§ 25 PROCLAMATION OF UKRAINE'S INDEPENDENCE
1. Elections to the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine
Extremely intensified social and political life of Ukraine parliamentary elections and local authorities. Elections opened opportunities for open struggle for powerBy the definition of public status Ukraine.
In society exacerbated opposition between national-democratic camp and bureaucratic apparatus of the Communist Party.
It okreslylosya already in the course of the Law of the Ukrainian SSR on elections project which Parliament issued August 10, 1989
Bill basically duplicate the then Federal election law. It provided for a quota for the Communist Party and public organizations that were controlled by her. It meant that some members had not elected but appointed by party nomenclature.
Undemocratic provisions of proposed law, called mass discontent voters and public protests, October 28, 1989 Parliament under pressure from democratic forces withdrew articles on quota and provision calling Congress MPs.
Accepted law provided for the election of an alternative basis. Along with labor collectives have the right to nominate candidates as public organizations.
Parliament Rada of Ukraine and local councils were elected in March 1990 These were first during the Soviet era democratic elections to the Soviets.
On 450 seats in parliament claimed about 3 thousand candidates. Even in November 1989 for the election campaign was created Democratic bloc, Which consisted 43 NGOs, including People's Movement, "Memorial", the Ukrainian Helsinki, Ukrainian Language Fellowship. Shevchenko etc..
Electoral manifesto Democratic bloc urged voters to vote for those candidates advocating for a real political and economic sovereignty Ukraine, a new constitution for the Ukrainian national revival people.
Conducted showed that Ukraine has real opportunities to enter the democratic path.
Democratic bloc made substantial success: of 443 elected members of Parliament used its 111 support. Democrats received a majority of votes in five regions (Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ternopil, Volyn and Kyiv). Elections for local Councils revealed Democratic victory in the block Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk and Ternopil regions.
Communist Party monopoly on power was broken. Composition of Parliament upgraded by 90%, which means coming new generation of politicians to power structures.
First time in the history of Ukraine Parliament began its work in the parliamentary regime. Gradually, members passed up his office on a regular basis, began to prepare and enact laws.
This was an important step to overcoming anti-democratic tradition, which Parliament was smart-holiday body traditionally met one – two days, and lawmakers voted in advance prepared solution.
Legislation activity of the newly elected parliament was held in pluralism opinion, the acute confrontation different political views.
People deputies Democratic bloc united in its stance and created a parliamentary opposition – "People's Council" (125 deputies).
It was the first during the fall of the Soviet political opposition in higher the legislative body of Ukraine. The members of the opposition came as deputies from national-democratic orientation, and Representatives of the group "Democratic Platform of the Communist Party of Ukraine. Chairman of the People's Council "was elected deputy I. HARDnovskoho.
Parliamentary took shape in the majority parliamentary group "For Soviet Ukraine " (239 deputies). was headed by deputy Moroz, It konsoliduvalysya along with pragmatic, adequately react to different situation changes, and frank conservatives. In their stock dominated by Communists, because 85% of MPs on time of their election, representing the communist organization.
2. Declaration of State Sovereignty of Ukraine
Election parliamentary and local elections showed that the population of Ukraine tied with them their hopes on 9 change social and political life Republic.
Parliament July 16, 1990 adopted Declaration of State Sovereignty of Ukraine.
Declaration announced that independent Ukraine magician developed on the basis of Ukrainian nation of the inherent right of self-determination.
In It noted that state power in Republic is divided into legislative, executive and judicial.
In Declaration of the important provisions were set to reflect the content of the concept state sovereignty, which is defined as rule and indivisibility of power republic within its territory and independence and equality in external relations.
On Magician in Ukraine provided the rule of the Constitution and laws, stated in the Declaration.
Special value acquired position that the document contained therein principles should be used to conclude a new union contract.
In Declaration was announced Ukraine's right to its share of the wealth, particularly in the Soviet Union and the Monetary Fund gold reserves.
Supposed creating their own banking, financial, customs and tax systems of own budget, implementation of the national currency.
It was proclaimed the right of Ukraine have their own Military Forces, internal troops and state security bodies.
Declaration provided that Ukraine will carry direct relations with other countries will take part in equal international communication.
Declaration on State Sovereignty of Ukraine proclaimed Republican Priority laws of the union and opening so possibility of taking over most legal power Republican powers authorities.
That save the Soviet Union put an end "Parade of sovereignties" central leadership decides to conclude a new union contract.
Proposed project did not recognize the state sovereignty of the republics and, moreover, prohibited they come from the USSR.
