Theme II. Ukrainian lands in the first half of XVII century.
§ 9. Socioeconomic development
1. What were the features of economic life of the Ukrainianland in the first half of XVI century.? 2. When was concluded Lublinunion? What were the main union for naslidkyyi Ukrainian lands? 3. Whatis the grange?
1. Growthmagnate tenure. In the first half of XVII century. in Ukrainian lands quicklyincreased magnate tenure. This growth pushed magnatesdemand for corn and other agricultural products to Western markets.In Galicia settled estates Potocki, Sobieski, D.,Odrovonzhiv and others in the form of "keys" - several villages and towns that operatedas a single economic complex. In 1629 Bratslav province in 1980% Of the peasant and petty-bourgeois households owned 18 magnates, in VolynProvince 75% of farms were in latyfundiyah magnates. Exactlylocated in Volyn "Ostrozhchyna - possession Ostrog princes. Exceptpossession of K.-V. Ostrozhskogo early XVII. were inBratslav, Kyiv, Russians, Sandomir, Cracow,Brest, Minsk, Novohrudskomu, Vitebsk and Vilniusprovinces. They located 620 settlements, among which were 38cities. However, the largest were Volyn possession.
Terms and Notions
Latyfundiya - Large private landholdings.
Annual revenue Prince K.-V. Ostrozhskogo of all hisholdings reached 1 million zloty.
On the Left Bank with its dimensions distinguished estatesVishnevetskih Centric Lubny. In "Vyshnevechchyny," as contemporaries called them,late 30's XVII century. comprised 39.6 thousand peasant households, 56cities and towns. Total in Vishnevetskih who had also lands in PolissiaPodolia, Volhynia and Galicia, it was almost half a million "subjects" - Commonwealth of peasantsand townspeople.
Large land estates in other areas of Ukrainealso had Zbarazkiy Khotkevych Koretskaya, Ruzhinskogo, Zamoyski, Zolkiewski,Kalinovski Koniecpolski.
Land barons wealth grew byinheritance, purchase or seizure of estates, marriages, and exploring zalyudnennyaokrayinnyh areas of the gifts of kings. The rights to own land baronsapproved by royal charter.
Land ownership greatest magnategenera
2. Spreadmanors. The development of commodity production. Growthdemand for agricultural products has prompted landlords toconverting their estates to Filvarky. Productivity in the manors, especiallylarge, was higher compared to the farms. In filvarkovyh farmsfirst half of XVII century. cultivated crops, planted vegetables, putfor fattened oxen, poultry houses are comfortable, engaged in fish farming.
Simultaneously with the spread of manors rozhortavsya processdevelopment ends, resulting in Ukraine is much increased area cultivatedlands. Agriculture spread to new areas East skirts,southern part of the Left Bank and Kyiv region and Slobidska. However, the region mostdeveloped agriculture remained Belzschyna, Kholm, Volhynia, Podolia Westand part of Galicia.
Central manor manor
With the advent of manors was associated commercial developmentproduction, whereby production vyhotovlyalasya not for personal consumption, andsale. Meanwhile, significant social changes occurring in the environmentmagnates and gentry.
Polish journalist about Starowolski S.changes that occurred among the gentry in the first half of XVII century.
In the old days was considered the responsibility of the peasantcultivate the land, and the merchant - engage in worldly affairs. But he offered ShlyakhtichKnight case and fought constantly. Now we have no soldiers ... but there is Korchmar,haggler and intermediaries ... The greatest feat is we know the way,which bulls being driven from the estate to Gdansk for all richer selling oxen,horses, wine, honey, fish ... ... in all the bread ... All subjects have theiritself for sale, they are told to carry on the Mansion, buy on the lowestprices and sent to the city ... There, they send and their products.
What changes have occurred among the gentry as a resultdevelopment of commodity production?
