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§ 42. East Alexander Macedonian campaign and the establishment of the Hellenistic (textbook)

§ 42. Eastmarch Alexandra Macedonian and Hellenistic educationStates

1. East trip Alexandra

In 336, theBC Macedonia headed son Philippe II Alexander (356-323 pp. BC).He continued the work of his father. He not only made the favored PhilippeII march onPersiaBut also created a powerful empire that stretched from Greeceeven to India.

In 336, theBC Macedonian army through the north of Greece came to the lands of PersiaAsia Minor peninsula. Hike for a while was aborted uprising inconquered Thebes. Alexanderbrutally suppressed the uprising and 30 000 fivantsivsold into slavery. In 334, the BC 35000 Macedonians led by Alexander continued to march east.

Persianstate at this time was weakened by power struggles between the princes, who wereindependent and did not want to obey the King of Persia Darius III. And Persia withstoodunited army AlexandraThat consisted ofarmed forces of all major Greek policies, except Sparta.

CommanderPersian Army MemnonUnderstanding that unequal power,offered to entice Macedonians deep into Persia, destroying food suppliesand feed for horses, then, when the army Alexandrawill be exhausted, causing the worst of it. But Darius feared lieutenants, and betrayaldisagreed with the plan Memnona.

Homegreat battle between the rivals was to River Hranik у 334 was BC Alexanderencountered naybilshboyezdatnoyu part of Persiatroops - Greek mercenaries. He vyshykuvav troops so that the centerphalanx was man- Infantry, and on the flanks - cavalryand light infantry. In that order Macedonian soldiers of the king and the river forsuvalydestroyed the Persian archers. Then struck the horses, which broke the enemy cavalryand Greek mercenaries. The victory was earned. Darius army retreated. Notencountering resistance, captured the majority of Macedonia conquered Persia Greekcolonies in Asia Minor. Only Miletus and Halicarnassushad to take by storm.


Battle of the River Hranik



Plutarch about the battle on the river Hranik

...Parmenion advised him not to risk ... But Alexander replied that it would be ashamedHellespont, if after the crossing of the sea he fear Hranika. And first he threw himself into the river with thirteencavalry divisions. He led an army against the enemy arrows and spears, the rapidrock, filled to overflowing enemy infantry and cavalry, through stormy riverwho suffered and Topyla horses and humans ... The Persians lost there killed 20 000infantrymen and 2,5 thousand horsemen. Losses ... Alexandrawere only 34 men, including 9 foot.


Inquiries to document

Using documentprove that Alexander was not only talentedgeneral, but also a brave warrior.


Alexander prolonged war with Persia. In 333 was BC in SyriaNear Bay Issa, on the Mediterranean coast, between it andfresh forces of Darius was a new battle. Darius immediately thrown into battle personallyGuard. Alexander heavy cavalry led the attack.After a long and bloody battle Darius surrounded by security guards left the fieldbattle.

Persiantroops crestfallen. Greek mercenaries prefer to return tohome. As a trophy Alexander seized the treasurythe royal court and personal chariot king of Persia.

Aftervictory at Issy Macedonian army went to Phoenicia. Most of the Phoenician cities Alexandru succeeded without much effort. Only Tip gave up after seven months of heavy siege. Macedoniahad to build a causeway that connected the mainland with the island, which wascity. And the only forces able to approach the walls Tyra.During the siege Alexander applied martial Throwingmachines installed on ships. Macedonian king cruelly avenged defendersafter the victory: 8000 residents were killed, about 30000 sold into slavery.

Furtherbefore Alexander lying land EgyptThat were conquered by the Persians. Egypt gave Alexandru without a fight. Priests of the country announced Alexandra god. Persian King DariusIII felt that he was losing its empire,therefore suggested Alexandru conclude a peace agreement. Hewas ready to give the coast of Asia Minor and pay a huge ransom forprisoners. But Alexander required to Darius IIIadmitted his sole ruler of Asia Minor. Then went to the Persian kingdesperate step. He gathered the troops, he remained, and the spring 331BC met in the last fight with Alexander.


