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Glossary of terms and concepts (textbook)

Glossary of terms and concepts

Abbot - Superior Catholic monastery.

Alchemy - Medieval science whose aim was to seek "philosophical stone " for conversion of various metals into gold and silver.

Anathema - Excommunication, combined with a curse.

Arbalist - A device to shoot arrows with a steel tip.

Assimilation - Mergers of one nation to another.

Asceticism - A form of behavior that involves suppression of desire, renunciation of luxury and even the majority of amenities, restrictions on food and sleep, a physical task suffering for the purpose of remission of sins.

Astrology - The science of communication between the location of celestial bodies and events in the life people, nations, countries, etc..

AUTO-da-Fe Grand-enforcement Inquisition.

Baron - Vassal king, but not hereditary.

Incumbency - The allotment that was provided by King or any other large feudal lords in life-vassals under objection to military or administrative service.

"God Court " - A series of tests (fire, water, iron), after which be imposed sentence.

Boyars - Large landowners in Kievan Rus, Bulgaria, Serbia, Moscow State that have passed their possession by inheritance.

Boyar duma - The highest state body of the Moscow principality of XIV century.

Bull - Especially important document, sealed with a metal seal - Bull.

Burghers - Full residents of Western European medieval city.

Vassal - A person who got possession of superior fief for their service.

Vasalitet - The system of feudal relations, personal relationship of some feudal others.

Vatican - City-state within Rome. The official residence of the Pope.

Magna Carta - One of the main legal instruments that provided the right people's representatives control the King.

Migration - Movement IV - VII century. Germanic, Slavic, and other Sarmatian tribes territory of the Roman Empire.

Renaissance (Renaissance) - A period that sign for the transition from medieval culture to modern times, a distinctive feature Renaissance - humanism (humanity). Lyricist applied to cultural heritage antiquity.

Vikings - Scandinavian warriors. In Russia were known as Varangians; in the West - as the Normans, the northern people ".

Stained Glass - Painting with colored glass in windows of cathedrals and town council.

Veche - The name of public meetings in some countries.

Barony - Land belonged Rus feudal and passed by inheritance.

Hanse - Commerce and Political Union merchants, more than 160 German cities led to the city L. There were in XII - XVII.

Hvelfy - Supporters of the popes in their fight against the German emperors.

Duke - Great territorial ruler; in the feudal hierarchy, ranked second only to the King.

Hibeliny - German fans emperors in their fight against the popes.

Guild - Union City merchant.

Gothic - The direction in the European art XII - XVI centuries. For architecture characterized arches, large colorful stained glass windows, light walls, and the building itself was directed up with an infinite variety of forms.

Earl - 1) official, who represented power of the king in a certain district, 2) the feudal title.

Sin - Disturbances in thoughts or actions God's will.

Community - Of people who together possessing instruments of labor and other property. The feature of this association is partial or complete self-government.

Hussite movement - Nationalist and religious movement in the Czech Republic in the first half of XV Art.

Church Tithing - The tax on hold church, which equaled one-tenth of incomes.

Jihad - The holy war that Muslims must wage against the infidels.

Dynasty - Some other kind of monarchs who deputize one another in power.

Doge - Head of Venice or Genoa republics, elected for life.

Domain - Hereditary land ownership King.

Donzhon - Multi-tower, the main Castle building.

Spiritual knightly orders - Of knights, the main business of which was to fight against enemies Christian faith; swore not to marry and live in poverty.

Epidemic - A massive spread of infectious disease.

Bishop - Spiritual head of the administrative-territorial units of the church - Diocese.

Heresy - A religious doctrine that is not recognized by the Christian church.

Heretic - Spreader of heresy.

Hierarchy - A system of strict subordination power of stairs higher.

Iconoclasm - Religious-political movement against honoring icons.

Investiture - The right to appoint senior clerics.

Inquisition - Consistory.

Islam - One of the world religions, common in Eastern countries, Asia and Africa.

Catholicism (Catholic Church) - World Church, was formed due to separation unified Christian church in the western and eastern. Worship is conducted Latin, the church is led by Pope.

