§ 12. Religion of Ancient Egypt
Asall the ancient peoples, Egyptians, their gods united with the forces of nature.
ResidentsAncient Egypt attached great importance that the will of the soul after deathrights. Life, considered Egyptians – only temporary in this world,moment compared to the perpetual existence of the soul in the afterlife. Forotherworldly life, not only prepared the dead body, turning it intomummy, but also built "houses of eternity" – pyramids and tombs.Originally pharaohs and nobles were buried in pyramids of people who impressed his contemporaries anddescendants of its size and grandeur. Over time, fearing lootersconcealed from the stranger's eye and the rich tombs of rulers in the carved out inrocks burial complexes. As for Egyptians afterlife was soBut real as the earthly, the study of tombs content enabled scientists to playmany aspects of life from ancient Egypt.
1. The conception of the world
Opinionsthe emergence of the world and the gods of the Egyptians who lived in different parts of the country weredifferent. Residents Heliopolis believed that before the world beganwas just chaos – Nune. Later in hisdepths is the creator Atum. He created the Earth andfirst gods – Шу (Air) and Tefnut (Moisture). Then there Heb(Earth) and Nut (sky). Descendants Heb Chickpea and werenine gods. Among them – Seth Oziris, Isis, Neftyda. And only thenwere men. According to one version, they were born from the tears of the Sun God. In another – created themby order Ра God is the potter Hnum,vylipyvshy of clay. Atum considered the first kingEgypt. That is why the pharaohs believed descendants of the gods.
Byrepresentations of people Memphis firstthere was a god Pta (Bird). He created the eight gods.One of these gods was AtumWhich built the universe.
ResidentsHermopolis believed that the ocean came up fourgods who were heads of frogs, – Nune, Huh, Cook, Amon,them – four zmiyeholovyh goddess. FloatingOcean, they created an egg. With eggs in a bird (the falcon or ibis) is Atum (Ра). Atum (Ра) Created the universe and everything in it.
Asresidents believed Thebes, from the ocean (chaos) was born snakeswhich had a name Kematef. When he died, he bequeathedhis son IRTA create eight gods. BornThe gods went to The White Nile HermopolisWherecreated the Sun God – РаAnd thenwent to Memphis andHeliopolis and created Pta and Atum. Then eightwent to the gods Thebes, Where he died.
Terms and Notions
Mummy – embalmedhuman or animal body
Pantheon - A set of godsone religion.
2. Egyptian gods
Eachphenomenon of nature, orb Egyptians associated with a specific god. Therefore, highercreatures according to their beliefs, there were many. Higher beings ever were, along withperson helping or punishing. Gods big family united in – pantheon.In the Egyptian pantheon included: Amon – godsun, Aten - the embodiment of the sun. The Egyptians believed that the share of this god є in every living being. Isis – goddess of fertility, water, wind,shipping. She taught women to weave, spin, curing. Apis – godfertility. The Egyptians imagined it as a bull. God Anubis – patrondead. It was believed that he created the first mummy and taught the people of this craft.Anubis was depicted as a man with a jackal head. Apop – monstersnakes that personified an evil enemy of God Ра. Helived in the ground. Nightly Apop laid wait in the РаWho sailed the boat in a sunny underground Nile. Every day betweenthem there was a battle in which Ра always proceededwinner (the Egyptians imagined the change of day and night). Bast – goddessjoy. she was portrayed as a woman with the head of cats. Gore – godheaven. Depicted as a person with a head of a falcon. Maat – goddess of justice and harmony. Sheparticipate in the creation of the universe and in court Ozirisa – godunderground kingdom.
Ozirisa among the trees depicted in the form of Rightsgreen skin. The Egyptians believed that each year Ozirisdying and reborn to new life. Sethdepicted the face of hunting and fiery hair. The date of his birth -pre-third, because Egyptians believed this day unhappy.
3. Oziris- Holder of the underground kingdom
AncientEgyptians believed in eternal life after earthly and perceived only as a time whensoul is preparing to move into the realm of the dead. So, when God, who reigned in the kingdomdead, was one of the most respected.