Battle Havhamalamy


Ithappened near the village Havhamely, North ofBabylon. Persians first used against the Macedonians fighting elephants and chariots,to which were attached great crescent knives. Bow AlexandraAuriga and killed most of the mahout. Unmanaged, wounded andfrightened animal ran back and began to tread the Persian infantry. BalancesPersian cavalry broke through the ranks of Macedonia, but died on natknuvshys resistanceMacedonian infantry - soldiers with spears. Himself Alexanderled cavalry attacked the personal guards of the king of Persia. Once again, Dariuswas forced to retreat. He fled deep into the empire, where 330 BCwas killed by treacherous princes, who claimed the throne. Army Alexandra looted and burned the capital of Persia Persepolis.

Conquest of India. In 327, the BCMacedonia joined the army and moved to India in the Indus valley. Himresisted the troops of the king (Raja) Taksyly. As a resultnegotiations Alexandru Could an alliance with thisIndian king and with him to oppose another Raj - A Time. In 326, theBC River Hidasp was the decisive battle.Invincible Macedonian cavalry, led, as always, the most Alexander, Easily defeated enemy riders. Butwhen she approached the elephants, terrified horses stopped. Indian archerssitting on elephants, easily destroyed the Macedonian cavalry. Alexanderapplied immediately tested in the battles with the Persians tactics and gained another brilliantvictory. Macedonia conquered most of the elephants 9000 hostile army soldiersthe king's time. Western part of India was conquered. Further Alexander planned to go to Ganga,but tired soldiers and commanders had persuaded the commander to stop and hike backback. East trip over.


Table.: ChronologyEastern hike Alexandra Macedonian



334 was BC

Beginning  Eastern hike Alexandra Macedonian. Transition  Macedonian troops across the Straits (the Hellespont) in Asia

334 was BC

Battle  on the riverHranik. Victory troops Alksandra Macedonian

333 was BC

Battle  at Issi. Victory troops AlksandraMacedonian

January-August  332 was BC

Siege  and capturing the city Tyre Macedonian troops. City  that was found on an island near the shore and was the main base of the Persian  Navy succeeded only once on shore it was built  dam. Captured city was given to the looting and destruction and  inhabitants sold into slavery

December 332 -  March 331 BC

Conquest  Egypt. Proclamation Alksandra Macedonian  equal gods

October 1  331 BC

Battle  at Havhamelah becomes crucial in the further fate  Persia. Soon, the Persian king Darius, who fled from the battlefield after the crushing  defeat, was killed by treacherous. Persian Empire actually quit  existence

329 was BC

Conquest   Alksandrom Macedon Central Asia

Spring 327 -  July 326 years BC

Indian  march Alksandra Macedonian. Decisive Battle  held on the River HidaspIn which the Macedonian  troops won. But the Macedonian army refused to move on  East

326-324 years  BC

Return   Alksandra Macedonian to Babylon. Some troops  moved by land along the Persian Gulf, and some on ships. In  result of the campaign faced a huge empire from the Balkans to the river Indus


Implicationsand the results of the Eastern campaign Alksandra Macedonian:

- It was destroyedPersian Empire of ancient Greek enemy states, but faced a new empireAlksandra Macedonian, which included Greece, formerpossession of Persia and India;

- Empire Alksandra Macedonian was not viable and on itsdeath broke, a part of the conquered nations gained independence;

- Majorwealth accumulated by the kings of Persia and captured AlexanderMacedon were put into circulation, giving impetus to the development of trade between allknown at that time, countries that previously evolved in isolation;

- Assistedcombination of Greek and Oriental civilizations, cultures, their interchange.Greeks acquainted with the achievements of the East, in turn, took over east AchievementsGreeks.


2. Empire AlexandraMacedonian


Formation of the Empire Alexandra Macedonian


The resultnumerous military campaigns and victories AlexandraMacedonian was the creation of a vast empire. It includes Greece,Syria, Phoenicia, Persia, Egypt, West Indies.


Coin AlexandraMacedonian


It was one of the largest empiresancient world. The capital city became the state founded Babylon. Throughoutempire founded that new policies, many of which were called afterKing - Alexandria (70 cities).


Alexandria Egypt


Aspiringconquer the world, Alexander began to prepare forconquest of Rome and Carthage. But the hike to the west has not happened. In 323, theBC Alexander suddenly fell ill and died.He was 33 years.

Afterdeath Alexandra his empire lasted long.The power struggle led to numerous wars between the Macedonian commanders (diadohamy).


Questions and Tasks

1. Tell us about the battle on the river Hranik.

2. Which cities did furthestresistance army Alexandra?

3. What were the consequences of the eastern campaign Alexandra?

4. Why Alexandra Macedonian commander considered talented andgreat king?