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§ 43. Postindustrial (informational) society. (textbook)

Culture in the second half of the XX - XXI century.


§43. Postindustrial (informational) society.  Development of Education and Science


1. Postindustrial (informational)society and its impact on cultural development

            The modern world has entered the third millennium.This important milestones approached humanity with great achievements and greatlosses. Today, all interested in the question: what future awaits us? Which waywill be developed civilization in the XXI century.? Always predict the futuredifficult, so researchers give different answers to these questions. Muchsupporters gained the post-industrial civilization theory. According to itindustrial civilization era ended and humanity (or a substantial part)entered the next phase of development - post-industrial civilization.

            What are the trends that are inherentnew stage of civilization of mankind?


Key trendsdevelopment of culture in the second half of the XX - XXI century.

-       The development of "mass culture", its rapid spread, commercialization  culture;

-       Search for new forms of aesthetic expression;

-       Development of national cultures and interpenetration of cultures of different regions  world fusion of cultures;

-       The accelerated development of equipment and technologies;

-       Progress in the dissemination of information on information technology.


            NTR plays an important role,achievement of which should qualitatively change the whole system of production. In consequencethis will become more oriented to meeting human needs mostactivates the creativity of any person who will be required in-depth knowledgeability to make independent decisions and respond quickly to changing situations.Characteristic of industrial civilization will disappear huge plants and factories thatinflicted much damage to the environment. Instead, distribution will takesmall businesses wasteless technology, the use of syntheticinstead of natural raw materials. new energy sources, strict adherence to environmentalnorms. This will be possible to overcome the numerous environmental problemsalso became one of the consequences of industrialization.

            There are grounds tosay about this mighty deurbanizatsiyi - reducingurban population. In the industrial era by city established roleadministrative, industrial and cultural centers. Recently in the developedcountries tends to growing numbers of people. Unwillingsettle in metropolitan areas and prefer living in rural farmsteadstype beyond. Thanks to computers and electronic communicationspeople here feel themselves separated from the outside world and can not onlyrest, but  work.

            It is likely that post-industrial eracause many changes in socio-political sphere. Many researcherstend to think that the state will try reducing the directintervention in the economy and public life in general, deal primarilyprotection of human rights, settlement of social conflicts. Warningviolations and the rule of law. Governments should be characterizeddecentralization, attempts to make it more democratic, close to the needsrights. Increase the powers of regional and municipal authorities.

            Significant changes must occur inspiritual sphere. At the end of the twentieth century. there was a crisis of existing systemsvalues. Consequently, unfolded the renewed interest in religion thatfor millennia been a source of rights for spiritual strength and protectorcivilizational traditions. Along with this there is disappointment in the "popular culture"and the rising popularity of "high (elitist) culture. Based on these phenomenaput forward projections of future spiritual renewal of humanity.

Importanttrend that will probably determine the future of humanity isglobalization (the spread of certain factors beyond individual public areasglobally). Many researchers see the sign of globalizationof forming a single planetary civilization. As a result, significantlygrowing interdependence of local civilizations, which today is incapable ofconduct a separate, isolated existence. Events that occur in a particularcountry often also affect the fate of its neighbors, and sometimes in the worldwhole. Globalization has both negative developments (world wars, the great economiccrisis, threat to use weapons of mass destruction) and the positive aspects(Formation of "global division of labor and the global market, enhanceauthority of international organizations. Exchange of scientific and cultural achievementsknowledge on best forms of economic, social and politicallife, critical limitation of military production).

            These trends havegeneralized nature and according to them. Who defines them, are only temporary and thereforein the future may be formed new civilizational framework. What exactly will becivilization of the XXI century.? What awaits us: the golden age or apocalypse? Replythese questions will give your business the same person.


2. The development of science and technology in the second halfTwentieth century.

            AfterWorld War II development of science and technology became such a rapid rate,that was called technological revolution. During the 20-30's fordoubling the volume of scientific knowledge should have been 24 years in the 1945-1964 biennium -14 years late twentieth century. - 5-7 years.