During the first half of XVII century. in agricultureUkrainian agriculture land increased production of goods for sale. Ofmanors lords sent the markets of large rolls of different grains and by vyruchalyto sell large amounts of money. Big profits received owners manorsof livestock. In the Ruthenian Voivodeship, in Volhynia, Podolia and Kiev region inmany manors molocharske developed commodity economy. In manyestates annually marketability vidhodovuvaly 100-300 oxen. In somemanors met horse plants. Growing needs for thoroughbred horsesarmy and the nobility provided great profits to their owners.
Evidence of involvement of magnates and gentry in the commodityproduction was increasing the number of mills, kruporushok, huralen, breweries andchynbaren. Considerable revenues are also received from their Ruden, potashen,nitric brew-house etc.
3. Urban development. In thisperiod, as in the second half of XVI century., in the Ukrainian lands increasedold city and town and appeared new. In particular, during the second halfXVI - first half of XVII century. were established dozens of new cities and hundreds ofTowns: Konotop, Fast, Kremenchug, Gadyach, Mirgorod, Yagotin, Uman, Borispoland many others. In 40-ies XVII century. in Ukraine were aboutthousands of cities and towns that have lived at least 20% of the population. The largestof population were Lions (15-18 thousand people), Kyiv (15 thousand)Medzhybizh (12 thousand), White Church (10,7 thousand). However, typical of the cities with 2-3thousand people. From the city or state mahnatyvlasnyky received substantial income -Meeting of the artisans and traders fare through the city, a place in the marketetc.. Some cities, as evidenced by descriptions of the proceeds were given to their owners in five to tentimes more profit than the village, a town which they arose.
Cities that were owned (Royal) wereadministrative centers and often operated on the basis of Magdeburglaw. However, most cities (80%) was private property owned orchurch. Yes, with 206 cities in the Kiev province king was 46,private property - 150 Church - 10. Some private and church of the cityalso used the Magdeburg law. Some tycoons have owned manycities. Thus, only Koniecpolski Bratslavshchina owned 170 cities and towns.
The level of economic development of cities whileshowed a number of artisans of various trades. In the first half of XVII century.them there in Lviv, about 3 thousand, the White Church - 297, Galich - 200 Ostropoli- 194 craftsmen. Generally during this period in Ukrainian cities existed more than 300craft skills. The growth of cities increase the frequencyartisans such as bakers, butchers, butchers, mead-brewer, brewers, huralnyky,Oleinik, Miroshnyky et al.
In the first half of XVII century. in the development of urban craftsthere are new phenomena. First of all, by immigrants from villages in the towns wasincrease the number pozatsehovyh maystrivpartachiv. Lviv at the time they were40% of all craftsmen. Workshops are trying to fight them, but often nothad this success, especially as the cobbler supported, in keeping with theirinterests, the gentry and the city government. For example, in 1638 Lvivelder, instead allowed him six artisans workshop, held over 160 andreceived income from their work.
At some companies have implementedsimple machines, division of labor occurred and used hired labor,that the transition to manufacturing. For example, waterwheel in the early XVII century. applied to Papirnia in Bryukhovychi of lions,and division of labor among workers hired observed there, it produced largeguns and big bells - in the workshops of Lviv, Cherkasy, Island, White Church.
4. Peasantsand townspeople. Distribution of manors in the Ukrainian lands was accompanied byreduction of peasant holdings, an increasing number of landless and malozemelnyhpeasants. Some of them used a half portion, the other - one quarter. Poorestpart of the peasantry were zahorodnyky (Gardeners), whichoften had only one city (the hedge), and storekeeper,who were not even their own homes, although some of them had cattle.
Simultaneously with the reduction of land tenureincreased exploitation of peasants. There was enslavement of peasants, masters of their owndiscretion determine their serfdom, duties and taxes, managed their property andlife. As a result, the peasant turned into an appendage completely deprived of rightsmanor, the subject of gift, sale and purchase.
Description of living conditions of peasants in the Middle Dnieper30-40-ies XVII century. G.-L. where Boplan.
