§ 24. Central and Eastern Europe
· As the state arose and developed western and southern words`Jan (Czech Republic, Poland, Bulgaria)?
· What impact has diyalnistslov Slavic educator Cyril and Methodius?
· Who is Jan Hus and the Hussite Wars what?
· What role was played by Hungary in medieval Europe?
· Why the Middle Ages was conducted following a fierce battle for domination in Central and Eastern Europe between different states?
· Reason for Lithuania and Poland agree to the union?
1. First Western Slavic`yang. Diyalnistslov Slavic educator Cyril and Methodius
Slavs, as the Germans played a large role in the death of the Roman Empire and the formation new medieval European civilization. At the beginning of our era Slavs as most scientists believe, lived between the Vistula and the Dnepr. For VI - VII century. was a large settlement of the Slavs. They taken a large area and divided into three groups - western, eastern and south. From these three groups originated modern Slavic nations.
Three branches of the Slavs
A large settlement of the Slavs VI-VII centuries.
Modern Slavic peoples
Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Sorbs, Kashuba
Bulgarians, Slovenians, Serbs, Macedonians, Croats, Montenegrins
Ukrainian, Belarusian, Russian
After Slavs began settling the fight against neighboring peoples and states. Win and tried to enslave the Slavic Avars, Franks, Hungarians and Germans. At the same time fight to take possession of minds "Slavs unfolded between the eastern Christian church and Western, because the Slavs were pagans. Rivalry for the East and West influence on the Slavs determined their fate.
Oldest state created by western Slavs, believe goes principality, which arose on the part of the modern Czech Republic and Moravia. It brought it 623, when Prince goes Slavs united to fight against the Avar Khanate. Prince is reported to chronicles, was the first Frankish merchant, led a trade with the Slavs, and then became their military leader. By origin it is likely Slav. The composition were part of his state, but the Czechs, also South Slavs (Slovenes) and polabski Slavs (Sorbs). Country Prince goes lasted 35 years and broke up on its death in 658, the But she played a big role in Western Slavs - Initiated the establishment of statehood and defended them against attempts to enslave neighbors.
In first half of IX century. the area between the upper and middle Danube Elbe Oder and the founding of the western Slavs - Great Moravia. The main part of its population consisted tribes Moravians. The founder of Great Moravia believe Prince Moymyra (818 - 846 years). He and his successors - Prince Rostislav (846 - 870 years) and Svyatopolk(870 - 894's) struggling against the German princes who tried to seize their land. Day board and Rostislav became Sviatopolk time peak of Great Moravia. At that time it consisted of, but Moravians, Czechs, Slavs polabski, Polish people, Slavs and Pannonia Slovakia. In Great Moravia with attempted Shidnofrankskoho Kingdom expand its influence in the German clergy. Then decided to look for Prince Rostislav support in Byzantium. He asked her to send a request to the spiritual mentors for preaching Christianity. In 863, the Moravia came to two Greeks of Thessalonica - to Methodius and Constantine (The latter better known by the name of Cyril, which took monk in front of the monks). Both brothers became good education in Constantinople, freely owned Macedonian language. To to make Christianity understandable to the Slavs they created Slavic alphabet and translated the Bible and liturgical books Slavic language.
Sermon Christian brothers from Thessalonica had great success. Thousands of Czechs and Moravians baptized. Many people have studied literacy and also became priests; helping Cyril and Methodius. The spread of Christianity from Byzantium troubled German clergy. The bishops demanded the Pope termination of Cyril and Methodius. The brothers had come to Rome to an explanation. Cyril died in Rome soon, and his brother managed to defend the right lead worship Slavic language. But after returning to Moravia Methodius was imprisoned by German bishops and released only by order of the pope. After the death of Methodius, the 885 German persecution of the clergy began his followers. Some pupils of famous brothers found refuge in Bulgaria and continued spread of Slavic literature. With Bulgaria's Slavic alphabet penetrated in Kievan Rus.
Create Cyril and Methodius Slavic literacy, Bible translation and their activities as educators were of great to the entire Slavic culture. It is for this in the Slavic countries they recognized the Orthodox Church ravnoapostolnym saints. It is believed that through the activities of Cyril and Methodius Velykomoravska state left its mark in history.
On Death of Prince Sviatopolk intestine wars started (power struggle) between its sons. This struggle contributed to a weakening of Great Moravia. At the end of IX century. it defeated the Magyars (Hungarians).
Key events in history Velykomoravskoyi States
Establishment Velykomoravskoyi States Prince Moymyrom I (818-846 years). The capital of the principality became a city Velehrad
The ruler of the kingdom Shidnofrankskoho Louis defeated German prince Moymyra and established its dependence on the United Moravia
Moravian Prince Rostislav (846-870 years) has dismissed the Great Moravian Empire of the German dependence and concluded alliance with Byzantium
At the request of Rostislav Byzantine emperor sent a spiritual mentor for preaching Christianity - brothers Cyril and Methodius
End of Article IX.