Oziris was the eldest son of the god of the earth Hebeand the sky goddess Nut. Like the pharaohs, he first reigned on earth. Heboard people knew neither wars nor disease nor death. Oziristaught Egyptians agriculture and viticulture, building cities, mining copperand gold ore, art therapy and literacy. God of the desert, wind and war Sethwanted to eliminate Ozirisa. First, he producedsarcophagus. Then made a feast to which invited Ozirisa.Here Seth announced that the sarcophagus will be donated to whom come in size.
When Oziris gone into it, closed the sarcophagus lid, sealedlead and thrown into the Nile. But Oziris voskresnuv withdead. He left the throne to his son Hill, and he stood him to rule and reign in courtHades. Gore was the last god on earthas other higher beings migrated to heaven. Gore1980 fought against Seth. Not just killed SethMountain, but the gods of heaven every time he raised the mountains and returned the king's throneon earth, which he then gave human rulers – Pharaoh.
4. Erebus. Kingdomdead
Byrepresentation of the ancient Egyptians, the kingdom of the dead, nothing different from Earth.Therefore, provided the deceased things, which he used to enjoy in life:clothing, food, decorations. Military laid their weapons, farmers – hoes,pystsevi – clay tablets.
ResidentsEgyptians believed that the underground kingdom situated far to the west and to reachwithout obstruction OzirisaNeed to know muchspells. recorded their priests to the Book of the Dead. Reached the "GreatTwo House of Truth, where he reigned Oziris, Deceasedhath before his trial.
Fatedeceased judge decided in 1942. He had to plead guilty or not guiltyin sin. Before the court said deceased prayer. In it he perelichuvavall the sins which are not owed. Then he answered questions the wisdom of God Thoth.
Terms and Notions
Sarcophagus - A stone box withdepicted characters and magic spells, which housed the coffinwith the body.
Prayer dead objection before the court Ozirisa
I did not commit injustice against people.
I'm not wrong ones.
I told a lie in place of truth.
I do not rob the poor.
I did not do anything against the will of the gods.
I do not incite servant against master.
I have not poisoned.
I did not kill.
I commanded them not to kill.
I robbed graves.
I am not afflicted widows.
I have not done anyone harm.
I pryvlasnyuvav gifts that they brought into the house, not hunted sacredanimals.
I have no sin, I have no sin, I do not havesin, I have no sin, my saintliness - a saintliness Grand Phoenix(Ben) that Herakleopoli.
I was not hurt in the Big House TwoThe truth because I know names of gods that are next to you.
Questions to the document
1. What personal qualities valued in ancient Egypt?
2. What ancient Egyptians considered a sin?
Righteous souls determined by weights. In one bowl put heart (In it, according to the Egyptians,contained a soul), the second – Mrs BirdEro, to symbolize justice.
Balance held Anubis and sentence vynosyv Toth. Ifheart to prevail, the deceased was a sinner and the Beast Amtu – lion with the head of a crocodile ate it.If the deceased did not have grihiv, thenozhyvav for-eternal Lifein paradise – Iaru. Fields Iaru little differentfrom the top halfs Egypt. Theirsurrounded by a bronze wall whichdefended the righteous. In Paradise peasantscultivated land were pystsi accounting,pharaohs ruled their subordinates. But the soul from time to time returned to the bodyand because the Egyptians wanted to keep it as long as possible, making the mummies.
WhenEgyptians did not know the secrets of embalming, the body of the dead were buried in justhot desert sand. Later found substances that gave the opportunity to savebody from decay. Embalming were only experts who knew himSecrets. For their work is constantly supervised priests. Mummification neededbig money, so save the dead body so could afford toOnly wealthy Egyptians, including pharaohs.
Terms and Notions
Embalmment (Mummification) - Special handlingdead body, which made it possible to save it from dust and decay.
Originally balzamuvalnyky worked on drying the body. His nabyvalypapyrus or sand, covered with tar substances and left for 40-70 days.Produced a body wrapped in linen bandages, putting amulets that were supposed toprotect the deceased in the afterlife. Then mummy placed in threewooden coffins, who put one in one. They in turn put tosarcophagus. Sarcophagus with a mummy brought to the burial chamber in the pyramid ortomb.
Questions and Tasks
1. AsOziris became king in afterlife?
2. Describeas the court held Ozirisa.
3. HowEgyptians imagined paradise?
4.Scho can tell about the real life of the Egyptians, knowingtheir religious beliefs?