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§ 44. Major trends of culture in the second half of the XX - XXI century. (textbook)

§ 44. Major trendsculture in the second half of the XX - XXI century.


1. Terms of culture

During World War II, a significant number of workersCulture - E. Hemingway, A.de Saint-Exupery, L. Aragon and others withup arms, fought against the fascists. Works in literature, music,art, cinema played an important role in quenching moralepeople, bringing the victory over fascism. Understanding the causes and consequences of war,its cruelty, human behavior in extreme conditions was an important topicWorld Art.

Under the conditions of the Cold War ideological sidework was to prevail over the artistic. Periodic exacerbation of socio-economicconflicts, massive social movements have caused the emergence of various forms of counterculture("Angry", rockers, etc.). If they resisted heartlessnesspopular culture and classical culture of the past. Nazrivannya environmentaldisaster, the arms race, acute international crises have increased confidencepessimism anticipation apocalypse.

The collapse of the colonial system helped increase the role of countriesdeveloping countries in world culture. International recognition received Indiancinema, African and Latin American musical rhythms and melodies.

Onethe consequences of science and technology (RTD) has accelerated the development ofmass media, which created the material basis for an unprecedentedflourishing of popular culture and the emergence of rock music.


2. Fine arts

After the war art has been developing twodirections.

Supporters of realism continued to believe that the taskArt is the creation of such images can be easily vpiznavalysya manit was accessible and understandable. They began to seek new means of influence on theman.

At the same time broke the general interest in the directionwhich won a title abstract. If realism in the center of the work is a manobjects that surround her, nature, in the abstract artist seeks to expresstheir feelings, thoughts and aspirations through the images that they can not be found inreal world. That artists abstrahuvalys (alienated, depart) fromworld of things and lived in his own world. This could be a world of colored spots,geometric shapes, interwoven lines.

Division of Arts on realism and abstract is conditional.In fact there are many different styles, genres in which thevarious methods of image.

The rise of the democratic movement after the war helpedemergence of a variety of critical realism - neorealizmu. Its foundersItalian film directors were Robert Rosselini, D.de Santis, L. Visconti,M. Antonioni. Neorealism set a goal to show "rozhrymovanelife by expanding the audience a panorama of life slum, angrypoverty of people, the struggle for social justice. Artists did not concealpositive attitude to the characters claimed ideals of kindness and humanity.The feature of their method was accurate details, involving non-professionalactors, the use of national languages and local dialects. This zblyzhuvalo Artwith documentary film.

Principles neorealizmu had considerable influence on the worldcinema, which has been used creatively in the movies Stanley Kramer (USA)Kurosava Akira (Japan), Andrzej Wajda (Poland), Alex Herman (USSR).

Neorealism infiltrated the art (R. Huttuzo,A. Fuzheron, E. Wyeth) and literature (E. De Filippo, M. Miller, D. Aldridge).


3. Literature Development

Milestones artistic interpretation front wars arepostwar German novels by A. Seghers, V. Bredelya, EV-M.Remarka,B. Apitsa. Fate deceived by Nazi propaganda, morality physically crippledgeneration was the main theme of the writer H. B

The heady events of the twentieth century. gave many writersdrive to the historical parallels. Roles of violence in history, celebrity andpeople, the fate of intellectuals in the crucial period is devoted to works of LyonFeyhtvanhera (1884-1958) "Foxes in the Vineyard," WisdomWacko, "" Goya ". Latin American novel, brightlythe works of J. Amado (Brazil), M. Asuela (Mexico), G. Marquez(Columbia). Creatively remade achievements in literature, they toldthe tragic fate of the indigenous population, the dominance of monopoly abusedictatorial regimes, the peasants fighting for land. Latin Prosedifferent epic story. The focus is often not the personand staff - village, city, nation. Independent character is often nature.