After the death of Prince Sviatopolk (870-894 years) in the state began Velykomoravskiy intestine wars between the sons, which led to its weakening
NE The nomads and Hungarians captured most of the territory of Great Moravia and in fact it destroyed
2. Bulgarian kingdom
State пivdennyh Slavs and Bulgarian tribes - First Bulgarian kingdom - there was the end of VII Art. in northeastern of the Balkan Peninsula. The Slavs that settled here пince settlement, founded in the first half of VII Art. Soyuz seven tribes. They had to heavy fighting for their existence: against the Avars, who attacked from the north; against the Byzantine Empire's southern border. У 679 he migrated to these lands Priazovye tribes with Bulgars led by Khan Asparuh. He agreed with the Slavs of allocation of land for settlements Bulgars. The common fight against accidents and вizantiytsiv two peoples together in a single-Slavic Bulgarians - the first Bulgarian kingdom. Under the successors of Khan Asparuh territory Bulgarian kingdom has increased significantly. By Khan Krum(802 - 815 years) пEid was Bulgarian authorities territory of modern Bulgaria, Romania and parts of Hungary. The name "Bulgarians" then used to all the Slavic-bulharskoho population. Impact Вizantiyi and resettlement in its territory disciples of Cyril and Methodius in Great Moravia caused in 864, the adoption of Bulgarians Christianity from the Byzantine.
Doba's largest power of the first Bulgarian kingdom was board Simeon the Great (893 - 927 years).
For King Simeon of Bulgaria included most of the Balkan пivostrova. Although he Born and raised in Constantinople, was an advocate of Greek culture, but Вizantiysku empire considered their main enemy. He dreaming about winning not only the entire Balkan peninsula, but alsoї Вizantiyi. Since 894 Simeon was performed at least five campaigns against the Byzantines and the Hungarians, who helped them. He was unable to capture Constantinople (as the Slavs called Constantinople), however 919 , he was a great title "King and Emperor всix Bulgarians and Greeks "and romeyskoho (Roman) tsesarya. This he equated himself доByzantine emperor.
Much attention is paid Simeon culture. By orders of his Byzantine masters built in the Bulgarian capital EстPreslav and palaces, churches, city walls obnosyly. Plans to the state and the seizure of culture and education Simeon resembled Charlemagne or Alfred the Great. Accepting students Cyril and Methodius, he made at his yard first in that time свITI center of Slavic literature. By order of the king, Slavic translated most famous works of Byzantine scholars. Among them was the famous "History Computerization" - Encyclopedia, which included information on theology, history and philosophy. At the time when most of the countries of Europe was illiterate in Bulgaria, as свidchyly travelers, reading books has become a favorite lessons not only in cities but also in villages.
Under the successors of Simeon GreatThe first Bulgarian kingdom declined. Imperial authority weakened, fixings Bulgarian know - boyars, who began to oppose the strong power of the king and destroy their intestine wars state.
З attenuation Bulgaria took advantage of the Byzantine Empire. During the second half of the X Art. Byzantium led war against Bulgaria, during which gradually conquered most of the country. Inflicted the final defeat of Bulgaria Byzantine Emperor Vasil Bolharobiytsya II. The first Bulgarian kingdom was subjected Вizantiyeyu in 1018 р.
However, the Bulgarians managed to revive its state in 1185 Second Bulgarian kingdom killed in fighting with Turkish invasion at the end of XIVArt.
3. Czech Kingdom
Czech state originated from a part of Great Moravia at the beginning of X century. Princes Czechs who lived рichtsi Vltava, united in neighboring Union Slavic tribes. На Czechs pressed continuously German bishops. Approximately 973 in Prague was founded пidporyadkovane bishopric of RomeAnd since remnants of Eastern Christianity, there is widespread brothers Cyril and Methodius, disappeared.
Founder first ruling prince and the royal dynasty уCzech Republic was the legendary Przhemysl. According to legend, he was just farmers, who married a girl of noble family and atм’яLibushe.
The most famous among first Przhemyslovychiv was Prince Wenceslas (921-929 years). He was an ardent supporter of Christianity and promoted its spread among the pagansв — Czechs. This caused discontent among the ancient tribal notables. At the head of a conspiracy Jr. brother Prince Boleslav (929-967 years). Vaclav was killed in a treacherous brother. However, his death has caused indignation of many Czechs and had Boleslav begin to reign with publicly confess guilt.
