal achieve its legalization in Ukraine. The government responded to this attempt to arrest members organization.
6. Increased Persecution opposition to late 70's - on beginning 80 years
End 70 years of opposition members movement begin to gradually move to the illegal situation, creating a secret groups and organization.
One of these groups (taking a name "Ukrainian National Front ") acted в Ivano-Frankivsk region. Members of this group were engaged in educational activities and sought continue to issue "Ukrainian Herald. But to deploy active they did not failed. In 1980 they were all arrested and sentenced to various terms imprisonment
At the same time attempts to create independent trade unions. In particular, in 1978 Donetsk engineer Vladimir Klebanov prepared and circulated a charter Association of Free Trade Union Protection workers.
In this workers' union zapysalosya about 200 people. Feature it was fatigue that the Association was the first At that time, an alternative organization of the official unions, which were Peel control of the party.
But the association was not mentioned union in the pure form. The Charter of the Association proclaimed that its Founders like to help those whose rights abused. Address of the Association to the world community, and its software problem indicate that she tried combine the functions of trade unions and human rights group.
As a result, arrests and prosecutions Association of free trade unions suspended their activities three months after occurrence.
6.3. Increased repression against dissidents in 1980-ies Repression against dissidents and never ceased in the 1980's.
In 1980 and camps to prisons sent another batch of political prisoners: Stephen cloud, Vitaly Shevchenko Olesya Shevchenko and others. The following year, was halted by arrest activity Kiev Democratic Club whose members have developed Manifesto the internal situation in the Soviet Union and called for annually celebrating the Day of Ukrainian political prisoner.
In 1983-1984gg. KGB м. Lviv stopped activity International Revolutionary Front (CRF), created в 1979 Coordinating Council of Youth organization led by a University student Tatiana Metelova. CRF had its branches in Kiev, Kherson, Uzhgorod, Moscow, Leningrad and other cities. Members of this organization set aim to eliminate the monopoly power the ruling party, repressive bodies establish self-financing in the business.
In the early 80's opposition begin to show confidence in the army, where young officers appeared people who openly opposed napivkolonialnoho, in their opinion, the situation Ukraine in the Soviet Union.
In 60-80's opposition movement in Ukraine, despite the sizable losses in their ranks, managed to keep the overall trend directed на political, spiritual and cultural revival of the nation.
At the same time opposition forces who were for the sovereignty of Ukraine had No common organizational structure, no coherent program. This is largely power stems from its repressive measures against dissidents.
However, the Ukrainian dissident movement was extremely wide – of Marxist platform (P. Grigorenko) to National Democratic (Dzyuba) and from it to the platform, close to integral nationalism (V. Moroz) – and was a real moral and ideological threat to the existing system.
Although statements in opposition prevailed revealing the pathos in their ideas have been many positive proposals Updated contemporary public relations and public life.
Speaking against human rights violations proposing ways to reform society on democratic principles, representatives of the Ukrainian opposition movement, thereby helping many people realize the need for radical reforms in all spheres of life society.
That representatives of the opposition movement should be given priority in the production of virtually all «the restructuring" problems which appeared in the second half of the 80's.
Questions and Tasks
1. Who are the "dissidents"?
2. What were the goals of dissidents in Ukraine?
3. Who are the prominent representatives of the opposition movement you know?
4. What are you famous Ukrainian opposition organization.
5. What areas of the dissident movement you know?
6. What international event was the impetus for revitalization opposition movement in Ukraine and why?
7. When there was the Ukrainian Helsinki Group? Who was its founder?
8. Identify the chronological sequence of events:
- Formation Ukrainian Helsinki Group;
- Formation of Committee protection of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church;
- Railings attempt formation of independent trade unions;
- Meeting on the Security and Cooperation in Europe.
9. Describe the main directions of the opposition movement and 60-80's.
10. What kind of used the dissidents?
11. What methods of fighting power against dissidents?
12. Fill in the table:
13. Why do you think the power of 60 to 80 years not physically assassinated dissidents, as it were, for example, in 30 years?
14. Dissidents sometimes called "Generation XX Congress. As Do you think why? Is this name correct?
15. Why do you think the government has persecuted Ukrainian Greek-kathe Catholic church in the 60-80-more than other faiths?