            The largestdiscovery of mankind in the twentieth century. was mastering nuclear energy. However, thisopening in the first place was used in the military sphere. Creation of nuclear,and eventually, hydrogen and thermonuclear weapons posed to humanity opportunitytotal destruction. Only in 1956 was built in the UK nuclearreactor, which was considered suitable for commercial use. Nuclearenergy end of the century provided only about 8% of world productionenergy. After the Chernobyl accident (April 26, 1986) to nuclearEnergy began to behave very cautiously, but some countries refusedits use (Scandinavian countries, etc.).. Nuclear programs of certain countriesconcern and suspicion around the world (Korea, Iran, etc.).

            Post-warwere marked by further development of transport: road, rail,Aviation. The main directions of transport were increasing theirload-bearing capacity, speed and distance of transportation.

            Onend of the twentieth century. worldwide there were over 500 million cars (in the thirdUSA). Their annual output reaches 30 million units. Speed cars comparedwith the middle of the twentieth century. increased several times.


Head officeBMW in Munich

            Inrailways also changed significantly. Increasing the rail network, more quicklywas the movement of trains (on the highway to 400 km / h) increased theircarrying capacity. From steam trains, traction control switched to electricity, liquid fuel(Electric, diesel).


High speed train.Germany


            DuringTwentieth century. steadily increased carrying capacity of ships. In the 70's have appearedvodomistkistyu supertanker over 500 tons. Speed vessels for 50 yearsincreased by 2 times. Also appeared on ships, submarines with nuclearpower plants that allow vessels plow the maritime area for yearswithout refueling. The first such ship was the icebreaker "Lenin", built in the USSR.

            Receiveddevelopment of transport air-cushion that allows you to move as the water,and by land. Under development is a new form of transport - Ekranoplan(Plane, ship), which speeds the aircraft can overcome sea.

            Muchgrew and developed transport aircraft. In 1949, was created in Englandfirst prototype jet airliner Comet. Butprevalent, the Soviet Tu-104 "(Released in 1955) and U.S. Boeing-707 "(produced with1958). In 50 years of the aircraft broke the sound barrier. In the 70 years werebuilt passenger aircraft with supersonic speed: Soviet "Tu-144 (1975), andFranco-British Concorde "(1976), but they do not become widespread.Appeared promising direction of development of passenger aircraft launched"Boeing 747"(1970) - The world's largest passenger jet aircraft, which oneflight carrying 500 passengers.


Franco-BritishConcorde carried out during the 1930 transatlantic air


            Greatestsuccesses achieved in the airlift the United States and the USSR (later Ukraine,Russia). In the design office named. Antonova (Kyiv) was createdthe largest transport aircraft, which successfully flew on all continents: AN-125Ruslan (one flight can carry just over 120 tons of cargo) andAN-225 (250 tons).

            Postwardevelopment of rocket technology in the first place was motivated to develop effectivecarriers of nuclear weapons. Most developed rocketry received in the USSR(Later in Ukraine and Russia) and the U.S.. Great success in this way alsoreached France, China, Japan and others. Rocket of the U.S. and USSR to a largeAs all start with the missile programs of Nazi Germany to create aballistic missile FAU-2. The development of missile technology has given an opportunity toold dream of mankind - a flight into space. His first achievement in this areademonstrated the Soviet Union, starting in 1957 the first artificial satellite (a U.S.made in 1958) and April 12, 1961 Yuri Gagarin made the firstmanned flight. Also in the USSR was the first female cosmonaut flightTereshkova. However, the U.S. first made in July 1969 manned flightthe Moon (a total of 12 visited the lunar surface astronauts. first of whichNeil Armstrong was), began to use "space shuttle" - rocket planes(Program "shuttle"). Two of the "shuttle" wrecked - "Challenger" (1986)and "Atlantis" (2003). In turn, the USSR was the first to create spaceorbital station (Mir), which made it possible to make long spaceexperiments expedition. Soviet astronauts also put on recordlength of stay in space (over a year).


Transportationmultiple ship Boeing


            Onnow is building the International Space Station (Alpha)and preparing an international manned flight to the planet Mars. EndTwentieth century. was also to develop space tourism.

            Exceptmanned flight achieved significant scale launch of satellites: spiescommunications, meteorological exploration, etc.. Currently a significant numbersuch satellites launched Ukrainian launch vehicles. Now around the orbitEarth rotating one thousand satellites.