Later, Vaclav remains were ceremoniously buried in the Cathedral of the Holy ВItalia Prague, and Prince scored the holy Catholic Church. St. Wenceslas is the heavenly patron of the Czech nation, and his name'I today is the main square of Prague, where he is a monument to the prince.
All XI Art. for the Czech state had passed in the struggle against neighboring States. Czech Republic won it, then suffered defeats. By Prince And Brzhetyslavashe became the vassal of the German Empire, which has since frequently intervened in the fight between Czech princes and nobles. However, German Emperor also sometimes needed help of Czech princesв. У 1085 , the emperor Heinrich IV help in the fight against the Roman Pope gave the Czech Prince Vratyslavu II royal title. Czech Republic achieved the status of kingdom, but was dependent of the German Empire. However, the Czech kings acted completely independently, which further evident from Blessing of the weakening of the Roman Empire.
Create Czech kingdom
beginning of X century.
Stay lands inhabited by West Slavic tribes Czechs within Velykomoravskoyi States
The beginning of X century.
Establishment Prague principality headed by the Przhemyslovychiv dynasty, who became the core of making the Czech State
Around 973, the
Through the activities of the German clergy the Czech lands was established by the first bishopric - Prague, subordinate Rome
Bohemian prince Vratyslav I (1062-1092 biennium) received from the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV, for his help in the fight against the Pope, the title of King Czech Republic. Czech kingdom from this time became part of the Holy Roman Empire
On death last of Przhemyslovychiv Czech throne went to German princes with Luxembourg dynastyв.
4. Jan Hus and the Hussite wars
In Fourteenth century. formed the most favorable conditions for Czech lands. Czech Republic became the main source of silver in Europe. Except addition to her political center shifted the Holy Roman Empire. Emperor Charles ІV Luxembourg (1346-1378 years), who was simultaneously King of Bohemia and all its policies into the development of their own ancestral domains. As a consequence у Czechher rapidly became the city developed Trade, crafts. He rebuilt Prague, founded the Prague University (1346 City). But всCharles IX of their endeavors ІV relied on German immigrants.
By rapid development of land concealed many problems. Thus, the louder the conflict between Czechs and Germans, who had рizni law; increased dissatisfaction with the Catholic church, which is rapidly losing credibility. All this was пidhruntyam in the Czech Republic to the emergence of powerful national-religious national movement, called Hussite movement. His name from the name of the Czech preacher, Professor Prague University of Jan Hus (1371-1415 biennium).
Czech XIV-XVArt. Hussite Wars
Of sermons of Jan Hus
"Takes dog bone - they hryztysya stop: take your property in church - you will not find it for Pop.
"The Czechs in Kingdom to the Czech law? and on-demand nature should be first in positions, as well as French and Germans in France in their lands? "
«З me (Christ) ripped clothes, and they (the clergy) bathed in royal luxury to the poor. I vkryvayusya bloody sweat - they nizhatsya in the elegant bath. I do not sleep at night, humiliated and obplovanyy - they are busy idling, gluttony, drunkenness. I bear cross, go to die - they, Napier, rest. I nailed to the cross - they gentle snore on the bed.
"Clergy does not teach, and spoils people with rozvratom associated with wealth. It should take away his wealth! Successor of Christ to be poor, as Apostles. A theyIn contrast, only about and think how would even increase wealth. Why send sellers indulgences and predatory monks who organize unknown Holidays, Reinvent and wonders rob poor people? "
1. What ideas expressed Huss?
2. Against whom were sent speech of a preacher?
3. Which could influence have tand ideas to the Czech people?
Jan Hus пiddav criticism sacrament, which in the Catholic church was unlike the priests and laity. Priests sacrament of bread and wine as body and blood of Christ, and common people - only the bread. Huss argued that the first sacrament all Christians alike.
This position will had lead to a clash with Gus higher clergy, which soon happened. He called on the council, which took place пid chairmanship of Emperor Sigismund in Constanta. No matter how pleaded Gus renounce his views and пidkorytysya, he remained steadfast. Then he announced heretic and July 6, 1415 burned. The last words were Gus: "I believe in Lord God Almighty, I can not repent of mistakes, which never had. " There have been anathema to the entire Czech nation.
Execution of Jan Hus
Jan Execution Gus and weaning have driven an explosion of national discontent. All conflicts mature, burst to the surface. This conflicts betweenCzechs and Germans, the king and the feudal lords, the clergy and the Pope, the university and bishop of Prague, feudal lords and peasants. Although theeach segment of the population had an objective of struggle, but they are united desire to achieve reform of the church and get rid of the dominance of the Germans, who ruled in the country.