In 50 years in the literature appear "angryyoung people "- British author K. Amis, J. Waite, J. Osborne et al.Their compositions differ anti-fascist orientation, anxiety about the fate ofYouth contempt for respectability and hypocrisy. They fought for freedomidentity and her right to expression. "Angry" and U.S."Beatniks" were ideological forerunners of rock movement.

Realism has become an important tool in highlighting topicalcontemporary issues. Thus, in the work of American artist and writerRockwell Kent (1882-1971), D. Aldridge novel "The Hunter" is showninextricable link between man and nature, which leads to loss of identity and degenerationsociety.

The bitter truth about the war in Indochina and Algeria providedin novels Kurdata P. and A. Steele, in kinostrichtsi A. Stone "Platoon."Criminal activities of secret services is reflected in the novels of Graham Greene (1904-1990)"Quiet American, Our Man in Havana", in the moviesD. Damiani and S. Pollack.


4. Socialist realism

The most widely realism came in the USSR(Socialist realism), where he was considered part of the official ideology.

Revolution 40's in Eastern Europe and some countriesAsia, the growth of communist and labor movement led to the spreadsocialist realism. Its main features are considered to be: the presence ofa new hero - a revolutionary-proletarian, communist, celebrationcommunist ideals, reflection and evaluation of life situations in terms ofMarxism-Leninism; diversity of artistic forms and manifestations. Some researchersreject the existence of socialist realism, arguing that this kind ofcritical realism.

In the art of countries that called themselves socialist,dominant theme of the Second World War, the class struggle, revolution, pathostransformations. Since the 60's, the official art and popular cultureincreased festive, eyforychne capture reality, gigantomania.

In 50-60's opened the campaign againstabstract, the fight against dissent, and indeed against all avant-gardecurrents. It has led to neglect of creative artists who do not fit inframework of socialist realism. Crucial had a party affiliation. SoAvant-Communists - P. Picasso, R. Huttuzo, P. Elyuar and others -remained beyond serious criticism.

After the events in Hungary (1956) and Czechoslovakia(1968) increased persecution against political and artistic dissent,expanded scope for private art topics, which led to mass emigrationartists from the "socialist paradise". Such was the fate of the poet,novelist Boris Pasternak. In 1958 it for his novel "DoctorZhevago was awarded the Nobel Prize. In the USSR it was subjectedmoral harassment. He was forced to give up bonuses, accused ofzaprodanstvi.

In 1970 another Russian writer A. Solzhenytsyn wasawarded the Nobel Prize. After publishing the first volume of books"Gulag Archipelago", in which he revealed the truth about the Sovietconcentration camps, A. Solzhenitsyn was expelled from the country and deprived of SovietCitizenship (1974).

Do not have a chance to be published in the Soviet poet Joseph Brodsky. Hewas even convicted of "parasitism." In 1972, wentborder, and in 1987 Nobel prize for poetry.

In contrast to the official art began to evolveillegal art "underground", which sought to creative freedomindependence from state and party structures. The manifestation of this was samizdatUnderground rock band, informal art association. Creative intellectuals becameone of the influential forces in the democratic revolution of 1989-1991 biennium

In the art of socialist realism is a lot of achievements.In Soviet filmmaker S. Gerasimov, writer A. Platonov, artist D. Shmarynovcreated a number of talented works. Recognition received the French artwriter L. Aragon (1897-1980). His novel "Passionate Week(1958), historically and psychologically truly represents the artist during the "hundreddays of Napoleon, a week of heavy reflection and vacillation, key decisions aboutessence of his life as an officer, citizen rights, the artist. In the literatureSoviet popular works of M. Sholokhov, A. GoncharSingular Aitmatov.

Continued his search for a Spanish artist SalvadorNext. Itworks show hidden corners of the human mind. Most of his imagessimilar chimeras with human traits. Real people in the pictures portrayed usin the fictional environment. His paintings excite the mind and make thoughtfulon philosophical problems of mankind.