            Developmentaviation, space and other equipment created an incentive to find and createnew construction materials. Since the late 30 th century. was possiblethrough chemistry, chemical physics, quantum mechanics, crystallography to creatematerials with predetermined properties, which are of great strength and resilience.In 1938 almost simultaneously in Germany and the U.S. were created man-made fibers- Kapron, perlon, nylon, synthetic resin, which allowed to create a fundamentallynew materials. Their production after World War II has become particularlylarge scale. Yes, only from 1951 to 1966 range of chemicalindustry has grown by 10 times. Is currently in the hundreds. The largestachievement was the creation of composite materials that enablereplace metals. Not stood still and metallurgy, which dominated the productionalloy steel (with the addition of tungsten and molybdenum), titanium alloys and more.

            Chemistry,Biology has not been spared the attention and agriculture, which insecond half of the twentieth century. were actively used fertilizers,that increased soil fertility. Also active were usedvariety of pesticides that selectively act on harmful plants, drill `Jana(Herbicides, pesticides). Thanks to the introduction of new varieties and chemicals dobryvavmanaged to increase productivity in the period 1930-1990's at 2-3. Significantachievement in the second half of the twentieth century. occurred in genetics. Leadership heretook the U.S. (In Soviet genetics was declared false science, and successful researchM. Vavilov were collapsed). In 1953 Cambridge scientistsUniversity D. F. Watson and Crick discovered the DNA molecule that carries the programdevelopment of the organism. In 1972, University of Californiastudied the changing structure of DNA, paving the way for the creationartificial organisms. The first patent in this area, the creation of geneticengineered microorganisms, accelerated processing of crude oil, was released in1980 American scientist A. Chakrabarti. In 1988 HarvardUniversity received a patent for growing, using genetic manipulation,living mice. Began breeding animals and plants (GM -modified). In particular, the plants were created. Resistant to pests orhave certain specified properties. However, in many countries for their use isbias, even there are legal prohibitions. Motivated by the fact thatno studies that have yielded positive results, they do not affect infuture human genotype.

            OnThreshold of the XXI century. were open the possibility of cloning - the artificial cultivation ofone copy of this biological cells of the body donor. Sheep of Destiny, grownScottish scientists, has become a real sensation. Attempts were made repeated statementson human cloning. However, in most countries it is prohibited by law.

            Developmentchemistry, biology, genetics, gave a powerful impetus to the development of medicine. Were createdinnovative healthcare products. Mankind got rid of many diseases, learnedtransplanted organs, replacing them with artificial and more. New methodsdiagnosis. However, this did not save humanity from the emergence of new incurable diseases(AIDS, atypical pneumonia, etc.).

            Considerableimpact on modern civilization had achievements in the field of electronics. At onceafter World War II created the first electronic computers(EC). Although they were cumbersome (EC ENIAK, established in the United States in 1946 weighed30 tons, occupied an area 150 mApt. and had 18 thousand electronic tubes) and perform only simple actionsThey gave a powerful impetus to research in this field. For the second generationComputer set up on the basis of semiconductor transistors, reduced in size,become faster and work a little more memory. Third generation computers wereis due to the advent of integrated circuits, circuit boards, which placed firstdozens, and eventually millions of semiconductors, enabling theincrease the speed of up to 100 million operations per second.

            Fourthgeneration of computers was created thanks to the invention in 1971 microprocessor toflint chip-chip, smaller than 1 cm square. This enabled apersonal computer. It significantly accelerates technological progress and led tofundamental changes in everyday life.

            Fifth,modern, computer-generation to accept and restore not only numerical but also imageinformation, engage with human-based software foundationsoftware. The spread of personal computers has created conditions for aof computer information networks, the most famous of which Internet. It gaveopportunity almost immediately transmit and perceive information, engage withany corner of the globe where there is a second computer.

            Sixthgeneration of computers will have a material medium as the memory is not crystalbasis, and biological molecules or polymer substantu (biochipy), which willto create artificial intelligence.

            DevelopmentComputers made it possible to create industrial robots that have replacedautomatic production lines. At the end of the twentieth century. world there300 thousand robots. Works made it possible considerably to improve the technologicalprocess to replace the man in many processes.