Revolt began in Prague in 1419 Gradually, the rebels captured всiyeyu Czech Republic - heart of the Holy Roman Empire. After death of King Wenceslas Hussites declared deprivation of his successor Emperor Sigismund Czech throne. Participants movement свth perelashtovuvaly own country. Management has focused in the hands Diet- Collection of all states. Hussites created a strong army led by experienced commander. They have produced a new fighting tactic: they put on Heavy fighting circle the wagons skovuvaly their chains and in this fortress withstood attack mounted knights. Пince of how the enemy znesylyuvavsya, moved to the offensive. In addition, the Hussites began to use light gun on the battlefield that were placed on carts.
Most Hussite reformв wasconfiscation of church estates, the abolition of tithes, reform of the church and its rite.
Movement rebels has caused concern as the Pope and by the emperor. Started war, which came into character Publish pressihiynoyi fight Catholicism against the Hussite Reformation movement and the fight against the Germans Slavs.
For Hussite movement suppression Pope and Holy Roman Emperor proclaimed a crusade by one. But the crusader army is constantly defeats undergone by brilliant commandersв Hussites - the blind knight Jan tendon, and after his death - Prokop the Great.
Czech Republic heard of Jan tendon (about 1360-1424 years) in 1419, when started Hussite Wars. By the time he was already experienced воyinom. In one of the battles he lost his eye. In 1420 Yang led taborytiv. When army of Emperor Sigismund moved на CR crusade, came to the aid prazhanam taboryty led by sinew. In Battle of Mount Vitkov, пid Prague, defeated the tendon Crusaders.
Army Hussites comprised of ordinary people, not the knights. However, it had high fighting spirit. Having gained several victories пidryad, Hussites under the direction of tendon gained fame invincible. There are times when the enemy running away, just learning about approaching rebels. During one of the battles вothers completely lost his eyesight, but continued to manage rebels, even winning several victories. Knowledge рidnoyi area and experienced assistants to give blind commanders take bezpomylkovi decisions during battle. He was extremely inventive, never uniform act. Thus, in one of the battles for his weapon against the order of knights steel carts loaded with stones andloweredand attacking the hill on the bench. Зim'yavshy array knights, Hussites done it with swords. "Dreadful blind" and called enemies of tendon feared even his name.
Hussites not only defended but also themselves carried out raids outside the Czech Republic. From 1419 to 1434 Hussites caused concern in the popes and the Emperor. But the for the rebels was no external threat and internal. Any motion must be ultimate goal, namely the issue among the rebels was not unity. In Hussite movement participated in various social strata of society: from feudal lords to peasants, from rich to poor. When that seemed to be the main goal rebels was reached, revealed major differences among the participants. Hussites divided into moderates - the butler (the followers of Jan Hus, who prychaschaly ordinary believers of the cup) and radical - taborytiv. Latter-headed Jan tendon.
Chaste demanded the elimination of the privileges of the church, the abolition of church land ownership, facilitation of religious ceremony, the introduction of service in the Czech language and two types of communion, in political terms, they argued for an independent Czech monarchy. Taboryty (their name derived from Mount Tabor in South Bohemia, where the their center) were prone to carrying out social reforms. Taborytiv elders, Recalling the precepts of Christ, and to martial law, requiring non- personal property and transfer it to a common treasury, insisted on abolition of any tax. They denied the cult of saints, worship holy relics and argued that anyone, even a woman can lead worship. Worst of taborytiv not insist on reform, and abolition of the church, rejected not only property but also the family. Cupbearer supported the nobles, the higher clergy, taborytiv - part of nobles, peasants and other poor segments of society. Disputes between the butler and led taborytamy to an open clash. In the battle near Lipan (1434) was taborytiv routed. Finally, Chashniki an agreement with the Catholic Church, according to which allowed both of communion and worship was conducted in Czech. Subsequently this concession was canceled. But the Czech Republic, though not for long, a national church, which had its ethnic features. For Catholics, this movement was precursor of the future struggle for renewal and reform of the Church (Reformation).
Results and implications Hussite movement
Loss of the Catholic Church of its possessions and influence in the Czech society.
Helped create a more democratic and closer to the people Hussite church.
Launched a national movement for reform church.
The movement helped to improve economic status of all segments of Czech society, something zhladyv socio-economic contrasts.
Contributed to national self-affirmation Czechs, of the Czech language
Community split on religious principle.
CZ long was cut off from European development.
Killing many masterpieces Catholic art.