Chileanpoet Pablo Neruda (1904-1973) became known collection of poems, "Spainin the heart ", published during his diplomatic work in Spain during thecivil war. The main work was his epic poem "Generalsong, dedicated to the fate of Latin America from ancient times to the middleTwentieth century. This work is one of the masterpieces of world literature and monumentsLatinos consciousness.

Deepshould be left artists in art-communists and Andre Renato Huttuzo Fuzheron,which embodied the principles of painting neorealizmu. Worldwidebecame prominent figures Herlufa Bidstrupa Effelya and Jean, who worked in the genrecomics, giving it a humanistic and political overtones.

Searchnew forms of realism led to the appearance in 60 years hiperrealizmu. Inworks hiperrealizmu story has no meaning. With skilfultechnique, the artists are trying to convey documented color and shape of the subject,simulating photo.


5. Theater Arts

Insecond half of the twentieth century. A common feature was the dramatic artcapture the social and political issues.

Stagedevelopment of dramatic art was epic theater Bertolt Brecht(1898-1956). In his works he forced the viewer to analyze whathappening on stage. Attention pryvertalas not to solutions but to the events. ForThis effect was used "alienation": review of known truthsfrom alternative points of view, the appeal to the hall of the songs are not relatedof the story, alternating verse and prose, dialogues and songs, the replacement of sceneryopen up the use of masks. Brecht plays were clear to people in allaround the world. Led by Brecht Berliner Ensemble has become one ofgreatest theater companies.

InEngland "angry literature" directly entered the theater through creativityDzh.Osborna, Shiyly dividend, Brendan Biena and others. Theatre in this directionmarked by intransigence in the social hypocrisy, double standards,extreme individualism.

InWestern Europe promoted the critical direction of the so-called "theaterabsurd "(Samuel Beckett, Irish playwright, Eug

Inpostwar years developing "documentary drama", which has focusedattention to the events of German history incunabula Nazism.

AmericanTheatre keen psychological analysis of people's actions (Tennessee Williams andArthur Miller).

Brightsaid a youth theater - French, English.

Outstandingphenomenon became "intelligent drama" Max Frisch and FriedrichD

NotDespite the ideological pressure was developing performing arts in the USSR.Theater Taganka "was one of the spiritual centers of sectarianism.


6. Popular culture

The development of mass media - Press, radio, television, film, sound and video, book, theirprofitability and ability to influence public opinion and preferences stimulatedunprecedented development of mass culture. Its main objective - gettingmaximum profit, but the main quality - available and diverting.Popular culture gave birth to specific genres - show, thriller, action, blockbuster,Comics. Their common feature is the propaganda of individualism, physical strengthand violence, and often - and chauvinistic ideological orientation. FeatureMass culture is the cult of "stars" - often artificial creationpopular writers, artists, singers, actors, sportsmen and"Domestication" of talented people in many different ways to theircommercial and ideological exploitation.

Insocialist countries, where popular culture was monopolized by the state, itscommercial character was replaced by the official propaganda organizationpolicy, the creation of the cult leaders. Manifested in divertingorganizations of different ideological show, romantic and class strugglesRevolution, feats of intelligence and law enforcement.

Infine art manifestation of mass culture became pop art (popularart), which replaced most incomprehensible abstraction.Works of Pop Art are based on a combination of photographs, plaster casts, reproductions ofcans, machine parts etc. Spiritual impoverishment and popularizationbad taste representatives of Pop Art are trying to compensate for their accessibilityworks of any audience.

Theatreand television variety of pop art - heppeninh - based ondirector held extreme situations. Getting to them, the audiencebecome active participants in events.

Added"Mass literature", designed for undemanding tastes. She created thein the most accessible form, giving the complex phenomena in a simplified, sometimes primitiveform. Bulk literature designed to entertain the reader. Its mainThemes are adventure description horror, crime, etc.. Some characters of "massliterature, such as Agent 007 James Bond became world famouscharacters. The typical character of this literature - superman, noble young man,which goes to battle against evil, relying on courage and physical strength.