In Ukraine wave of protests against its involvement in signing new contract.
The demonstration in Kiev against the conclusion
new union contract
1 October 1990 appeal announced Democratic Association of Councils MPs and democratic blocs to parliament and government, which required give up the signing of the proposed central management new union treaty.
It was proposed to the Declaration on State Sovereignty of Ukraine the status of constitutional Act to dissolve the Communist Party (KPU) and nationalize its assets.
In those days in Ukraine held massive rallies and demonstrations Peel slogan No – Union treaty " In October 1990 had a prolonged hunger strike students. It was an impressive event, she did not leave indifferent citizens of the republic. It attended by 157 students from 24 cities of Ukraine.
Starving Students nominated to the Supreme Council political requirements, including: new elections to Parliament on the basis multiparty system, the refusal to sign the union contract, in return Ukraine of all its citizens, who were carrying military service outside Republic. Students demanded the nationalization of property and the Communist Party in the territory VLKSM Republic, the government's resignation and others.
17 October 1990 Parliament had to adopt a resolution that recognized prematurity signing a new union contract for approval new Constitution of Ukraine.
Attitude Ukrainian people to the Declaration on State Sovereignty of Ukraine was expressed in a referendum held in May 1991
Aspiring preserve the unitary state, conservative members of the Supreme Soviet succeeded in making all-Union referendum question: "Do you think necessary to preserve the Union Soviet Socialist Republics as a renewed federation of equal sovereign republics, in which the full rights and freedoms harantuvatymutsya person of any nationality? "
Ukrainian parliament after lengthy debate decided to make additional ballot questions: "Do agree You that Ukraine be mass within the Soviet Union of Sovereign States in principles of the Declaration on State Sovereignty of Ukraine? "
In During the referendum on the first requesttorque approvingly 70,2% answered in the second –80.3%. By doing so, citizens of participating in the referendum confirmed the requirements set forth in the Declaration on State Sovereignty of Ukraine.
Characteristically, that Baltic Republic, Armenia, Georgia, Moldova refused to participate in conducting all-union referendum.
On support for Ukraine's sovereignty, attained full independence declared and workers' collectives.
21-23 June 1991 in Kiev the founding congress Ukrainian union strike committee. It was attended by 313 delegates from 23 regions of Ukraine. They are represented by labor groups, who numbered over 1,5 mly. people.
Near economic, Congress has put forward a series of political demands, in particular. withdrawal Ukraine from the USSR, the dissolution of the CPSU and the Communist Party of Ukraine, government termination SSR all financial contributions to the center of the republic on the basis new law, elections under international supervision.
In Ukraine rose demands of democratic forces provide real sovereignty Republic, grant it independence.
That save the country from collapse and keep their hold on power, Kremlin leadership began to make some maneuvers.
Parliament The Council invited the USSR changes in the amendments to the Federal Constitution, which make it impossible realization of the right of the republics did not exit from the Union, the implementation of the principle Republican self-supporting, to transfer of the Council Chamber Nationalities in favor of the Russian Federation.
As still remained under Federal supervision to determine the main directions activities of republican and local bodies. introduce into any regional state of emergency and special form of government.
More before IV Congress of People's Deputies of the USSR (December 1990) refused support decision of the Republic of State Sovereignty. Course, was not supported and The Declaration on State Sovereignty of Ukraine.
In Ukraine following the center caused a wave of protests.
Tim time in Novo-Oharovi (near Moscow) leaders held talks nine republics of the Soviet President М.Gorbachev about the contents of the new union contract. April 23, 1991 adopted a joint The statement, signed and representatives of the USSR.
In May between the leaders of the nine continued consultations were due to generally agreed text Federal contract. It provided a Union of Sovereign Republics.
But Parliament of Ukraine June 27, 1991 deferred consideration of the proposed draft treaty in September, referring to the need to analyze correspondence his provisions Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Republic.
Ukraine and faces a choice: continue its own path to independence or remain in the "revised federation.
On secret meeting in late July 1991 М.Gorbachev offered his Russia and Kazakhstan start writing Union contract is not agreed in time, earlier – August 20, 1991
Leadership Ukraine has not changed its positions and therefore, did not intend to participate in ceremonies intended signature Union-ment contract.
Political processes that evolved in the republics, on order agenda put forward a more important question: "Will and continue to be the USSR, or centrifugal tendencies brought to collapse and formation of independent states? "
3. Attempted coup in the Soviet Union and Ukraine
Part Senior leadership of the USSR. headed by vice-president of the USSR Г.Yanayevym. Recalling Gorbachev disease. 19-21 August 1991tried to make a coup, trying to not only this slow progress of democracy in the republics, but also make recent stay within the Union.