Municipal Traffic - The struggle for urban municipality.

Koran - The holy book of Muslims.

Kurtuaziya - Knight rules of conduct.

Elector - Princes of the Holy Roman Empire, which had enshrined the right elect the emperor.

Flax - The same as fer? e.

Scrivener - A person who lends money at interest.

Chronicle - Historical work in which events are sorted by year, chronologically.

Lord - A large landowner in England.

Magistrate - City Council, the governing body of city communes.

Majordomo - The highest official of dynasty Merovingians.

Mosque - Muslim temple.

Internecine war - War between feudal land and power.

Changed - A man who for a fee money exchanges.

Missionary - Preacher of Christianity.

Mysticism - A religious doctrine, which provides direct communication with God.

Monarchy - Higher-man state power that is transmitted mostly hereditary.

Monastery - Residence of monks, separated by walls from the outside world.

Monk - Member of a religious community who made a vow to lead ascetic lives.

Muslim - A person who professes Islam.

Natural economy - The type of economy in which products are made only for work satisfaction needs of the owner, and not for sale.

Servage - Fee dependent feudal peasants, often food-or cash.

Pilgrimage - Journey of believers to the holy places.

Boon - Must work on peasant feudal land.

Pope - Head of the Catholic Church.

Papal region - The territory of the state of the Pope in Central Italy, which lasted until second half of the nineteenth century.

Parliament - The highest legislative authority in some states.

Bourgeasy - City top.

Patriarch - Head of the Orthodox Church.

Duties - Required forced labor of peasants to their feudal lord - servage, boon etc..

Town Hall - House, which housed the local government.

Reconquista - Reconquer the peoples of the Iberian Peninsula territory seized Arabs.

Reforms - Changes, the transformation of some aspects of life.

Sagas - Heroic songs of the Vikings.

Liege - Senior landowner, seigneur, the owner about their vassals.

Cathedral - 1) a large Christian church, 2) meeting the higher clergy within one country or the whole church to decide important issues.

Rolling - Large groups of people who differ in their hereditary rights and responsibilities and place in society.

Stanovoye monarchy - Polity in which power is limited to the ruler a class-representative bodies (parliament, the Reichstag, Cortez, diet etc.).

Sudebnyk - USC.

Sultan - The title of monarch in some Eastern countries.

Schism - Schism.

Taboryty - Representatives of radical movements Hussite movement.

Title - An honorary title that is associated with a particular landholdings (Duke, Earl, Baron, etc.).

Tournament - Knightly duels.

Union - Associations and unions.

Fief - Hereditary land ownership, which gave his liege vassals as payment for service.

Seigneur - Host fief.

Feudal fragmentation - The collapse of the state of independent principalities.

Fibula - Metal buckle made by the English sample pins.

Fresco - Painting work done in water colors crude plaster.

Caliph - Successor Mohammed, The title of ruler and while the spiritual head of Muslims.

Charter - A document which recorded the rules and norms of public life.

The Crusades - European feudal war, supported by the Catholic church under slogan of the liberation of Muslims from Christian shrines in Palestine.

Crusaders - Members of the Crusades. Certainly nashyvaly image on clothing Cross as an award his good intentions.

Chronicle - Historical work, which includes annual and detailed records of events occur.

Centralized state - A country that is controlled in one place, usually the king.

Church - Association, an organization of believers who manages their religious life.

Workshops - Craft unions of one or allied fields.

Monastic orders - Of monks, subordinate to a common center or their charter.

Sharia - Collection of Islamic law.

Masterpiece - A product which had to produce journeyman to master to pass the exam.

Sheriff - Royal officials in the counties of England.

Nobility (From davnonimetskoho "shlaht - family, rock) - a privileged social status in feudal states (Poland, Lithuania, Czech Republic), whose representatives were 'Noble' (knightly) origin.

Janissary - Turkish infantry. Formed mainly of Christians who have children captured.

Label (Turkic "decree") - Golden khans charter that gave the right to Board principalities or specific fields.

Fair - The annual auction.