Inmanifestations of their popular culture as a means of entertainment. Focusing onspecific needs and tastes, she sometimes gives rise to the talent. Created itexcess profits partially invested in the development of other cultures.


7. Existentialism

After World War II received a distributionphilosophy of existentialism (existence) and other absurd. They were ideologuesFrench writer and philosopher Jean Paul Sartre (1905-1980) and Albert Camus(1913-1960). In their view, existence (being) may not understand itsYou can only feel. Therefore, the basis for their philosophy, they are not outlined in the scientificworks, and works of art. In the center of their attention - a personality, itrelationship with the world, society, God. According to their beliefs, historyTwentieth century. evidence that "God is dead" and therefore life is meaningless.Human life is an intuitive quest for mirage-politics, morals,freedom, imagination which change with changing circumstances. Any humanValues - nonsense. The only force that can oppose him, isArt - constant creative rebellion.

Pessimisticphilosophy of existentialism, spread in literature, drama, film,bore "antitheater (E. Ionescu - Theatre paradoxes) and"Antinovel (A.Rob-Griyo, N. Sarrot, F. Sagan). Works markedlack of plot, amorphous nature of the character, spontaneity of their behavior,that can not explain unintelligible dialogue. Life characters -tragic farce, and ideals are usually absent.


8. Music

Asin fine arts, in music there are two main areas -classic and modernist. In the Soviet Union and socialist countries predominantly classicdirection. This on the one hand, it was positive because musical tastes were formed,distributed classical music. On the other hand, it caused outrage and nihilismespecially in young people.

Inpost-war years formed the constellation of prominent composers, performers, singers.Among them, the Russian composer Sergei Prokofiev, Rodion Shchedrin, Arthur Schnittke,American Leonard Bernstein, Gian Carlo Menotti.

Peaksart reached pianists David Horowitz and Van Klibern (USA), Sviatoslav Richter(Russia), Pavel Kogan violinists David Oistrakh and his son, Igor (Russia), YehudaMenuhin (USA), singer Luciano Pavarotti (Italy), Mario Lanka (USA), EugeneMiroshnichenko, Anatoly Solovyanenko (Ukraine) and many others.


9. Rock Movement

Phenomenonartistic life of 60's rock was a movement that emerged in Britain and the United States andeventually encompassed the entire world. Coming from the depths of popular culture, the creators of the Year -Elvis Presley, the "Beatles", "Rowling Stones" and otherperformers - broke with her, expressing a spontaneous protest young socialnevlashtovanosti, war, militarism, racism and discrimination. Lyrics werefrank, they emphasized the democratic image, and their behavior challengedrules of morality. Musical talent agents, enhanced sounds, rhythmic melodiesdelight, turned on the power, able to unite the youth.

Artlegendary group The Beatles in embryonic form contained ideological andstylistic trends of the year, which later formed into independent flow. Their songsbecame the unofficial anthem of youth. Birthday and the day of the tragic death of JohnLennon celebrated young people around the world.

Rockassociated with progressive movements. International Rock Festival 1968 condemnedwar in Vietnam. Since then became popular festival "Rockagainst "(racism, militarism, drug addiction).

Rock musiciansconducted environmental and charitable actions.

Heterogeneityrock movement allowed vyholostyty rebelliousness many business groups and usethem for commercial purposes, turning the rock in the bosom of mass culture.

Rockintehruvavsya not only mass but also with classical culture. Significant eventmusical life was the rock opera Webber and Rice "Jesus Christ -superstar ", that combined, the achievement of traditional opera.

Having wonworldwide recognition, a rock for a long time remained in English. Only 70 yearsany group who sing in their native language. Their work has begunNational rock movements.