Save USSR was unconstitutional, so-called State Committee on the state of emergency known for Russian abbreviation as HKCHP – "State Committee for Extraordinary provisions", established in Moscow.
To It consisted of the first persons with higher party and state leadership, and spravsya it on the conservative forces of the CPSU, the police and military force.
Committee announced the suspension of political parties, NGOs and mass movements, banned rallies, demonstrations and strikes. In country. by decisions Committee. installed control and censorship of the media.
Approved DKNS decision threatened the sovereignty of Ukraine, destroyed shoots conquered democracy.
Insurgents planned to enter Kyiv, Lviv, Kharkiv, Donetsk and other cities of Ukraine troops. Commissioner of "hekachepistiv"Army General В.Varennikov 19August in the presence of the commander of the Kiev military district to exhibit the Chairman Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine Leonid Kravchuk ultimatum: if in trouble Republic, protests, strikes, not decision support newfound Committee, the troops who are in combat readiness, will come Square bridge Republic. It would mean a state of emergency.
The square in front of the White House "during the coup attempt
(Moscow in August 1991)
Events that began in Moscow, roused the public in all the republics USSR.
Conspirators immediately narazylysya the strong opposition of democratic forces. In particular, Kiev Lviv, Ternopil, Donetsk, Ivano-Frankivsk started establishment of the parliamentary headquarters. Been active in Kiev, the headquarters of the Movement, Service is established operational ties with the Democrats in Moscow, the Baltic States. from abroad, foreign correspondents.
Democratic Ukraine viewed the forces of hekachepistiv as "military-Bolshevik revolution ". Statement that the decision of the Committee have no legal force for Ukraine, with a slight delay was made and the Presidium of the Supreme Council Ukraine.
Under the pressure of opposition has been decided to convene an emergency session of Parliament. But this critical time of the democratic forces of Russia not only managed to survive, but also Democrats support all the republics to break coup attempt.
1) Statement of the People's Movement of Ukraine on the coup in the USSR.
National Movement Ukraine, advocating right people of Ukraine an independent legal democratic nation state, recognizing legality and powers in Ukraine constitutionally elected and formed government, guided by the Declaration of State Sovereignty and the Constitution of the USSR, said:
1. Formed pozakonstytutsiynyy authority - State Committee of emergency in Moscow and it is illegal decisions can not be legal force in Ukraine;
2. The movement does not recognize DKNS and does not consider its decision binding on itself;
3. Movement calls all not citizens of Ukraine submit will putchystiv, create organizational structures of resistance that will All-coordinated strike, which we call as a single Peace effective weapon in the fight for freedom and welfare its family, our That in Ukraine State.
2) With Address of the Ukrainian Student Union to Parliament and the people of Ukraine.
Requirements ... Committee variance Declaration about The sovereignty of Ukraine, the question of legally elected authorities of the republic.
Today we have two ways: return to darkness Totalitarianism and lawlessness, or to resist putchystam. From our choice depends on our destiny.
Therefore, the Ukrainian Student Union urges parliament of the republic is legitimate decisions of this committee, and act according to the Declaration sovereignty.
We encourage young people and all people of Ukraine not obey orders arbitrarily Committee and defend democracy and independence, protect their future.
Questions to the documents
1. As assessed People's Movement and the Ukrainian Union of Students DKNS? That joint and special appeals in these organizations to the people?
2. What are some methods called the people to resist DKNS Ukraine and the Ukrainian People's Movement of Students Union?
4. Act the independence of Ukraine
The August field have caused major changes in public and political life, extremely intensified centrifugal tendencies in the USSR.
Unconstitutional of the conspirators, who were part of the governing echelon of the Central Committee led to further discredit Communist Party and the accelerated collapse of the Soviet unitary state.
Mutiny conservative camp in Moscow showed serious danger for Ukraine to remain in the USSR. Events in Moscow is extremely influenced by changing the attitudes of people Deputies. Majority з them inclined to flock to support the desire of the Ukrainian people to independence.
Part Party and the nomenclature presented in Parliament, confused: not to lose power, decided to also support the requirement for declaration independence of Ukraine political situation has led to stronger application Ukraine measures to protect its sovereignty.
August 24, 1991 extraordinary session of the Verkhovna Rada adopted Act Ukraine declared independence.