The local farmers deserve sympathy. Theyextremely poor and need to undergo three times a week with his horses and serfdomwork their own hands. Also, depending on the size of inheritance, should give adequatenumber of grains, many capons, chickens and ducks before Easter, Pentecost andChristmas. In addition, his master should carry firewood for free and serve manyOther works ... Yet require them to cash taxes. In addition, the tenth ofsheep, pigs, honey, all the fruit - and that three years - and third Volyk ...But that's not important, because gentlemen have unlimited power not only overtheir property, but also over their lives, here is great freedom of the Polish nobility(Like living in paradise, and the peasants - like being in purgatory).
1. What was the boon of peasants? 2. What taxes andduties levied from the peasants? 3. What are deprived of their rights facts showpeasants?
During the XVII century. sharply deteriorated economic,social and legal status of farmers in all regions of Ukraine. The most difficult itwas in Brest, Podlaskie, Russians, Belz, Volyn, westernof Podolsky and on right bank of Kyiv province where boonselyankripakiv reached 3-6 days a week. By the middle of XVII century. inresult of the continuing enslavement of free peasants in Ukraine remained verylittle.
Rich petty bourgeois and peasant
Rich petty bourgeois
In cities with the development of craft industries and tradepohlyblyuvalosya social stratification. Bourgeasy increasingly enriched anddirected all city life. He is not permitted to participate in the management of citiesAverage property position layer philistinism. In turn, the lattersought limited sphere of influence bourgeasy and expanding their rights. Roslinumber of impoverished guild masters, apprentices, students and cobbler, dissatisfiedtheir position and disability.
In the first half of XVII century. significant number of urbanpopulation were Cossacks and soldiers military camps. First of allconcerned towns and Bratslavshchina Dnieper. Thus, in 1616 inKano, Korsun, White Church, Chyhyryn, Cherkassy, Boguslav, Pereyaslav wasaverage over 75% of the Cossack yards.
Motley was the national composition of townspeople. Great bulkpopulation were Ukrainian. Besides, the cities were Poles, Lithuanians, Jews, Russians,Belarusians, Moldovans, Hungarians, Armenians, Greeks and others. Wealthy foreigners weresale, lease estates and crafts, redemption fees.
There were various limitations of the orthodox bourgeoisUkrainian. Specifically, in 1620, according to contemporary, in Lviv, that"Who adheres to the Greek faith and joined the union, he can not live in the citymeasure elbow and quarto, be accepted in shop.
City population suffered from oppression. In statecities, even those that had the Magdeburg law, commoners suffered from arbitrarinessroyal administration. Private property in cities, they were forcedserve serfdom in the field, clean ponds, build dams, to givetroops with appropriate equipment chosen, construct, repair and protectlocks, etc.. Owners towns often gave their rent and mortgage, andactually - the robbery and destruction. Many of the disasters inflicted magnate strifearbitrariness and noble troops, accompanied by robbery, violence androbberies.
- Under the rule of the Commonwealth of Ukrainianlands were vast landholdings magnates and gentry.
- In agriculture, a leading manufacturer of commercialproducts were Filvarky.
- During the first half of XVII century. increasednumber of cities and their populations.
- Due to the overwhelming situation manors spreadMost Ukrainian peasants worsened.
- The broad masses of the urban population suffered from arbitrarinessroyal administration or its cities and natsionalnorelihiynyhharassment.
1. What latyfundiya? 2. Name the magnates who hadlarge estates in Ukraine. 3. What is called commodity production? 4. Howa percentage of townspeople in the Ukrainian population in the 40-iesXVII century.? 5. What city in the first half of XVII century. happened in Ukrainelargest in population? 6. From depended most Ukrainiancities? 7. How many craft specialties existed in this period? 8. Who arezahorodnyky and store clerks? 9. In which regions of Ukraine there were towns and townwith a significant number of Cossacks in the population?
9. As growth occurred magnate tenurein Ukrainian lands? 10. What were the causes and consequences of spreading filvarkovyhfarms? 11. Describe the development of Ukrainian cities in the first half of XVII century.12. What changes have occurred in the situation of peasants and townspeople?
13. Make a detailed plan on "Featuressocio-economic development of Ukrainian lands in the first halfXVII century. ".
14. What's in the first half of XVII century. wasworsening socio-economic development of Ukraine contradictions?