InSoviet rock music widespread in the 60's. Ittavruvalas official ideology as a manifestation of bourgeois culture. Because rock musicthere was a half-sometimes illegally. Gradually, rock music could go onwide audience. Soviet leaders, the group became "The MachineTIME, Akvaryum "," DDT "," Cinema "and others.Over time the rock was not only music, but also lifestyle and thinking young. Hecharacterized by openness, internal and external freedom, pacifism,look totalitarianism, disdain for the values "sytoho"society.


10. Architecture

Inarchitecture always combine two elements - purely artistic andpragmatic. Buildings are designed to beautify the city and villages to meetmaterial needs of people. In addition, the architecture can be used forachieve some ideological goals. So, after the victory over GermanySoviet leadership immortalized this event in architecture. Late 40's -in 50 years in Moscow were built pompous triumph high-rise buildings.The most famous of them - the Lomonosov Moscow State University. Following the example of Soviet frontbuildings constructed in other socialist countries. Their facades weresaturated decorations give the impression that through lack of theirauthors of good taste.

TimTime went by European architects of the so-called "newarchitecture ". It is characterized by rationality, clarity of forms and linesapplication of new technical designs, materials such as concrete, metal,glass. However, the disadvantages of a "new architecture" were universal,uniformity, similarity houses. Against this trend by the representatives ofnational architectural schools.

Attemptscombine the best of world heritage national features brightlyevident in the works of famous Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer.

Frencharchitects have made bold projects that combine the past with facilitiesmodern architectural features.

The currentindustry enables architects to carry out most daring fantasies. In plantscombined straight and curved lines, extreme forms of design. Appearbuilding in the form of trapezoids, globular.

Onthe first stage of a "new architecture" almost allpidporyadkovuvalos external form, the man often "dissolved" inhuge areas. Gradually, the architects have started to overcome this shortcoming.An objective set architecture dependent on the human factor. HoweverSome architects embraced it as a call to move away from traditional forms.Erected buildings whose form does not meet the residential premises.

Nowarchitects continue to seek more advanced forms that would harmoniyuvaly withnature.

EndThe Cold War and international rehabilitation had a positiveimpact on the spiritual life of society. The world has finally come to realizepriority of human values. Cultural perspectives openedcooperation.

DemocraticRevolution in countries with totalitarian and authoritarian regimes have fueled an unprecedenteddevelopment of culture. Have been developed various schools and directions.

Simultaneouslyin modern culture the disturbing trend. National culture withoutgovernment support are no longer competitive with mass culture.


I wonder

Major trends and stylesart century.


Main ideas

Modern (in poetry - symbolism)

Call to  mystical, personalized nature of images, symbols. Rejection of the previous  cultural traditions.


Objections values  civilization antyestetychnyh image, pushing sides of life.


Emotionalism,  riot of sound, color, denial of consumer experience.


Looking at the world through  child.


Image of reality in  the form of interlocking are connected, geometrically correct figures show no  subjects, and its construction


Transmission dynamics  traffic changes.


Retrieved from real  image expression of the artist's inner world.


Create your own  nadrealnosti world that irrational, symbolic, fantastic declared the main source  creative subconscious, and method - logical break ties.


Convergence of Art  engineering creativity, rational organization of work.

Pop Art

Transformation  any object of everyday life in an object of art. Trying to discover  internal essence of things


Combining various  styles of the past and present. West and East, the elements of folklore, popular culture,  Pop Art


The combination of national  realist tradition, showing pictures of epic history of revolutionary struggle


Works that contain  warning of future disaster

Kinetic Art

Create sophisticated devices  moving


Art that seeks to  photographic image ilyuzornosti


Using optical  effects


Objections visual  information, consideration of art as a message (the main form - concept perfomens)





1.    Identify the main trends of changes in the culture of the twentieth century.

2.    Identify the conditions, factors that influenced the development of culture in the secondhalf of the twentieth century.

Conditions, factors





3.    Do you agree that popular culture should not dominatetraditional. Justify their thoughts.