Remember: 1. What major changes have occurred in Russian Empire as a result of reforms 60-70's? 2. What are the basic features of socio-political development Galicia in the first nineteenth century.
Revolution 1848-1849 biennium though failed, but caused a process that ended conversion Austrian Empire of Austria-Hungary a constitutional monarchy. In the first decade after the revolution in the empire dominated response, which by last name Interior Minister Alexander Bach was called Bach. The reaction is led to the revival of the old order, and became a form, which was regrouping of forces in the Empire. Most influential forces were national elites (Hungarian, Czech, Polish, etc..) That were in opposition to the imperial center. Finding a common language with them, saved the empire from collapse. Accelerated This process is painful defeat of the Austrian Empire in the international arena. At first Austria lost the war against France and Piedmont in 1859 and failed hinder the process of unification of Italy and 1866 was defeated by Prussia.
This defeat had far-reaching consequences:
· victory small kingdom of Piedmont, who fought for the unification of all Italian into a single state, have become an example for leaders of nations, redistributed between various empires;
· Austrian policymakers had in 1860 restore the constitution. It was created bicameral legislature - the State Council. In 1861 Austrian ownership was defined as the autonomous province with its own representative bodies - the Saeima, albeit with limited powers;
· after defeat of Prussia, Austria is no longer perceived as a German state and was at`union 11 nations or their parts, none of which constituted the majority.
To prevent uncontrolled developments in 1867 an agreement that contained the Austro-Hungarian compromise, the result of which the Austrian Empire into a dual Austro-Hungarian monarchy. Empire was divided into Austrian - Tsysleytaniya (in addition It includes land to the Ukrainian territories of Galicia and Bukovina), and Hungarian - Transleytaniya (in addition to land it entered Transcarpathia) parts. Austrian monarchy peredilyly of the autonomous crown land formation were arbitrary and laid the confrontation of two or more nations. On maneuver between different interests in confronting nations in which imperial center acted as a referee, and the Austrian emperor was based. It was significant change in the basic principle of state - centralism yield place of federalism. The largest of the Crown lands with its capital Kiev were Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Grand Duchy of Cracow and Osventsymskym Zatorsky and principalities, which included the Eastern Galicia and (Temporarily) Northern Bukovina with predominantly Ukrainian population.
For the Austro-Hungarian Galicia compromise was supplemented Austrian-Polish, has noted that even during the reaction, and His first real fruit evident in the early years of constitutional reforms. In 1860 Interior Minister appointed the Austrian Empire Pole Agenor Goluchowski. When he was still governor of Galicia, took all Polish efforts to establish dominance in the region. The system of elections Galician Sejm was arranged so that the Poles immediately got a majority. By conditions necessarily compromise the governor of Galicia had appointed the Polish aristocrats (in 1866 they again became Goluchowski) and in Vienna Polish was to protect the interests of the Minister of Galicia. All the social, economic and educational policy was directed primarily at meeting the Polish interests. Polish officially introduced in the administration, judiciary, institutions government, Lviv and the Jagiellonian University.
Such an orientation pro- imperial center was due to increasing confrontation with the Russian Empire, against which the Poles repeatedly raised the revolt (1830-1831, 1863-1864 biennium), as well as assessment of the Ukrainian movement as pro-Russian.
Despite its imperfections constitutional reform of 60-ies Nineteenth century. in the Austrian Empire had far-reaching consequences:
· they created solid foundation for deployment of national-political movements;
· all nations Empire opened the way to the achievements of European democracy, stimulating and sometimes - just making weak to accelerate the development to compared with the politically stronger;
· Ukrainian movement was given new impetus. The declaration, though formal equality peoples of the empire awakened national pride - the first necessary grounds of national revival, gave legal basis to pursue all appropriate people rights;
· consolidation parliamentarism gradually changed social psychology. Masses of people silent subjects turned in spivnosiyiv authorities and citizens. Parliamentary navkoloparlamentska and activities focused on two institutions - State Council in Vienna and the Galician provincial Diet in Ukraine - are integral part of political life in Galicia.
Legislative basis for Galician edge of the Diet were two documents: National Charter and Sejm ordinance Election 1861 Competence of the Diet, only 1873, confined to the realm of culture, education, agriculture policy and more.
Diet structure and electoral system to him under the social point of view was overwhelmingly transitional era because they combine elements of medieval birth-representativeниtskoho rights of parliamentary-democratic trends in modern times. The electoral law reflect the characteristic of his time understanding of society as an association of different groups of people with different "Social and professional position, the merits of the state, lifestyle and political consciousness. " Representative body, that the Diet had to defend interests of these groups according to their "zasluzhenosti", which defined the property and professional qualification. Elections to the Diet took place every 6 years.