The country has been considerable loss of life and losses
У 896 Hungarian tribes migrated from the Black Sea steppes Carpathian passes through the middle DanubeWhere пidkoryly local words`Slavic tribes. At the head of the seven tribes wasleader Arpad. This event Hungarians called "Finding the homeland, and Arpad launched the first prince (soon royal) dynasty in Hungary. In Was 955, defeated by Emperor Otto And Hungarians ceased attacks on the ground and the German Empire referred to sedentary lifestyles. Since з 955 was among Hungarians spread Christianity in Western Painter. Prince Istvan And by Arpad with German knights began to baptize Hungarians fireand sword, while destroying the old tribal nobility that is not obeyed his power. On sign of respect for his success in spreading Christianity Пapa Рymskyy sent Stephen and the royal crown, and on Christmas 1000 he was crowned. "Crown St. Stephen "has gradually become not only symbolize royal power, but also most of the Hungarian state. The monarch, who was not crowned with this crown considered illegal. Merit of the baptismal church of the Hungarians subsequently Stephen King proclaimed saints, and he became the chief saint of Hungary. To consolidate his power Istvan and administrative reform carried out by dividing the country into districts - comitates, which stood at the head ishpany (skins). They collected taxes for the king, carried authority in the field. Ishpany sylylysya usually in castles and before it had a detachment of horse soldiers. Such division of the country intermittently existed until the twentieth century.
In the middle of the XI-beginning XIII. country engulfed in a whirlpool internecine struggle. From this fight greatest benefits received feudal nobility (barons and tycoons), that is so strengthened its ownership and power that the King II entrechat even killing queen and part close to the king, they suffered no penalty. This nobility was self-possession to threaten medium and small landowners, which usually were in the royal service. Later they became the basis to form a new layer of society - the nobility (nobility). It is this social group led movement against the arbitrariness of the nobility and succeeded King edition Golden bullae "1222 This document limited the rights of the King, magnates and foreigners. Instead, guaranteed Copyright future nobility (nobility). Bull last article gave the right magnates commit resistance to the King if the latter did not keep promises.
Despite the intestine wars Hungarian Kings conducted an active foreign policy. Yes, they are a conquered Slavonia and Croatia, extended their power in Dalmatia, neodnorozovo infringe the Galicia-Volyn principality.
In 1241-1242 he Hungary suffered a devastating Mongol invasion. April 11, 1241 near the village Mohi Hungarians have been completely defeated the Mongols. It seemed that Hungary has ceased existence. But in 1242 Mongols suddenly left the country, and King BV snuck strengthening its defense capability. Hungary covered with stone`yanymy locks. They began to grow rapidly the city, which had the status of "vilnyyi royal cities. " Buda was the largest city. The peculiarity of the Hungarian cities was that the majority of the population were German immigrants.
In XIV-ХVArt. Hungary experienced the greatest growth and prosperity.
In 1301 Arpad dynasty ended. With the support of the Pope was elected king Carl Robert (1310-1342 biennium) from Neapolitan branch of Anjou dynasty. Charles Robert iron hand gave way in the kingdom, pryborkavshy magnates. Contributed to economic development, order the financial system. In foreign policy, favored diplomacy. Important diplomatic step was concluded in 1335 Vysehrad and military and trade union between Hungary, the Czech Republic and Poland. This alliance was an important factor in region in the nearest future several hundred years.
The opposite Karl was his son and Lajos the Great, who got his prizviska for continuous military adventures. He would intervene in the fighting in southern Italy, they begin war with Venice, it seeks to join the new ownership in the Balkans. Although he managed to extend its power in Serbia, Bosnia and parts of Bulgaria, it is little made it to Hungary. Country nazhyla new enemies, raised his head again tycoons. On LaRoche And death magnates electing the king achieved Sigismund (Zsigmond) Luxembourg (1387-1437), who promised them new concessions. But as soon as Zsigmond consolidated his power, he managed curb the barons. In domestic policy he continued the policy of Charles Robert, who provided the prosperity of the country.
Foreign policy Zsigmond had to face the new threat - the Turkish Ottomans, which began conquest of the Balkan Peninsula. Trying to put an end to offensives Turkish threats suffered complete defeat at the Battle of Nikopol in 1396 Then, in Hungary against the Turks adhered defense strategy. Having suffered defeat against the Turks Zsigmond focused on west, where he achieved his election, German, Czech king and eventually Holy Roman Emperor. In addition he agreed with Austrian Habsburgs on the throne vzayemonasliduvannya principles that later was crucial in the destiny of uhrskoho Kingdom.
After the death of Hungary Zsigmond Turks suffered a new offensive. Initiatives to combat them assumed fine gentleman, a gifted military leader Janos Hunyadi. Thanks to his victory in Belgrade in 1456 managed by 70 years to stop the promotion of Turks in Europe and provide the latest rise in Hungary on board And Matias Corvin(1458-1490 biennium).