            OnCurrently, the development of science and technology makes the issue that the inventionTwentieth century. is most important, irrelevant. Any changes in the home,society and civilization is the embodiment of progress materialized in manyfields of science and technology. Thus, according to American scientists, microchipsused in 24 thousand types of products, which produces U.S.industry.

            Exceptthese branches of science, there was progress in other (mathematics, astronomy,surveying, economics, social sciences, etc.) that have extended people's knowledge about the worldsociety and all that surrounds us.


I wonder

The most important scientific and technological achievements and discoveriessecond half of the twentieth century.


The most important scientific and technological achievements and discoveries


Invention kserohrafuvannya Chestorom Carlson. The first commercial version  Machines made in 1946


Construction of the first Sikorsky helicopter MI (USA)


Create your first radar station (radar)


Create your first electronic computing machines Atanasoffom John.  It was recognized only in 1973


Creation of the first atomic bomb (USA)


Invention American scientist Willard Libby radiocarbon method  analysis to determine the age and other archaeological finds. In 1960  according to the invention received the Nobel Prize.


Create your first microwave engineer Percy Spencer (USA)


Levenshtein Cell Phone (USA).


Invention of instant picture (Edwin Land, U.S.)


Invention of semiconductor transistors. John Bardeen, Walter Bratteyn,  William Shokli. In 1956, they received the Nobel Prize.


Early Invention Tupper plastic dish. In addition, he invented  new way of product: a multilevel marketing.


Invention long-playing records (Peter Holdmark)


Invention Remember yatovuyuchoho device on the magnetic cores of An Wang  (Chinese, worked in the U.S.). Founded his company created the world's first  desktop calculator and mini-computer.


Create your first credit card.


Development of technology for mass building of houses to apartments, typical of  contemporary finish. (William Leavitt, U.S.)


Creation of the first birth control pills biologist H. Pinkasom (USA). In  1960 approved for use.

August 12, 1953

First  hydrogen bomb tests in the USSR


Under  by S. Lebedev in the Soviet Union built a large electronic computer  VEOM car-1

June 27  1954

Start the first in  World nuclear power capacity in the USSR 5MVt in Obninsk (Kaluga  region.)


Creating the U.S.  the first aircraft with vertical take-off.


Creation  first high-level programming languages - Fortran.


Opening  first fast-food restaurants "McDonald" Ray Step

November 22  1955

The first in the world  hydrogen bomb test aircraft (USSR)


Invention  vaccine poliomielitu


Launched  in the U.S. the world's first nuclear submarine


Invention  Narinderom dripping optical fibers (light) - flexible glass yarn  pass light, carrying the picture with minor loss of light.


Introduction  operation of the first jet plane TU-104.


Invention  Malkomom McLean standard cargo containers for rail,  road, sea transportation.


Launches First  nuclear reactor in the U.S. in Shyppinhport (Pennsylvania)

August 9  1957

Launch  the first Soviet nuclear boat "Leninsky Komsomol".

October 4  1957

Starting in the USSR  the world's first artificial satellite "Sputnik-1

November 3  1957

Launch  orbit of the first Biological "Sputnik-2 with a dog swearing. Dog of  Overheating killed in the five-hour flight yatiy.

December 5  1957

Floating in  USSR first atomic ice-breaker "Lenin".



Starting in the USSR  At that time the most powerful accelerator of parts - synchrophasotron.

January 31


Running in the USA first  artificial satellite

"Explorer -1"


Grounding  American physicists mean and Towns AL Shavlovym possibility of creating laser.  In 1964, created dioxide laser, which was used in  surgery.


Invention  first elektrostymulyatora weak heart Vaylsonom Hreytbetchem


Creation  the world's first integrated circuit on silicon plate (Robert Noyce) and  germanium (Jack S. Kilbi). This invention is essential in modern microelectronics.

March 3


Running in the USA  interplanetary space station "Pioneer-4. Relationship of it broke on  distance of 654 thousand km from Earth. She went beyond the solar system. On  It mistytsya Disco with a message from earth by aliens.

October 7


Soviet interplanetary  automatic station "Luna-3 was first photographed the back side of the Moon and  transmitted images to Earth.


Creation  an engineer company of Volvo Nilzom Bolin seat belts for cars.