Galician provincial Sejm consisted of the 150 ambassadors from the six public categories. Total direct voters accounted for 10% of the population (among the peasants, who made up 95.5% of the land - 8,8%).
This electoral law provided half the seats in the Diet ambassadors "from the people." Theoretically, all these mandates might win the peasants, burghers, or their representatives, which resulted in crucial election fight for votes in the ruling circles of common people.
The orientation of the electoral law to is, and not put on the national composition of the Ukrainian population in Galicia unequal because of its predominantly rural character. Ukrainian theory could get only a third of seats. This number, that mandate in 1951, Ukrainian obtained only during the first election in 1861 Subsequent elections marked reduction of the Ukrainian representative. In 1883 it was lowest - 12 ambassadors.
After the liquidation of the Polish state the Polish liberation movement faced the task of restoring state associations in it all the Polish lands redistributed by three empires.
The most favorable conditions for deployment of the Polish national liberation movement after the suppression of the Polish Uprising 1863-1864 biennium in Russian Empire formed in the Austrian Empire (from 1867 - Austro-Hungarian monarchy), where due Polish-Austrian compromise Galicia gained autonomy in which the leading positions occupied by Poles. People compromise cherished hope to turn in Galicia "Polish Piedmont, around which the future will merge Polish lands within the historic boundaries (ie 1772). In Galicia had formed a model for future Polish state. Galician Sejm in the system belonged to a defining role. He, on the one hand, considered the successor diets of the old Commonwealth, which proves the continuity of state traditions, on the other hand, being the only Parliament in the lands redistributed Poland he would serve the interests of all people, be an expression of his will to the world.
Such positions comply with Cracow conservatives (stalchyky). They also condemned any violence and urged the Polish people to take a position on the loyal Austrian emperor, who, according to international agreements, was lawful heir to the Polish throne. In the policy of the Ukrainian population, they Polish public is encouraged to compromise.
Stalchyky, although they were numerically small group covered almost all major public offices, affecting the Polish policy of the emperor.
Political rival stalchykiv Conservatives were the eastern Galician (Podolyak), Cracow and Lvov Liberal Democrats. Last demanded from the emperor of the same Poles rights as the Hungarians, and election reform. Podolyak, although generally supported stalchykiv, categorically rejected the possibility of any agreement with Ukrainian. Both indicated the current (conservative and liberal) have been mainly represented the Polish aristocracy, who held the power in Galicia.
In the second half of the nineteenth century. vyriznylys and new trends in the Polish movement - the people of (national or rural) socialist and that gaining strength and early twentieth century. taken a leading position. Their appearance was characteristic of a new era when growing rapidly Public consciousness of the general population, formed massive political movements. The idea of burns of the upper classes of the people betrayed in the past. The peasants and workers increasingly loudly declared their right to express and defend their own interests.
Recent trends, though also political opponents to the Conservatives and Liberals, on the Ukrainian question is offered nothing new. The only thing which they acted jointly with the Ukrainian movement - a requirement for electoral reform and social rights of the population. Right Ukrainian population in their own state, let alone in the region have strongly disputed.
In addition to Ukrainian and Polish, influential community land was Jewish. In 1880 it amounted to 11.52% population of Galicia. Most Jews lived in towns and cities, but late nineteenth - early twentieth century. prominent feature of Galicia was the growth of the Jewish community in the village. In the villages of Jews were mainly Korchmar, usurers, bailiff and others. This structure of the estate Jewish community reasonably perceived as Ukrainian peasant unfriendly, but the Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire, there was not.
In the political sphere Jewish community, especially its elite, was inclined to peaceful coexistence with the authorities, so to cooperate with the Poles. Some even called for a voluntary Polish assimilation. Many Jews became a true Polish patriot (in Hebrew origin, pole at understanding, preferences). But this trend Jewish community only lasted to the early 90's This stems that movement in the Polish anti-Semitism began to grow. The reaction to it was spreading the ideas of Zionism. Zionist ideal was the formation of a Jewish state in Palestine, but the main goal in Galicia - the struggle for the preservation of Jewish national identity. This change of priorities in the Jewish movement and negative influence on Ukrainian-Polish conflict: Jews in it occupied mainly neutral, and sometimes supported the Ukrainian people.
1. What was the constitutional reform held in the Austrian Empire and how they affected the Ukrainian Galicia's population?
2. Describe the system of election to the Galician Diet?
3. What is its role in the Galician Sejm establishing a political culture of the Ukrainian population of the region?
4. How has the movement in Polish Galicia?
5. What trends exist in Polish movement in Galicia? What was their attitude to the Ukrainian movement?
6. What role was played by Jewish community in social and political life in Galicia?