Matias And one of the brightest figures of Hungarian history. He had a good education, was clever, actually, energetic statesman, a shrewd diplomat brave warrior knights. Assisted in the arts and sciences, was fond of ideas humanists. However yubyv that it depicted as Roman emperors. Often Clothing in a poor peasant or burgher watching the simple life people. The people loved, it was about the legends and tales.
Matias gave the order in State proryadkuvavshy management, finance, courts, army. In Civil Service took people by merit, not the nobility. Legislatively ordered relations between peasants and feudal lords. Successful measures in domestic policy Matias provided him the opportunity to pursue an active foreign policy. His main to he considered a powerful Danubian monarchy. But all his achievements were lost after his death.
Hungarian royal crown
6. Polish Kingdom
West Slavic State Poland formed alliances with tribes in the Vistula rozselyalys: Polyan slenzan, kuyaviv, Mazur et al. Center of statehood was Polyany tribal association, located near the town of Gniezno. Here there were principality, which in IX-X century. united land in the Vistula river basins and Oder. From Polyany name and does the name of the state of Poland.
From the city of Gniezno in Wielkopolska related the tale about how legendary prince of Leh, the leader polyan tribe, once saw a large white oak nest of an eagle. "We will nest here!" - Exclaimed Lehand ordered to establish in this place his capital, which he called Gniezno ("Socket"). Indeed, the city of Gniezno was the first Polish capital. Image white eagle on a red background became the emblem of Poland, and the red and white circleр - The national flag colors.
The founder of the princely dynasty Polyanskaya was like a medieval chronicler wrote, "a poor farmer named Piast dynasty. However, the first known Polish prince of the Piast dynasty was a dynasty Mieszko I (960 – 992 years). In 966, the Prince Mieszko I with his wife trytysyachnoyu to Christianity from German Bishops on the Western Rite and became the second German Emperor Otto I. He subdued his power tribes who lived along the Vistula River, and formed the Polish state.
Greatly increased the territory of Poland, son of Mieszko І — Boleslav And Brave(992 - 1025's). He united пid their power all the Polish lands, conquered Bohemia and Moravia in 1018 Boleslav was paid trip to Kyiv, but it had very long. Memorial about this hike was nick on the blade sword, which he struck one of the gates of Kiev. Since that time the name appeared sword "Szczerbiec. In 1000 in Gniezno was founded architectiyepyskopstvo. This act declared the Polish church independence from the German architectiyepyskopa. In 1025 Boleslav I took the title King. In the middle of XI Art. Polish Kingdom relaxed, and XII Art. generally divided into separate independent portions.
In 1139 Polish King Boleslaw III Krzywoustego divide their possessions among the children into four principalities: Cracow, Sandomir, Mazowieckie and Poznanske. Cracow principality was given to senior son with the title of king and supreme authority over the other princes. Division of State between the children started a long period of feudal disintegration and internecine wars. This had negative consequences. Poland lost almost all possessions Boleslaw the Brave and faces the threat of subjugation. The country is so weakened that even she could not repulse the attacks of their neighbors Prussians, who lived the Baltic Sea. To fight against the prince in the Prussian Mazowiecki 1126 invited the Teutonic Knights. Conquered Prussians, the Order quickly turned from ally to the invaders. In 1157 Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa forced the Polish princes to recognize his supremacy and to pay tribute. In 1241 land south of Poland survived the terrible Mongol-Tatar invasion, that during the second half of XIII century. often repeated.
Appearance Krakow XV.
However feudal fragmentation has not stopped economic development of the Polish lands. In the XIII century. Thanks to German and Jewish immigrants rapidly developing new towns. Strengthening the bridge, which was given right government, promoted the development of trade and crafts. Main foreign trade paths ran through Krak
Mariyenburh - The residence of Master of the Teutonic order
Economic development promoted tours of the Polish society. Ruling clique composed tycoons - the big landowners who have achieved the consolidation of an ancestral land tenure and nobility (Knights) - has served to know. Privileged position society was the clergy, which owned large estates and enjoyed number of privileges.
In cities, social status was determined by wealth and position in the organs of government. The feature of Polish cities was that their population was predominantly German or Jewish.
In the feudal period have been significant changes and in the life of the peasantry.
Dependent on the part of peasants perevodylasya fixed Tax (chynsh), natural or financial, which gave farmers more economic independence.
The economic rise of the Polish lands, permanent external threat, ethnic and church unity as grounds to merge Polish lands and the strengthening of royal power.
Period disintegration of Polish history ended during the reign of Wladyslaw the Elbow-high(1306-1333), who managed to overcome the resistance of the princes, and the City tops external enemies and consolidate his power under almost all the Polish lands that are not belonged to the neighbors. After the restoration of a united Polish state 1320 Wladyslaw the Elbow-high proclaimed king.