With American  satellite "Echo", "Kur` Prime 'first installed satellite phone service  between the U.S. and Europe.


Victor Mills,  inventor of peanut butter and potato chips, working in the company  Procter & Gamble created diapers (disposable diapers)

April 12


First flight  human into space on a spaceship

"Voskhod-1".  He carried Yuri Gagarin (USSR). Have been in space 108 min., Obletivshy once  Earth.

May 5


American astronaut  on the ship "Mercury" made suborbital flight, rising to over 186 km  earth after spending 15 minutes in flight 22 seconds.

6-7 August


Soviet  G. cosmonaut Titov spent in flight 25 hours 11 min., 17 times obletivshy Earth.

February 20


American  Dzh.Hlenn astronaut on a spaceship "Mercury-6" circled the Earth three times.

November 2


Volga HPP  (Samara) has reached the designed capacity of 2.53 million kw, becoming the most powerful  power plant in the world.


Invention  modem.


Running in the USA  first television satellite, Telstar.


Soviet  physicist J. Denisyuk discovered holography (three-dimensional images using laser)


Soviet physicist  L. Landau received the Nobel Prize for developing the theory of liquid helium.

June 16


Starting in the USSR  spaceship "Vostok" with first woman cosmonaut V. Tereshkovoy that  spent in flight 60 hours 41 min.


Invention vaccine  from measles.


Awards  Soviet physicists N. Basov, A. Prokhorov, mean American Towns  Nobel Prize for the creation of the first quantum generators

March 18-19  1965

First output  Soviet cosmonaut A. Leonov's EVA (20 min).

March 1


Soviet  automatic station "Venera-3" has reached the surface of Venus.


Soviet  automatic station "Luna-9 took samples of soil of the moon, and" Luna-10 "was  first artificial satellite of the Moon ..

November 4


Opening  highest at the time Ostankino television tower in Moscow. 533 meters high (with  antenna and the flag 540 meters)  weight of 50 thousand tons can withstand hurricanes and earthquakes in 8 points.

November 10


Running the most powerful  At that time, proton accelerator in Serpukhov (USSR)


Implementation  the world's first transaction with heart transplants. The surgeon Christian Barnard (South Africa)


Invention  of computer "mouse" (Douglas Endhelbart). Mass began with its use  1981

December 31


First  experimental flight of supersonic passenger aircraft Tu-144.


Creation  ATMs


Creation  Internet

July 16-24


Creation on the near  first orbiting space station from three Soviet spacecraft Soyuz.

July 20


At first Looney  landed two American astronauts - Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin.


First flight of the largest  passenger plane Boeing-747 (500 passengers)


Creation  Internet.

September 27


Soviet  automatic station "Luna-16" delivered on Earth 101 g month  soil.

November 17  1970

Proceeded to study  month, the world's first misyatsehid "moonwalker-1 is designed Babakinym G..  Research carried out for 10 months, was scheduled three.


Creation  first solar oven.


Invention  James Russell CD.


Creation  the first microprocessor.


Creation  answering machine.


Invention  computer-tomographic images, which has greatly improved medical  diagnosis


Creation  first video games. Nolan Bushnell created the electronic game of tennis.


Creation  first biotech company.


Creation  Concorde supersonic airplane (England and France)

August 17


Soviet  icebreaker Arktika reached the North Pole first.


The first artificial  fertilization. Birth of first child in "test tube".

April 12-14


First flight  reusable space shuttle "Columbia" (USA) in frame  program "shuttle".


Writing in France  operation ultrafast train TGV (400 km per hour).


Transplantation  first artificial heart.


Opening  AIDS virus


American  astronauts first went into open space without being connected to property '  ship.


Launch  orbit of the Soviet station Mir (in late 2000 was  submerged in the ocean)


Creation  World Wide Web (Wold Wide Web). What also text messages  can transmit audio and video.

March  1995

Completion  the longest flight in space - 437 days, Russian cosmonaut Polyakov


Beginning  building in earth orbit international space station "Alpha"


            Under the influence of science and technologygreat changes have taken place in human life. However, it should be noted that these changeshave different effects in different parts of the world.


Changes in people's lives in the twentieth century.