In parliamentary decree stated: "Since independence force in the territory of Ukraine is only its Constitution, laws, government regulations and other legislation of the republic. "
WITH PROCLAMATION OF UKRAINE'S INDEPENDENCE ACT (24 August 1991)
Based on mortal danger, which was looming over the Ukraine in connection with coup in the Soviet Union August 19, 1991,
- Continuing the thousand-year tradition of state building in Ukraine,
- Proceeding from the right to self-determination under the UN Charter and other international legal instruments,
- Implementing the Declaration on State Sovereignty of Ukraine,
Verkhovna Rada of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic solemnly Ukraine declares independence and the creation of an independent Ukrainian state - Ukraine.
The territory of Ukraine is indivisible and inviolable.
From now on the territory of Ukraine are only valid Constitution and laws Ukraine.
This act shall take effect upon its approval.
Question to document
Compare how State determined the status of Ukraine in the Declaration on State Sovereignty and Act of Independence.
Thus, This day opened a new era in the history of Ukraine. The decision was conceived Ukrainian people during the state competition many generations, was entirely natural event.
In following days Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine adopted the decree on temporary dissolution of the Communist Party resolution on "departyzatsiyu" state bodies, institutions and organizations of Communist Party property in Ukraine.
Approved Resolution oriented employees in state institutions that their activity has built first and only on the basis of laws, and not on party positions.
Guided provisions of the then Constitution of Ukraine and concealing the conclusions of the Interim Commission, which on behalf of Parliament tested in Ukraine activity of officers, authorities, associations and organizations connection with the coup attempt, the Presidium of the Supreme Council concluded that "Communist Party of Ukraine guide their actions supported a coup and that most contributed to its implementation in Ukraine.
30 August 1991 it adopted the Decree on the Prohibition of Communist Party of Ukraine. On termination of the Communist Party was picked partaparat, but almost all of the previous government, administrative and commercial nomenclature remained in power.
5. Referendum 1 December 1991. Presidential elections in Ukraine
People Ukraine played a major and decisive role in solving problems proclamation new state.
On All-Ukrainian referendum on December 1, 1991 He expressed his attitude Ukraine's future.
In referendum fan participation 31,891,742 respondents or 84.18% of total on the lists of voters. 28,804,071, or 90.32% voted withand approval Act of Independence of Ukraine.
And the All-Ukrainian referendum and presidential elections of Ukraine December 1 1991
By course of the entire world watched referendum public. The referendum showed convincingly that the declaration Independence – it choice of the people, aiming to become the master in his own home. Will of the people of Ukraine, as witnessed by international observers from many countries, was held freely, democratically and without any pressure from outside. Self-determination of the Ukrainian people was conducted on the basis of the UN Charter, other international legal instruments, defining the right people in the formation independent state.
More of the Declaration on State Sovereignty of Ukraine faces task of selecting a model of state formation.
In discuss this newly active participation of political parties. A wide and very lively discussion. Oznachylosya two approaches: Ukraine be parliamentary-presidential or presidential republic.
Parliament Council stuck on the introduction in Ukraine Institute presidency and adopted July 5, 1991 The law establishing the post President.
Presidents form of government introduced in the period when the ruling The Communist Party, which had carried power function, was prohibited. Therefore, the election of President –Head of State – few provide an important factor increasing political and public liability for state affairs in society.
Introduction institute of presidency launched the distribution of power to independent power branches, can mutually balanced by an equal: legislative, executive and judicial. Presidents Republic has wound up, but rather expanded the framework for citizen participation in politics in public life. Establishment of a presidential republic in Ukraine, where authoritarian management style and thinking too suffered deeply rooted evidenced the formation of new political traditions.
Election President Ukraine held December 1, 1991 and passed on Alternative basis.
Contenders were: В.Hryniov, L. Kravchuk, L. Lukyanenko, L.Taburyanskyy, V. Chornovil, I. Yukhnovsky.
Over 61% of voters supported -Л. Kravchuk.
Kravchuk, Leonid M. (1934р.н.) - Political and statesman. He graduated from Kyiv University (1958) and the Academy of Social Sciences under the CPSU Central Committee in Moscow (1970). PhD in Economics (1970). In 1960-1990 - the party work. From 1980 - Head. Department of the Communist Party Central Committee in June 1990 - Second Secretary and member of the Politburo of the Communist Party Central Committee, From July 1990 to December 1991 - Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine from December 1991 to July 1994 - President of Ukraine. Since September 1994 - People's Deputy of Ukraine. Chairman of the International Union of Ukrainian businessmen. Member of the SD (U).