Policy association of Poland continued by his son Casimir III (1333-1370 biennium).
Casimir III Great. From paintings of the XIX century.
Polish Association raised the ire of neighbors - Czech Republic, Brandenburg and the Teutonic Order, which was strong after the merger in 1237 Order of Mechonostsiv. Not having enough forces to fight against powerful neighbors, peace with them was purchased price of territorial concessions. In the Czech Republic departed Silesia (1348) to Brandenburg - Western Pomerania, and to Teutonic Order - Eastern.
Casimir III, realizing that internal unity is impossible without the unity of the state, made a series of reforms. He peredilyv Poland in administrative units (province, kashtelyanstva), led by his supporters set. Then the king made a national bodies: the royal office, the central treasury, the court army. There were monetary reform: full coin introduced - "Cracow's pence, which helped revive trade. He also tried a single collection of laws for the whole country, but this prevented significant difference in the lives of Great and Little Poland. After all, had to create two collections of laws (1346-1347 biennium) - Vislytskyy and Potrkuvskyy. Reforms to strengthened royal authority, but it did not increase sufficient support in the community. Rely on the city to fight against the magnates, as it was in other European countries, Polish kings could not because of their German-Jewish character. Gentry, who were at enmity with magnates after receiving benefits in 1374 and 1454 has become a way of limiting royal power.
For the Ukrainian people rule Casimir III marked by conquest in 1349-1352 biennium Galicia, and in 1366 - part of Volyn. Galicia-Volyn state ceased to exist.
7. Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Home mention of Lithuania dates back to 1009 At a time Lithuania was not a single state. These were some pagan tribes.
У XIII Art. first unifier Lithuanian tribes Mindovg (Died 1263 City) has created a single state, which included both Lithuanian and Slavic tribes. Accelerator formation Duchy of Lithuania was the aggression of the Crusaders in the Baltic. State formation occurred very quickly, thanks to higher slavic land рIvnev of economic, political and cultural development became the backbone of the Lithuanian princes to consolidate their lands.
In the first half of XIV Art. by Princes Вitenya (1293 - 1316's) and Gedimin (1316 – 1341 years) mastered the Grand Duchy of Lithuanialo beiloruskymy lands and the Ukrainian part. Gedimin became the founder of the Lithuanian dynasty. He instituted dynastic ties with Poland and the Duchy of Tver. At the time of his reign fell first information about Вilno (Vilnius), which later became the capital Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Gedimin sought to acquire Kyiv, which would "Legitimize" the claim of Lithuanian rulersв the land of Rus, but to establish itself in the Kyiv region, he could not. However Mongol domination prompted Rus princes to unite with Lithuania.
Due to significant territorial acquisitions into Lithuania a large state, with much of the land were gathered without weapons. Connecting new territories, Lithuanian princes left essentially inviolable Socialno-Belarusian political system and Ukrainian lands, saying: "We are not new introduce new and old not shall remove”.
Grand Duke of Lithuania Algirdas (1345 – 1377 years) continued the policy of his father. Instructing brother Keystutovi protect Lithuania from the attacks of German knights, Algirdas expanding their possession by Russia. He continued to fight for the Galician-Volyn legacy in the east entered the struggle against Moscow, and пivdennomu east - against the Tatars.
In late 1361 - early 1362 р. itiyska captured Kyiv region. In Kiev, Algirdas planted Olgerdovich son Vladimir. In 1362 he captured the Chernihiv-Siversk land and part Pereyaslav. Important was his victory in 1362 was over Tatars in the blue waters. This enabled Olgerd establish their control over Пodillyam.
So, as a result of corpuscleOlga virginserda to Grand Duchy of Lithuania was annexed by the majority of Ukrainian lands - Kyiv region with Pereyaslav, Volhynia, Podolia, Chernihiv-Sivershchyna. The populations of these vyzvolylosya lands of the Mongol-Tatar yoke.
Desire Lithuanian princes unite пid his power all the earth Russ narazylysya strong resistance to Moscow, which play the role of "collector Rus lands. Lithuanian-Muscovite War 1368 - 1372 he has started a long struggle between Lithuania (later Рichchyu Commonwealth) and Moscow for supremacy in Eastern Europe.
8. KREVO union. Battle of Grunwald
After the death of Olgerd the question of the integrity of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Before Algirdas death core of his possessions - Vilnius, Vitebsk, Belarus - bequeathed his eldest son of second wife Jagiello, who simultaneously becameGrand Duke. However, older brothers - the sons of his first wife - not resigned to this рishennyam. Jagiello princes were against Polotsk, Podolsky, Volyn, Chernihiv-Seversky. Discord in Lithuania wanted take advantage of Moscow, trying to attach a number of Lithuanian possessions. In 1381 Prince Keystut brother Olgerd, captured Вilno Jagiello and removed from power. The latter fled to the Teutonic Order and its already using 1382 he resumed his power polonyvshy Keystuta and his son Вitovta. A few days later strangled in Keystuta пidzemelli Krevsk castle. Vytautas lucky escape до Prussians, where he began an active campaign against Jagiello.