Area where there have been changes

Summary of changes

The industry

Go to Mass  production, new technologies, automation and robotics  production, increase its volume more than 30 times

In agriculture

Mechanization  processing of land reclamation, chemicalization, the introduction of biotechnology and methods  genetic engineering

In science

Speed  creation of new knowledge has increased 10 times, merging science and industry

In medicine

Doubling  average life expectancy, population growth in 3,5 times,  the emergence of incurable diseases, modification of old, their resistance to  traditional medicine

At home

Urbanization,  share of urban population increased from 10% to 50%. Most of the population  employed in the service sector and industry, technical saturation of human life  means

In mass communications

Development  transport, development of airspace. Creating global networks  transmission media (radio, television, Internet)

In military-technical sphere

Creating Weapons  mass destruction (chemical, nuclear, biological, etc.)..


3. Global Problems of Mankind

            Advances in world civilizationTwentieth century. That emerged in the growth of living standards of many regionspeace, alleviation of social problems in developed countries to achievescientific and technological progress, at first glance indicated the possibilityunlimited progressive development of mankind. At the same time at the end of the twentieth century.sharpened a range of unresolved which threatensexistence of humanity itself.

            Concept global issuesAffecting the vital interests of all peoplesworld demand for its solving the collective efforts of the worldpublic, declared themselves in full voice in 50 years of the twentieth century.

            Among the global challenges scientistsemit: military threat to humanity (the threat of weapons of mass destruction of humanitydestruction: nuclear, chemical, biological, etc.), environmental (pollutionenvironment that destroys habitat for all livingland), distribution of new incurable diseases, terrorism, demographic problems,problem of finding energy reduction of natural resources, drug andorganized crime, poverty etc..

            Global problems have the sameyednuyuchu based objects and human nature.

            Solve global problemsby one country - impossible. You need cooperationglobally constructive and close cooperation of all countries.Common global challenges for humanity and the common causes ofsolved. Global issues require global and answers. For theirsolving the need to unite the efforts of world governments as well asPublic (a movement for peace, environmental movements, etc.).


Contemporary World Problems


Global problems

No global problems

Pollution  Environment

Information  Security

International  terrorism

Crisis  traditional values, family

Mastering  space and the oceans

The national and ethnic  problems

Food  problem

Energy  problem

Problem  Population

The problem of overcoming backwardness

Problem  raw


Relative position on how should the role of humanin the world, as far as actually existing serious global challengesproblems humanity will face in the near future and how they can solve




The role of man on Earth

Conquest  nature for economic growth

Cooperation  with nature to achieve economic growth that supports  Life Earth

Problem environment

Exaggerated;  can be solved through economic growth and technological  innovations

Serious on  present and may be even more serious, if not move to stable  Economic Development

The growing population

No  need to control, people are the most important potential to address  problems faced.

People should  decide how many children have.

Birth Control  necessary to prevent local, regional breach  life support.

People should  to be free in solution, but to have children, but only so  as they do not violate the rights of others to survive.

Depletion and degradation of resources

We do not  exhausts resources, potentially renewable, because they learn better  use them or find a replacement

We do not  exhausts the resources that are not restored, so that we can develop new  reservoir exploit poorer or find them a replacement.

Economic  growth and technical innovations speed reduce resource depletion and  pollution to the required level

In many  regions are already experiencing degradation of resources recovered and further  their intensive use can lead to irreversible processes.

We probably do not  can find a substitute to those resources that are not restored, and the introduction  new ones can cause significant economic hardship.

High rates  resource utilization and unnecessarily large amounts of waste in  industrialized countries, leading to regional and global  resource depletion, pollution and environmental degradation.

Energy resources

Rely on  nuclear energy and renewable resources not oil, coal and natural  gas

Stress  need for energy, Solar energy, wind and water, and  also the resources of biomass, renewable

Saving resources

Reuse,  introduction of energy-and resource-saving technologies is desirable, but not  should affect the pace of economic development.

We can find  replacement of any kinds of resources that are rarely seen, so saving is not  required, except where it contributes to economic growth

Introduction  energy-saving technologies and  is vital. It is productive in the long run and  extend use of the resources are limited. Moreover, died `yakshuyut  impact on the environment.

The replacement is possible and  not find. Or it will be worse or much dorohshoyu.