6. Termination of the Soviet Union
December 8, 1991 Leaders of Belarus (S.Shushkevich) Russia (Boris Yeltsin) and Ukraine (Kravchuk) meeting in Bia
It was decision on the formation Commonwealth Independent States (CIS) – association open to all former republics. Participants called for denunciation of the Union Treaty in 1922
Statement Heads of Belarus, the RSFSR, Ukraine's withdrawal from the USSR and formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States.
We, the leaders of Belarus, the RSFSR, Ukraine, noting that negotiations the preparation of a new Union treaty flummoxed, objective process exit from the republics of the USSR and the formation of independent states was the real fact;
Noting that the myopic policy has led to deep center economic and political crisis, a collapse in production, catastrophic living standards of almost all walks of life;
Taking into account the rising social tensions in many regions former USSR, which led to international conflicts with numerous fatalities;
Aware of their responsibility to the people and world society and there is a need for practical implementation of political and economic reforms, announce the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States, as parties in August December 1991 agreement.
Commonwealth of Independent States within the Republic of Belarus, RSFSR Ukraine is open for accession by all countries - members of the USSR, and also for other countries that share the purposes and principles of the agreement.
States - members of the Commonwealth intends to adopt policies that strengthen international peace and security. They ensure compliance with international obligations, arising for them from the treaties and agreements of the former USSR, provide sole control over nuclear weapons and their proliferation.
Inquiries to document
As head of the three republics argued the need a CIS? What tasks, judging from the text of the document had to perform Commonwealth?
Parliament Ukraine December 12, 1991 ratified the CIS with reservations safeguarding the independence Ukraine as a subject of international law.
December 20, 1991 Parliament passed a special a statement which denied the possibility of transforming the Commonwealth for state formation. The statement stressed that Ukraine will create its own open economic system by its customs, banking services and own currency. Parliament stressed that Ukraine uhylyatymetsya of establishment of institutions capable to transform the CIS super structure.
December 21, 1991 in Almaty was meeting of leaders of 11 independent states of the former USSR (except Georgia Baltic States). As a result, a protocol was signed, whereby all States on an equal basis declared themselves founders of the CIS.
In its Almaty Declaration stated that formation Commonwealth of Independent States Soviet Union ceases to exist.
The collapse of the Soviet Union was due to objective reasons.
It was over centralized, totalitarian and authoritarian country not compatible with the principles of democracy, free and full development individuals and nations. The Soviet government kept on centralism, violence, and cruel dictates, and a cementing force, "the backbone" of the Soviet system was The Communist Party, which performed public functions.
The ideological foundations of Union winning ideas were socialism in the world, eliminating all forms of property (except state) elimination of social groups (social classes. chimeric promoted the idea merge all drink to one person and creating a new type of Soviet, beyi national consciousness, national language and culture. These ideas and practices contrary to universal democratic values.
Ukrainian people, while in the USSR, suffered heavy losses during the famine in 1921, 1932-1933 and 1946-1947, mass repression campaigns to combat "Bourgeois nationalism", destruction the exploiting classes and "Enemies of the people."
The disintegration of the Union was a natural consequence of failure its centralized totalitarian structures to provide basic law and freedom rights, national minorities and nations, to guarantee normal democratic development of society and material well-being of people.
Worldwide experience confirms that the most optimal form existence of human society, functioning democracy there institutions is an independent nation state.
1. When formed Democratic bloc? What are parties and organizations included in its composition?
2. Why Bill on parliamentary elections, proposed by the Parliament of Ukraine in August 1989, democratic forces are perceived as anti-democratic?
3. How to defeat putsch 1919-August 21, 1991 affected the balance of political forces in Ukraine?
4. Describe political situation in Ukraine before the elections of 1990. How it's changed after election?
5. What Elections Supreme Soviet in March 1990 differed from previous ones?
6. What effects have Election 1990? How has the political situation after the elections?
7. Define chronological sequence of events:
- acceptance Act Ukraine declared independence;
- Adoption of the Declaration on State Sovereignty of Ukraine;
- decision formation of the CIS;
- Electing the first president of Ukraine.
8. Give description of the Act of Independence of Ukraine, adopted by Parliament in 1924 August, 1991,
9. What does little establishing the position of President of Ukraine?
10. Describe implications nationwide referendum conducted
December 1, 1991
11. Representatives Some political parties believe that in the early 1990's there was a possibility preservation of the USSR. Do you agree with this opinion?
12. Why do you opinion, the attempted coup in the Soviet Union in August 1991 year failed?
13. Why do you view, the CIS has a strong political and economic Union EC type? What do you see the prospects CIS development?