Topic 8. Hellenism
§ 41. The rise of Macedonia
The rise of Macedonia(359-336 BC)
1. Wars between the Greek city-states
PeloponnesianWar puts an end to the struggle for leadership among the Greek policies.
Greeceentered the day decline and discord. Policies that sought to free themselves fromSpartans power, resorted to military action against it. Military alliance againstSparta led by Athens. Allies Sparta were: Thebes, Argos and Corinth. On the side of the Allies acted as Persia.They started the so-called Corinthianwar (395-387 BC). In 394, the BC shipsAthenians defeated the Persians and Maloaziyskoho near the coast and its fleet of Spartaallies. In response, the army crushed the enemies of Sparta on land near Koroneyi.
In thiswar is won one, the other party. Worst of all was korynfiyanam, Cities and farming are destroying the war.Result determined fight the Persians: Undaunted strengthening of Athens, they went onside of Sparta, and this determines its victory. In 387, the BC betweenAthens and Sparta were made Antalkidiv peace (bythe name of the commander that he made). Under the peace Sparta regainedhegemony in Greece. But peace did not last long.
In 387, theBC Created Second Athenian Sea Union, which he was 376-371 in the warBC won a victory over Sparta, which also injured another defeatand in combating Beotiyskym Union-ledFivamy (Beotiyska war379-355 years BC). The war began Thebesagainst Sparta. they supported Athens - eternal rival Spartans.
StrengtheningAthens raised the ire of its allies, which resulted inAllied war 357-356 he BCwhich culminated in the loss of Athens tournament.
Declinetraditional leaders - Athens and Sparta led to the strengthening of Macedonia -country in the north of the Balkan Peninsula.
Terms and Notions
Regent - The man who temporarily managed on behalf ofminor ruler.
Hegemony - Political and military domination over other countries.
2. Strengthening of Macedonia during the Philippe II
StrengtheningPart of Greece, called Macedonia began with the reign of King Archelaus (413-399 BC). But on powerful stateInto Macedonia by Philip II (382-336 BC), whobecame regent when the king six years. Having concentrated in the hands and the political andmilitary power, Philip II held several reforms.
Firstturn, changes occurred in the military. PhilippeBy usingAthenian experience, created its own trained, disciplined, irresistibleMacedonian army. They consisted of detachments of infantry, light and heavy cavalry.The main force was the army phalanx man-infantrymen. Armed with enormous spears, which exhibited far ahead,protected by shield and protected by cavalry, they were the terror of the enemy.
Unlike the Greek, Macedonian phalanx had a solid 1916 series.To the Macedonian phalanx included:
1) man- Soldiers - heytary with long spearsover 4 mlarge shields and short swords;
2) infantry - hipastyArmed with long spears of about 3 m and light protective armor.
3. Conquest of Macedonia Greece
Withpowerful army, Philip II in 357-348 years BC subduedland in the north of the Balkan Peninsula. Especially valuable achievement weregold mines, which helped to mint gold coins. On the money PhilippeII well armed army.
Proclaimedin 355, the BC King Philip was planning to conquer all of Greece. Sodirected the troops in Central Greece (Attica). Against Macedoniaby the army of Athens, Thebes, Corinth. Decisive forGreece policyholders battle took place near the city Heroneya in338 was BC Allied Army led afinyanyn Demosthenes.
Macedonianarmy numbered 30 thousand infantry and 2000 cavalry.
PhilippeII, realizing that the greatest threat to its troopsis fivantsi- Soldiers who had greatmilitary experience, with outstanding morale and vowed orwin or die - set against them man-cavalry (heytariv) Headed by his son Alexander. Started the fight. Originally a small successhas united army policies. Mighty blow fivantsivMacedonians forced to make many efforts to stop their advance. But in the battleMacedonian cavalry entered the army. She provided PhilipIIsplendid victory. This is just one battlefield where the young talent shonecommander Alexandra. After the conquest of Greece PhilippeII began to prepare for war with Persia. ForThis was in 338 BC he created a union of Greek policies. But in 336, theBC as a result of collusion PhilippeII waskilled.
Questions and Tasks
1. What caused the Corinthian and BeotiyskuWar?
2. Throughwhy PhilipII managed to conquer the Greekpolicies?
3. Whatfeatures Macedonian phalanx?
4. WhyCorinth Persians supported the war then the Athenians, the Spartans?