Wild  plants and wild animals are to meet our needs

Premature  disappearance of any species of wildlife as a result of human activities  unjustified. These potentially renewable resources should be used  only for critical needs, not whims

Pollution control

Pollution control  should not affect economic growth, because it depends  get the means to control pollution.

Those who  pollute should receive grants and tax credits for installation  equipment for pollution control.

Emphasize that  need to control the output level of contamination is after  it happened.

Waste  economically efficient burn, flood or zahoronyuvaty.

Insufficient  control pollution causes significant damage, decreases in long-  term economic efficiency.

Those who  polluter should bear the cost of reducing pollution to acceptable  level. The prices should also include the costs of pollution control,  so that consumers should have the idea that what they buy and enjoy.  Using the principle of all the taxpayer pays the "mask pernicious  influences the production of goods and services.

Emphasize that  need to control inlet to prevent contamination.

Eye  waste as resources to be reused.


I wonder

            Club of Rome - an influential publicorganization established in 1968 group of scientists to discuss problemssurvival of human civilization, which threatens a number of global problems. Manyyears head of the Italian club was a public figure Aurelio Pechchei. It Pechcheiformed the main objectives of the organization - development of research in ecology,completeness of resources, economic growth, population explosion and so on. InAmong the founders of the club was Eduard Pestel, a German scientist,specialist in the theory of system analysis and automated methodsmanagement. The first report of the Club of Rome was called the "Limits to Growth", hewas prepared by the research group led by Dennis andDonely Meadows, staff at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (USA)Published in 1972 The report condemned the rampant growth of growthproduction in the world. The second report appeared in 1974 and was called "Mankindat a crossroads. The institutions were E. Pestel and M. Masarovych. It ratherthe first report was launched as a promising concept for humanity  Organic growth, which identified the worldfrom a living organism, where each region has its own function within a whole.

            Third report of the Club of Rome wasNetherlands signed the famous economist Jan Tinberherom and his band. Hecalled "restructuring the international order" (RIO). Project RIO out of ideasinterdependence of all nations and peoples, the need for change insocio-economic, political and cultural sphere and the formation of newworld order. The purpose of this agenda should be to to, coordinatinginterests of all countries, developed as well as those developing countries. Createeffective management of international relations. This should besolution correlated problem of creditors and of debtors. Those of them who are inprinciple can not pay for decades of accumulated unequal existencethe global debt market, they should be written off. The world must become morejust, otherwise he has little chance of survival. You must stop the raceweapons. No point and no future and spend a means to forcea weapon is necessary to concentrate all efforts on the rational useEarth's resources, protecting the natural balance, the attainment by all peopledecent standard of living.

            In addition to the Club of Rome isPahuoshskyy movement that founded a number of modern scientists (Bertrand Russell, AlbertSchweitzer et al.). The main objective of this movement is to discuss problemsresponsibility of scientists for the fate of their inventions and discoveries: they should notused for evil must serve to benefit mankind.



            In 70 years of industrial countriesentered a stage of development, which leads them to a new type of society,which is most often defined as news. There are other definitions: newindustrial - D. Galbraith, tehnotronne - Z. Brzezinski, postindustrial -D. Bell. But all the researchers note its one key feature - the information becomesgoods and forms of industry knowledge and information.

            The transition from industrial topost-industrial society was accompanied by significant progress and science andtechnique. What was the name of scientific and technological revolution (STC).

            But progresshumanity put on the agenda of a number of problems that no one canleave indifferent, they affect the fate of all human civilization and eachperson individually. Because of these problems and are considered global. These includeinclude: environmental, social, political, economic, spiritual. Solutionthese problems is possible only through the concerted efforts of all people.



1.    What is a postindustrial society? What are its main features, features?

2.    What are the achievements of mankindin the second half of the twentieth Art. you consider most significant? A justification.

3.    Fill in the table: "The development of science and technology in the second half of XX -the beginning of. "



Physics, New  structural materials






Chemistry, Biochemistry,  genetics, medicine


Electronics and  Robotics


4.    Would you describe the twentieth century. century of progress and the rule of reason?Arguments reply.

5.    Explain why human progress is accompanied by the surge and escalationglobal challenges of development.

6.    How connected between a problem of development and ecology?