Meanwhile in 1382 he died Hungarian king nationк Great, who once was and Polish kings. In 1383 the Polish magnates proclaimed queen of Poland, his 12-year-old daughter JadwigaThat was Vision of the Austrian Duke Вilhelmom. But Polish magnates, not wanting to see on his throneі Вilhelma, offered her hand grand duke Jagiello. This marriage relied much expectations.
Polish Queen Jadwiga. From paintings of the XIX century.
Polish magnates and Catholic clergy, knowing the plight of Jagiello, offered him the Polish crown. They sought to connect the Lithuanian land and extend to them the power of the Catholic church as well as using Resources Great Duchy of Lithuania, to complete struggle against the Teutonic Order. His turn, Yahajlo sought by Poland subdue their opposition.
У 1385 there were concluded Krevsk UnionWhereby Yahajlo obliged adoption of Catholicism and baptize all Lithuanian population to Poland lands of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In February, 1386 Yahajlo he arrived in Krakow, was baptized and received theм’я W
Signet Wladyslaw III (Yahajlo)
But the union of two states not happened because of this rose against powerful opposition, led by Вitovtom, which has made the abolition of the union. In 1392 by Vytautas was great Duke of Lithuania. It had far-reaching plans to strengthen its independence state, but because of his defeat in 1399 was on the Vorskla of Mongol-Tatar had to restore the union in 1401 was, however, has provided рivnopravnosti parties.
The immediate consequence Krevsk Union was that the combined forces of Poland and Lithuania were able to break the power his main enemy - the Teutonic Order. In 1410 was combined Polish-Lithuanian army entered в possession limit Order. Near the village of Grunwald one hundred thousandth of the Polish-Lithuanian army under Command Jagiello and Bitovta converges with 80000th host of the Teutons.
The Poles took the left flank, Lithuanians - right. In the Polish-Lithuanian army troops were Czechs, Ukrainian, Belarusians, Russians, Tatars.
July 15, 1410 р. launched an unsuccessful attack battle Lithuanian ranks of cavalry on the German knights. Teutons not only survived, але й, due to retaliation, forced the Lithuanian cavalry flee. Defeat the right flank Federal troops put пEid threat environment and left flank, but resistant Smolensk troops, who stood in the center, turned away this danger. Meanwhile Vytautas Lithuanian army, restoring order, together with Polish knights passed in рishuchyy offensive surrounded and routed the army of Order. Killed nearly 20 thousand knights and magicPage Order. Among the booty captured by the Polish-Lithuanian troops were пidvody, laden with chains, in which zakuvaty supposed captives, and torches for night harassment fugitives. Since this battle began the decline of order. He stopped cause concerned neighbors and eventually became a vassal of Poland.
Battle of Grunwald July 15, 1410
Check how to remember
1. Specify the chronological framework of the Great Slavic settlement`yang.
2. What three branches split words`Jana?
3. What is the name the first word`The recorded history of the state?
4. When and how did Velykomoravska state?
5. How did First Bulgarian kingdom?
6. In what year was the Czech principality kingdom?
7. What are the main provisions of the teachings of Jan Hus? What was sentenced to Gus Cathedral in Constanta?
8. When the Hussite Wars lasted?
9. What can explain the success of Hussiteвearly movement?
10. What reforms have made rebels, seized power?
11. На якand two camps split Hussites and why?
12. What year Hungarians got a new home?
13. Christianization Hungarians held with the West or the East?
14. Who is founder of the Polish state?
15. When Poland became a kingdom?
16. What reforms Casimir III realized?
17. How formed Lithuanian state?
18. Name the most famous Lithuanian princes.
19. What territory mastered the Lithuanian princes in the eleventhV Art.?
20. What is the purpose Krevsk Union?
21. When held Battle of Grunwald?
Think and answer
Perform the task
1. Decide which words`Slavonic state emerged as a result of the Great moving words`yang. Make a table "Formation new states in Central and Eastern Europe in the IX - XI centuries. "
2. Describe the activities of Cyril and Methodius. What was importance of their activities for the development of Slavic culture?
3. Make sinhronistychnu table: Milestones of history Medieval Hungary, Poland, the Czech Republic.
4. Prepare a story about one of the prominent battles that occurred in Eastern Europe.
For the curious
How can I assess the views taborytiv? Is it possible to build a society such principles?